JOB (rolling papers)
JOB rolling papers are a popular brand of cigarette paper produced by Republic Tobacco in Perpignan, France. In 1838, a French craftsman named Jean Bardou came up with the idea for a booklet of rolling papers made of thin, pure rice paper. Bardou's trademark was the initials "JB" separated by a large diamond; the diamond was mistaken for a capital O by consumers, who began referring to the papers as JOB, thus the brand-name was born. By 1849 he filed for a patent for "Papier JOB". Jean Bardou died in 1852; the JOB brand was auctioned in August 1853 and bought for 16,000 francs by Jean Bardou's son Pierre Bardou. His brother Joseph Bardou had formed a separate company making "le Nil" cigarette papers, with a laughing elephant as its logo. In January 1854 Pierre began making his own paper in Perpignan. A range of flavored papers included licorice, vanilla, camphor and so on. Careful attention to marketing included development of premium or luxury papers, with attractive boxes designed for ladies. At the end of 1858 Pierre Bardou bought a large house at 18 rue St Sauveur in Perpignan for 40,000 francs an apartment building, which he divided into one area for manufacturing and another for his residence.
Pierre had a glass skylight installed in his "Hôtel de l’Industrie du Papier a Cigarette" factory for illumination. It was used for manufacture from 1861 to 1879, employed 80 workers in 1861. In 1865 -- 66 a workshop was installed for printing. A second building was acquired at 13 St Sauveur additional buildings until an entire block was occupied, with the manufacturing process becoming automated, driven by steam power. By 1889 the Job company employed 40 men. In the late 1890s, the company hired art nouveau artist Alphonse Mucha, as well as many other artists, to design advertising posters for the brand. Mucha drew a sinuous long-haired goddess holding a rolled cigarette; the image was inspired by Michelangelo's Sibyls from the Sistine Chapel. The poster image was so popular. In 2008, the company commissioned Stuckist artist, Paul Harvey to create a campaign series of posters with a stylistic reference to Alphonse Mucha. Harvey made works featuring famous double acts to emphasise the sales message of "The Original Double", a reference to the twin-size packets of papers made by Job.
Harvey's enthusiasm for the project came about because "Mucha is one of his heroes", said Mark Ross, the director of Glorious Creative agency managing the campaign. The work created some controversy: Gilbert and George gave their endorsement to the images, but The Mighty Boosh and The White Stripes were not pleased to be featured. Famous Doubles, a show of the original paintings used for the posters, was promoted at the Wanted Gallery in Notting Hill by Fraser Kee Scott, director of the A Gallery; the trademarks 1.0, 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 are property of Inc.. In the movie Maximum Overdrive, which featured Emilio Estevez being chased by'possessed' trucks, a JOB 1.5 truck was shown as one of the key vehicles. Reptiles, a 1943 lithograph by M. C. Escher shows a package of JOB rolling papers. In the 1981 film Nice Dreams, Tommy Chong says. List of rolling papers Official site
A job, or occupation, is a person's role in society. More a job is an activity regular and performed in exchange for payment. Many people have multiple jobs. A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, starting a business, or becoming a parent; the duration of a job may range from temporary to a lifetime. An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work. If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. A job would be a subset of someone's career; the two may differ in that one retires from their career, versus resignation or termination from a job. Most people spend up to forty or more hours each week in paid employment; some exceptions are children and people with disabilities. From the age of 5 or so, many children's primary role in society is to study as a student. Jobs can be categorized, into full time or part time, they can be categorized as temporary, odd jobs, self-employment, consulting, or contract employment. Jobs can be categorized as paid or unpaid.
Examples of unpaid jobs include volunteer, mentor and sometimes intern. Jobs can be categorized by the level of experience required: entry level, co-op; some jobs require an academic degree. Those without paid full-time employment may be categorized as unemployed or underemployed if they are seeking a full-time paid job. Moonlighting is the practice of holding an additional job or jobs at night, in addition to one's main job to earn extra income. A person who moonlights may have little time left for leisure activities; the Office for National Statistics in the United Kingdom lists 27,966 different job titles, within a website published 2015. The expression day job is used for a job one works in order to make ends meet while performing low-paying work in their preferred vocation. Archetypal examples of this are the woman who works as a waitress while she tries to become an actress, the professional athlete who works as a laborer in the off season because he is only able to make the roster of a semi-professional team.
