The Donmar Warehouse is a 251-seat, not-for-profit theatre in Covent Garden, England. It first opened on 18 July 1977. Sam Mendes, Michael Grandage and now Josie Rourke have all served as artistic director; the theatre has a diverse artistic policy that includes new writing, contemporary reappraisals of European classics and American drama and small-scale musical theatre. As well as presenting at least six productions a year at its home in Covent Garden, every year the Donmar tours one in-house production in the UK. Theatrical producer Donald Albery formed Donmar Productions around 1953, with the name derived from the first three letters of his name and the first three letters of his wife's middle name, Margaret. In 1961, he bought the warehouse, a building that in the 1870s had been a vat room and hops warehouse for the local brewery in Covent Garden, in the 1920s had been used as a film studio and the Covent Garden Market banana-ripening depot, his son Ian Albery, a producer and theatre design consultant, converted the warehouse into a private rehearsal studio.
In 1977, the Royal Shakespeare Company acquired it as a theatre and renamed it the Warehouse and equipping at "immense speed". The first show, which opened on 18 July 1977, was Schweik in the Second World War, directed by Howard Davies, which transferred from the Other Place in Stratford; the electricity for the theatre was turned on just 30 minutes before curtain up, the concrete steps up to the theatre were still wet. The Warehouse was an RSC workshop as much as a showcase and the seasons were remarkably innovative, including Trevor Nunn's acclaimed Stratford 1976 Macbeth, starring Judi Dench and Ian McKellen, which opened at the Covent Garden venue in September 1977 before transferring to the Young Vic; the RSC went on to stage numerous acclaimed productions, both original and transfers from The Other Place, Stratford. In 1980 nearly all the RSC company were involved in Nicholas Nickleby so a new two hander was found from the pile of submitted scripts. Educating Rita, with Julie Walters and Mark Kingston directed by Mike Ockrent, went on to be one of the RSC's biggest successes.
From 1983 to 1989 it came under the artistic directorship of Nica Burns. In 1990, Roger Wingate was responsible for the acquisition of the Donmar Warehouse, he rebuilt and re-equipped it in the form it is known today. Prior to its reopening in 1992, Roger Wingate appointed Sam Mendes as the theatre’s first Artistic Director; as a board member and theatrical producer, Roger Wingate remains involved with the Donmar to the present day. The Donmar became an independent producing house in 1992 with Sam Mendes as artistic director, his opening production was Stephen Sondheim's Assassins. He followed this with a series of classic revivals. Among Mendes' productions were John Kander and Fred Ebb's Cabaret, Tennessee Williams's The Glass Menagerie, Stephen Sondheim's Company, Alan Bennett's Habeas Corpus and his farewell duo of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and Twelfth Night, which transferred to the Brooklyn Academy of Music. Under Mendes, Matthew Warchus's production of Sam Shepard's True West, Katie Mitchell's of Beckett's Endgame, David Leveaux's of Sophocles's Elektra and Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing were all productions at Donmar.
Mendes' successor Michael Grandage directed some of the key productions of the part of Mendes' tenure, including Peter Nichols's Passion Play and Privates on Parade and Sondheim's Merrily We Roll Along. In 2002 Michael Grandage succeeded Sam Mendes as Artistic Director. Grandage appointed Jamie Lloyd as Associate Directors. For its revivals of foreign plays, the company commissioned new translations or versions, including Ibsen's The Wild Duck, Racine's Phaedra, Dario Fo's Accidental Death of An Anarchist and Strindberg's Creditors, its musical productions included Grand Hotel and the Stephen Sondheim works, Pacific Overtures, Merrily We Roll Along, Into the Woods and the 1992 production of Assassins that opened Sam Mendes' tenure as Artistic Director. Under the umbrella of Warehouse Productions, the theatre sometimes opened shows in the West End. Including 1999's Suddenly Last Summer and 2005's Guys and Dolls. Many well-known actors have appeared at the theatre, including Nicole Kidman, Gwyneth Paltrow, Ian McKellen and Ewan McGregor.
With only 250 seats, the tickets for Othello starring McGregor were in such demand that Grandage feared it could become "a bad news story". His response was to plan a one-year season at the 750-seat Wyndham's Theatre, four major new productions presented by Donmar West End, it commenced on 12 September 2008, with Kenneth Branagh in the title role of Chekhov's Ivanov, given in a new version by Tom Stoppard and directed by Grandage. The West End season continued with Derek Jacobi in Twelfth Night, Judi Dench in Yukio Mishima's Madame de Sade and Jude Law in Hamlet, all directed by Grandage. Following the Donmar West End season, the Donmar held three productions internationally: transfers of Red and Creditors, to Broadway and the Brooklyn Academy of Music respectively. Furthermore, from 30 September through December, the Donmar had the first of three year resident spots at Trafalgar Studios 2, in order to showcase its past Resident Assistant Directors. In late 2010, the Donmar led the UK celebrations to mark Stephen Sondheim's 80th birthday to recognise his long association with the theatre.
It included a new production of Passion directed by Jamie Lloyd. In February 2011, the Donmar collaborated with the National Theatre Live programme to broadcast its production of King Lear, starring Derek Jacobi, to cinemas around the world. With over 350 screens i
Wadham College, Oxford
Wadham College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. It is located at the intersection of Broad Street and Parks Road. Wadham College was founded in 1610 by Dorothy Wadham, according to the will of her late husband Nicholas Wadham, a member of an ancient Devon and Somerset family; the central buildings, a notable example of Jacobean architecture, were designed by the architect William Arnold and erected between 1610 and 1613. They include a ornate Hall. Adjacent to the central buildings are the Wadham Gardens. Amongst Wadham's most famous alumni is Sir Christopher Wren. Wren was one of a brilliant group of experimental scientists at Oxford in the 1650s, the Oxford Philosophical Club, which included Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke; this group held regular meetings at Wadham College under the guidance of the warden, John Wilkins, the group formed the nucleus which went on to found the Royal Society. Wadham is a liberal and progressive college which aims to maintain the diversity of its student body and a friendly atmosphere.
Founded as a men's college, in 1974 it was among the first become coeducational, the college has a strong reputation as a promoter of gay rights. In 2011 it became the first Oxford college to fly the rainbow flag as part of queer week, a celebration of sexual diversity and individuality. Wadham is one of the largest colleges of the University of Oxford, with about 460 undergraduates, 180 graduate students, 65 fellows; as of 2017, it had an estimated financial endowment of £96 million, in 2014/2015 ranked 3rd in the Norrington Table, a measure which ranks Oxford colleges by academic performance. The college was founded by Dorothy Wadham in 1610, according to the wishes set out in the will of her husband Nicholas Wadham. Over four years, she gained royal and ecclesiastical support for the new college, negotiated the purchase of a site, appointed the West Country architect William Arnold, drew up the college statutes, appointed the first warden, fellows and cook. Although she never visited Oxford, she kept tight control of her new college and its finances until her death in 1618.
The wardenship of John Wilkins is a significant period in the history of the college. Wilkins was a member of a group which had met for some years in London to discuss problems in the natural sciences. Many of the group held regular meetings in the Warden's lodgings at Wadham. Among them were Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, John Locke, William Petty, John Wallis, Thomas Willis. Wadham provided the largest contingent, some twelve of the fifty names mentioned; these included Christopher Brookes, John Mayow, Lawrence Rooke, Thomas Sprat, Seth Ward, Sir Christopher Wren. Sir Christopher Wren was an undergraduate at Wadham before he became a fellow of All Souls and succeeded Rooke as astronomy professor at Gresham College, London, he returned to occupy rooms at Wadham while he was the Savilian Professor of Astronomy from 1661. Wren had notable achievements in pure and applied mathematics, astronomy and biology to his credit before, in his thirties, turning to architecture. Alone in mathematical ability Wren was ranked by competent authorities second only to Newton among the men of his time.
The Warden's lodgings were stuffed with ingenious instruments, powerful telescopes were mounted on the college tower. The Oxford group kept up close relations with their colleagues in London, in 1660, at Gresham, the decision was taken to create the body which, in 1662, was to be formally incorporated as the Royal Society. Wilkins was the first president of the provisional body, became the first secretary of the Royal Society itself; these were the beginnings of organised scientific research in Britain. Maurice Bowra was warden of the college from 1938 until 1970, was influential in determining the character of the college as open and meritocratic, he was known for his hospitality but for his waspish wit, anecdotes about his time as Warden remain in circulation amongst Wadham alumni. A statue of Bowra is in the college gardens, the college's 1992 Bowra Building bears his name; the college now consists of some 70 Fellows, about 230 graduate students, about 450 undergraduates. The current Warden is Lord Macdonald of former Director of Public Prosecutions.