While many people do hold a full-time occupation, "day job" refers to those who hold the position to pay living expenses so they can pursue, through low paying entry work, the job they want. The phrase implies that the day job would be quit, if only the real vocation paid a living wage; the phrase "don't quit your day job" is a humorous response to a poor or mediocre performance not up to professional caliber. The phrase implies that the performer is not talented enough in that activity to be able to make a career out of it. Getting a first job is an important rite of passage in many cultures; the youth may start by working for a family business. In many countries, school children get summer jobs during the longer summer vacation. Students enrolled in higher education can apply for internships or coops to further enhance the probability of securing an entry level job upon graduation. Résumés summarize a person's job experience for potential employers. Employers read job candidate résumés to decide.
Workers talk of "getting a job", or "having a job". This conceptual metaphor of a "job" as a possession has led to its use in slogans such as "money for jobs, not bombs". Similar conceptions are that of intellectual rights as a possession. Manual work seems to shorten one's lifespan. High rank has a positive effect. Professions that cause anxiety have a direct negative impact on lifespan; some data is more complex to interpret due to the various reasons of long life expectancy. The more positive characteristics one's job is, the more he or she will have a longer lifespan. Gender and actual danger are notable parameters. Davis, Steven. Bullshit Jobs: A Theory. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1501143311. Granovetter, Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-30581-3 Joshel, Work and Legal Status at Rome: A Study of the Occupational Inscriptions, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 978-0-8061-2444-5 Kranzberg, Melvin. "The Function and Meaning of Work and the Job".
American Sociological Review. 20: 191–1
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes; the most popular view is. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act harmful not only to some individual but to a community, society or the state; such acts are punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists; the state has the power to restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which trials must adhere. If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
To be classified as a crime, the "act of doing something criminal" must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the "intention to do something criminal". While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime. Breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure; when informal relationships prove insufficient to establish and maintain a desired social order, a government or a state may impose more formalized or stricter systems of social control. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes and can opt to punish or attempt to reform those who do not conform. Authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.
In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary in their severity; some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments: legal mutilation, capital punishment or life without parole. A natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes. The sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between crime; when Quinney states "crime is a social phenomenon" he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning "I decide, I give judgment"; the Latin word crīmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress." The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives referred to an intellectual mistake or an offense against the community, rather than a private or moral wrong.
In 13th century English crime meant "sinfulness", according to etymonline.com. It was brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, accusation; the word may derive from the Latin cernere – "to decide, to sift". But Ernest Klein rejects this and suggests *cri-men, which would have meant "cry of distress". Thomas G. Tucker suggests a root in "cry" words and refers to English plaint, so on; the meaning "offense punishable by law" dates from the late 14th century. The Latin word is glossed in Old English by facen "deceit, treachery". Crime wave is first attested in 1893 in American English. Whether a given act or omission constitutes a crime does not depend on the nature of that act or omission, it depends on the nature of the legal consequences. An act or omission is a crime if it is capable of being followed by what are called criminal proceedings. History The following definition of "crime" was provided by the Prevention of Crimes Act 1871, applied for the purposes of section 10 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908: The expression "crime" means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretences, or the offence of conspiracy to defraud, or any misdemeanour under the fifty-eighth section of the Larceny Act, 1861.
For the purpose of section 243 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992, a crime means an offence punishable on indictment, or an offence punishable on summary conviction, for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statute making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment. A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms – cult
Book of Job
The Book of Job is a book in the Ketuvim section of the Hebrew Bible, the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. Addressing the problem of theodicy – the vindication of the justice of God in the light of humanity's suffering – it is a rich theological work setting out a variety of perspectives, it has been praised for its literary qualities, with Alfred Lord Tennyson calling it "the greatest poem of ancient and modern times". The Book of Job consists of a prose prologue and epilogue narrative framing poetic dialogues and monologues, it is common to view the narrative frame as the original core of the book, enlarged by the poetic dialogues and discourses, sections of the book such as the Elihu speeches and the wisdom poem of chapter 28 as late insertions, but recent trends have tended to concentrate on the book's underlying editorial unity.1. Prologue in two scenes, the first on Earth, the second in Heaven 2. Job's opening monologue, three cycles of dialogues between Job and his three friends First cycleEliphaz and Job's response Bildad and Job Zophar and Job Second cycleEliphaz and Job Bildad and Job Zophar and Job Third cycleEliphaz and Job Bildad and Job 3.
Three monologues: A Poem to Wisdom Job's closing monologue and Elihu's speeches 4. Two speeches by God, with Job's responses 5. Epilogue – Job's restoration; the prologue on Earth introduces Job as a righteous man, blessed with wealth and daughters. The scene shifts to Heaven. Satan answers. God gives Satan permission to take Job's wealth and kill all of his children and servants, but Job nonetheless praises God: "Naked I came out of my mother's womb, naked shall I return: the Lord has given, the Lord has taken away. God allows Satan to afflict his body with boils. Job sits in ashes, his wife prompts him to "curse God, die," but Job answers: "Shall we receive good from God and shall we not receive evil?" Job laments the day of his birth. His three friends, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad console him; the friends do not waver in their belief that Job's suffering is a punishment for sin, for God causes no one to suffer innocently, they advise him to repent and seek God's mercy. Job responds with scorn: his interlocutors are "miserable comforters", since a just God would not treat him so harshly, patience in suffering is impossible, the Creator should not take his creatures so to come against them with such force.
Job's responses represent one of the most radical restatements of Israelite theology in the Hebrew Bible. He moves away from the pious attitude as shown in the prologue and began to berate God for the disproportionate wrath against him, he sees God as, among others and suffocating. He shifts his focus from the injustice that he himself suffers to God's governance of the world, he suggests that the wicked have taken advantage of the needy and the helpless, who remain in significant hardship, but God does nothing to punish them. The dialogues of Job and his friends are followed by a poem on the inaccessibility of wisdom: "Where is wisdom to be found?" it asks, concludes that it has been hidden from man. Job contrasts his previous fortune with an outcast, mocked and in pain, he protests his innocence, lists the principles he has lived by, demands that God answer him. Elihu intervenes to state that wisdom comes from God, who reveals it through dreams and visions to those who will declare their knowledge.
God speaks from a whirlwind. His speeches neither explain Job's suffering, nor defend divine justice, nor enter into the courtroom confrontation that Job has demanded, nor respond to his oath of innocence. Instead they contrast Job's weakness with divine wisdom and omnipotence: "Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth?" Job makes a brief response. In 42:1–6 Job makes his final response, confessing God's power and his own lack of knowledge "of things beyond me which I did not know", he has only heard, but now his eyes have seen God, "therefore I retract/ And repent in dust and ashes." God tells Eliphaz that he and the two other friends "have not spoken of me what is right as my servant Job has done". The three are told to make a burnt offering with Job as their intercessor, "for only to him will I show favour". Job is restored to health and family, lives to see his children to the fourth generation. Job appears in the
Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry, 1st Baronet was an English composer and historian of music. Parry's first major works appeared in 1880; as a composer he is best known for the choral song "Jerusalem", his 1902 setting for the coronation anthem "I was glad", the choral and orchestral ode Blest Pair of Sirens, the hymn tune "Repton", which sets the words "Dear Lord and Father of Mankind". His orchestral works include a set of Symphonic Variations. After early attempts to work in insurance, at his father's behest, Parry was taken up by George Grove, first as a contributor to Grove's massive Dictionary of Music and Musicians in the 1870s and 80s, in 1883 as professor of composition and musical history at the Royal College of Music, of which Grove was the first head. In 1895 Parry succeeded Grove as head of the college, remaining in the post for the rest of his life, he was concurrently Heather Professor of Music at the University of Oxford from 1900 to 1908. He wrote several books about music and music history, the best-known of, his 1909 study of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Both in his lifetime and afterwards, Parry's reputation and critical standing have varied. His academic duties were considerable and prevented him from devoting all his energies to composition, but some contemporaries such as Charles Villiers Stanford rated him as the finest English composer since Henry Purcell. Parry's influence on composers, by contrast, is recognised. Edward Elgar learned much of his craft from Parry's articles in Grove's Dictionary, among those who studied under Parry at the Royal College were Ralph Vaughan Williams, Gustav Holst, Frank Bridge and John Ireland. According to Bournemouth based music Historian, Gary Robertson, Parry was born in Bournemouth, the youngest of six children of Gambier Parry and his first wife, Isabella née Fynes-Clinton, of Highnam Court, Gloucestershire. Gambier Parry, the son of Richard and Mary Parry, had been orphaned at the age of five and brought up by his maternal family, adopting their name, Gambier, as part of his surname. Having inherited enormous wealth from his grandfather, Thomas Parry, Gambier Parry was able to buy a country seat at Highnam Court, a seventeenth-century house near the River Severn and two miles west from Gloucester.