Lord Macdonald succeeded Sir Neil Chalmers as Warden upon his retirement in 2012. In 1974, after more than three and a half centuries as a men-only institution, Wadham was among the first group of five all-male colleges at Oxford to admit women as full members, the others being Brasenose, Jesus College, Hertford and St Catherine's. Wadham College has a reputation as a supporter of gay rights because it plays host to "Queerfest", a celebration of the LGBTQ cause. In 2011, Wadham became the first Oxbridge college to fly the Rainbow Flag in support of equality, as part of its annual Queerweek; the Rainbow Flag flies over Wadham each year during February, to mark LGBT Month. A Wadham student tradition is that student social events are always concluded with the playing of Free Nelson Mandela; the motion to play the song to conclude every student event until Nelson Mandela was freed from prison was passed by the Wadham Student Union in 1987, when Wadham alumnus Simon Milner, now Policy Director at Facebook, was SU President.
Following Mr Mandela's liberation, the Student Union voted to continue the tradition as a mark of affecti
A Quiet Passion
A Quiet Passion is a 2016 biographical film directed and written by Terence Davies about the life of American poet Emily Dickinson. The film stars Cynthia Nixon as the reclusive poet, it co-stars Emma Bell as Jennifer Ehle, Duncan Duff and Keith Carradine. The film premiered at the 66th Berlin International Film Festival in February 2016 and was released in the United Kingdom on 7 April 2017. On 10 September 2012, it was announced that Cynthia Nixon was set to play Emily Dickinson in a biopic directed by Terence Davies. In May 2015, after a long time in development hell, A Quiet Passion began production in Belgium; the film was shot at AED Studios in a replica of Dickinson's house. Additional scenes were filmed in Amherst and Pelham, Massachusetts. Jennifer Ehle was cast in a key supporting role opposite Nixon. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 91%, based on 152 reviews, an average rating of 7.8/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "A Quiet Passion offers a finely detailed portrait of a life whose placid passage may not have been inherently cinematic, but is made more affecting by Cynthia Nixon's strong performance."
On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 77 out of 100, based on 30 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". The film was praised by the British newspapers The Guardian and The Independent, which described the film as a'Masterpiece of Mood'. Richard Brody of The New Yorker called it a "masterwork" and stated that the film would "take its place as one of finest creations". Had the film been given a limited release in the United States before 2017, Brody would have placed it first in his list of best films of 2016. Internationally, The New York Times stated: "This Emily Dickinson biopic possesses a poetic sensibility suited to its subject and a deep, idiosyncratic intuition about what might have made her tick." The Washington Post wrote: "Davies is a master of the slow build, lyrically evoking both the dreaminess and gravity of his subject and her verse". Music Box Films official site A Quiet Passion on IMDb A Quiet Passion at AllMovie A Quiet Passion at Box Office Mojo A Quiet Passion at Metacritic A Quiet Passion at Rotten Tomatoes
The Scarlet Letter (1995 film)
The Scarlet Letter is a 1995 American romantic drama film. It is a film adaptation of the Nathaniel Hawthorne novel of the same name, it was directed by Roland Joffé and stars Demi Moore, Gary Oldman, Robert Duvall. This version deviated from the original story. A critical and box office failure, it was nominated for seven Golden Raspberry Awards at the 1995 ceremony, winning "Worst Remake or Sequel." It is 1667 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, an uneasy truce exists between local Puritans and their neighbors, the Algonquian. Chief Metacomet succeeds his father Massasoit as head of the latter just as a new colonist, Hester Prynne arrives overseas from England; as Hester waits for her husband -, due to follow shortly after - she falls for a young minister, Arthur Dimmesdale. When it emerges that Roger Prynne has been killed by Native Americans, they become inseparable lovers. Finding herself pregnant with Dimmesdale's child, Hester is imprisoned for her indiscretion; the minister intends to declare his sin and face execution.