Gambier Parry was an eminent collector of works of early Italian art at a time well before it was fashionable or known, was a painter and designer of some talent. Besides his love of painting, Gambier Parry was himself musical, having studied piano and French horn as well as composition during his education at Eton. However, his advanced taste in the visual arts – he was a friend of John Ruskin and an admirer of Turner – did not transfer to his musical interests, which were conventional: Mendelssohn and Spohr were the limit of his appreciation for modern music. Nonetheless, he staunchly supported the Three Choirs Festival, both financially and against the threat of their closure between 1874 and 1875 by the puritanical Dean of Worcester. Three of Gambier Parry's children died in infancy, Isabella Parry died of consumption, aged 32, twelve days after the birth of Hubert, she was buried in the churchyard of St. Peter's, where Hubert was baptised two days later, he grew up at Highnam with his surviving siblings and Lucy.
Thomas Parry remarried in 1851, had a further six children. Isabella's untimely death certainly affected her children, most the eldest surviving son, only seven when she died, more subtly, Hubert: according to his daughter Dorothea, his stepmother Ethelinda's "love for the young ones", meaning her own children, gave her little or no time for her stepchildren. Gambier Parry was absent from home, being either away in London or on the Continent. Hubert's early childhood, with Clinton away at school and Lucy seven years his senior, was solitary, his only regular companion being a governess. Clinton learned to play cello and piano, his considerable musical talent became evident ahead of Hubert's, yet despite their father's active interest in music, such activity was seen as a pastime, was frowned upon as a career as being too uncertain and, unlike painting, a less than professional pursuit unseemly for a gentleman. From January 1856 to the middle of 1858 Hubert attended a preparatory school in Malvern, from where he moved to Twyford Preparatory School in Hampshire.
At Twyford his interest in music was encouraged by the headmaster, by two organists, S. S. Wesley at Winchester Cathedral, Edward Brind, at Highnam church. From Wesley he gained an enduring love of Bach's music, which according to The Times "ultimately found expression in his most important literary work, Johann Sebastian Bach, the Story of the Development of a Great Composer". Brind gave Parry piano and basic harmony lessons, took him to the Three Choirs Festival in Hereford in 1861. Among the choral works performed at that festival were Mendelssohn's Elijah, Mozart's Requiem, Handel's Samson and Messiah. Orchestral works included Mendelssohn's Italian symphonies; the experience left a great impression on Parry, marked the beginning of his lifelong association with the festival. Just as Parry left Twyford for Eton College in 1861, home life was clouded by Clinton's disgrace: after a promising start at Oxford, studying history and music, Clin
Job: A Comedy of Justice
Job: A Comedy of Justice is a novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1984; the title is a reference to the biblical Book of Job and James Branch Cabell's book Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice. It won the Locus Award for Best Fantasy Novel in 1985 and was nominated for the Nebula Award for Best Novel in 1984, the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1985; the story examines religion through the eyes of Alex, a Christian political activist, corrupted by Margrethe, a Danish Norse cruise ship hostess — and who loves every minute of it. Enduring a shipwreck, an earthquake, a series of world-changes brought about by Loki and Marga work their way from Mexico back to Kansas as dishwasher and waitress. Whenever they manage to make some stake, an inconveniently timed change into a new alternate reality throws them off their stride; these repeated misfortunes effected by some malevolent entity, make the hero identify with the Biblical Job. On the way they unknowingly enjoy the Texas hospitality of Satan himself, but as they near their destination they are separated by the Rapture — Margrethe worships Odin, pagans do not go to Heaven.
Finding that the reward for his faith, eternity as promised in the Book of Revelation, is worthless without her, Alex journeys through timeless space in search of his lost lady, taking him to Hell and beyond. Heinlein's vivid depiction of a Heaven ruled by snotty angels and a Hell where everyone has a wonderful, or at least productive, time — with Mary Magdalene shuttling breezily between both places — is a satire on American evangelical Christianity, it owes much to Mark Twain's "Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven". The novel is linked to Heinlein's short story They by the term "the Glaroon", to his earlier novel The Moon is a Harsh Mistress by referring to the Moon colonies "Luna City" and "Tycho Under". Throughout the novel, Alex describes the history of his own world, of some of the worlds he visits. In his own world, William Jennings Bryan was elected US President in 1896, the United States avoided war during the 20th century, Germany is still a monarchy. John F. Kennedy was never President, as revealed when Alex visits a world where Kennedy served two full terms and is unfamiliar with him.
Airship travel was never supplanted by airplane travel, the television was not invented. Other trivial information about Alex's world and the other worlds he visits is revealed as the novel goes along. Nebula Award nominee, 1984 Hugo Award nominee, 1985 Locus Award for Fantasy Novel, 1985 Religious ideas in science fiction Job: A Comedy of Justice title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Job: A Comedy of Justice on Open Library at the Internet Archive JOB: A Comedy of Justice at Worlds Without End
Job in Islam
Job is considered a Nabi in Islam and is mentioned in the Qur'an. Job's story in Islam is parallel to the Hebrew Bible's story, although the main emphasis is on Job remaining steadfast to God; some Muslim commentators spoke of Job as being the ancestor of the Romans. Islamic literature comments on Job's time and place of prophetic ministry, saying that he came after Joseph in the prophetic series and that he preached to his own people rather than being sent to a specified community. Tradition further recounts that Job will be the leader in Heaven of the group of "those who patiently endured". Ayyūb is first mentioned in the Quran in the following verse: Indeed, We have revealed to you, as We revealed to Noah and the prophets after him, and we revealed to Abraham, Isaac, the Descendants, Job, Jonah and Solomon, to David We gave the book. The Quran describes Job as a righteous servant of Allah, afflicted by suffering for a lengthy period of time. However, it states that Job never lost faith in God and forever called to God in prayer, asking Him to remove his affliction: And Job, when he called to his Lord, "Indeed, adversity has touched me, you are the Most Merciful of the merciful."
The narrative goes on to state that after many years of suffering, God ordered Job to "Strike with thy foot!". At once, Job struck the ground with his foot and God caused a cool spring of water to gush forth from the Earth, from which Job could replenish himself; the Quran states that it was that God removed his pain and suffering and He returned Job's family to him, blessed him with many generations of children and granted him great wealth. In addition to the brief descriptions of Job's narrative, the Quran further mentions Job twice in the lists of those whom God had given special guidance and inspiration and as one of the men who received authority, the Book and the gift of prophethood. After Satan has given up trying to turn Job away from the Lord, God removed Job's affliction and returned his family to him, doubling them in number, he showered Job with gold. Once Job's wife had seen her husband restored to prosperity and health, she prayed thanks to God but worried over the oath her husband had taken earlier, in which he had promised to beat her with a hundred strokes.
Job was deeply grieved over the oath he had taken, amidst his suffering. God, sent a revelation to Job, which told him to not beat his wife but to hit her with a bundle of soft grass. Ibn Kathir narrates the story in the following manner. Job was a rich person with much land, many animals and children — all of which were lost and soon he was struck with disease as a test from God, he remained steadfast and patient, so God relieved him of the disease. Job's lineage was an important field of study for many of the early Islamic scholars. A prevalent belief among early commentators was that Job descended from the line of Esau, the son of Ishaq. Although various commentators gave different genealogies relating to Job, all of them traced his ancestry to Abraham through Isaac's son Esau; those scholars who traced Job's lineage back to Abraham did so by using the following Qur'anic verse as the basis for their view:"That was the reasoning about Us which We gave to Abraham against his people. We raise for thy Lord is full of wisdom and knowledge.
We bestowed upon him Isaac and Jacob, all We guided. Thus do We reward those who do good." Muslim historical literature fleshes out Job's story and describes him as being a late descendant of the patriarch Noah. Similar to the Hebrew Bible's narrative, Ibn Kathir mentions that Satan heard the angels of God speak of Job as being the most faithful man of his generation. Job, being a chosen prophet of God, would remain committed in daily prayer and would call to God, thanking God for blessing him with abundant wealth and a large family, but Satan planned to turn the God-fearing Job away from God and wanted Job to fall into disbelief and corruption. Therefore, God allowed Satan to afflict Job with distress and intense illness and suffering, as God knew that Job would never turn away from his Lord. Although Job's possessions were destroyed and he suffered many calamities, he remained steadfast in his worship of God and remained committed to his religion. Satan appeared to Job in the guise of an old man and suggested that God was not rewarding Job for his prayer.
Job, rebuked Satan and told him that God is all-knowing and does what He thinks is best. It is said that Satan, having failed at tempting Job, turned to Job's wife, a faithful woman. Satan reminded Job's wife of her life before Job's affliction and how they were abundant in family and fortune. Job's wife, although she did not lose faith, burst into tears and asked Job to tell God to remove this suffering from the household. Job, in his misery, rebuked his wife and told her that this suffering had been for a short period of time and, without thinking, told her that he would beat her with 100 strokes for complaining. After Job was cured Allah ordered him to hit her 100 times. With this Job full filed his promise to Allah but didn't hurt her! This now has become symbol that often is used by Islamic preachers to be kind with wives! Philip K. Hitti asserted that the subject was an Arab a