Sentenced to wear a scarlet "A" for adultery, Prynne is ostracized by the public, a drummer boy charged to follow her whenever she comes to town. Meanwhile, Hester's husband resurfaces. Learning of the scandal, he adopts the fictitious guise of "Dr. Roger Chillingworth" and begins seeking out her paramour; the physician murders a male settler leaving Hester's home and scalps him in an effort to implicate Algonquian warriors. Infuriated by this atrocity, the colonists declare war on the Indians and Roger, distraught by the severe consequences of his action, promptly commits suicide. Hester is nearly hanged with other undesirables in the ensuing outrage, but Dimmesdale saves her neck by confessing that he is the father of her child; as he takes her place on the gallows, the Algonquian attack Massachusetts Bay. The Puritans are more concerned with concealing the conflict from England than harassing Hester any further. Demi Moore as Hester Prynne Gary Oldman as Rev. Arthur Dimmesdale Robert Duvall as Roger Prynne/ Roger Chillingworth Edward Hardwicke as John Bellingham Lisa Joliffe-Andoh as Mituba Robert Prosky as Horace Stonehall Roy Dotrice as Rev. Thomas Cheever Joan Plowright as Harriet Hibbons Larissa Laskin as Goody Mortimer Amy Wright as Goody Gotwick George Aguilar as Johnny Sassamon Tim Woodward as Brewster Stonehall Dana Ivey as Meredith Stonehall Sheldon Peters Wolfchild as Moskeegee Eric Schweig as Metacomet Kristin Fairlie as Faith Stonehall Sarah Campbell as Prudence Stonehall Kennetch Charlette as Tarratine Chief Jodhi May as Voice of Pearl Tallulah Belle Willis as Pearl Scout Willis as Toddler Pearl The film was shot in British Columbia on Vancouver Island, in and around Campbell River, in the Nova Scotia towns of Yarmouth, in the small village of Saint Alphonse in Clare in 1994.
In Shelburne, the waterfront area was altered to resemble a Puritan New England town in the mid-17th century. Some of the buildings on Dock Street retain the grey-tone paint finishes used for the film. Three original scores were written for this film; the first score was composed by Ennio Morricone and was rejected. A second score was composed by Elmer Bernstein, but his music was set aside in lieu of the final score, composed by John Barry. Star Demi Moore wanted a score by Barry from the start, so Morricone's and Bernstein's music were not going to be accepted, regardless of quality. Barry's score was released on CD by Sony Records upon the film's release in 1995. A CD of Bernstein's rejected score was released by Varèse Sarabande in 2008. No recordings of Morricone's score have been released to the public; the Scarlet Letter was panned by critics. Based on 38 reviews collected by aggregator site Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a 13% approval rating, with an average score of 3/10. In Entertainment Weekly, Owen Gleiberman referred to a "clunky, dawdlingly literal-minded Scarlet Letter, a movie that doesn't so much adapt the book as give it an expensive makeover."
Kevin Williams of National Review, in a retrospective appraisal, declared it "the worst film made", adding: "With its combination of awfulness and inexplicability, it's the'MacArthur Park' of cinema." The film won Worst Remake or Sequel at the 1995 Golden Raspberry Awards, receiving further nominations for Worst Actress, Worst Supporting Actor, Worst Screen Couple, Worst Director, Worst Picture, Worst Screenplay. It grossed $10.3 million against a production budget of $46 million. In response to the criticism, to the new ending, Moore said that the story the filmmakers were trying to tell differed out of necessity with that of the book, which she said was "very dense and not cinematic", she noted the original story might be better suited to a miniseries on television, that the story presented in this film needed a different ending, one that did not lose "the ultimate message of Hester Prynne" that its makers were trying to convey. Asked by critic Peter Travers in 2011 to name the few films in his catalogue that he would take to a desert island, Oldman named The Scarlet Letter among his four choices.
He conceded Travers's assertion that the film was "hammered" by reviewers, but argued, "There's some good work in there." The Scarlet Letter – the original novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne Easy A The Scarlet Letter on IMDb Th
The Turn of the Screw
The Turn of the Screw is an 1898 horror novella by Henry James that first appeared in serial format in Collier's Weekly magazine. In October 1898 it appeared in The Two Magics, a book published by Macmillan in New York City and Heinemann in London. Classified as both gothic fiction and a ghost story, the novella focuses on a governess who, caring for two children at a remote estate, becomes convinced that the grounds are haunted. In the century following its publication, The Turn of the Screw became a cornerstone text of academics who subscribed to New Criticism; the novella has had differing interpretations mutually exclusive. Many critics have tried to determine the exact nature of the evil hinted at by the story. However, others have argued that the brilliance of the novella results from its ability to create an intimate sense of confusion and suspense within the reader; the novella has been adapted numerous times in radio drama, film and television, including a 1950 Broadway play, the 1961 film The Innocents.
On Christmas Eve, an unnamed narrator listens to Douglas, a friend, read a manuscript written by a former governess whom Douglas claims to have known and, now dead. The manuscript tells the story of how the young governess is hired by a man who has become responsible for his young nephew and niece after the deaths of their parents, he lives in London but has a country house, Bly. He is uninterested in raising the children; the boy, Miles, is attending a boarding school, while his younger sister, Flora, is living in a summer country house in Essex. She is being cared for by Mrs. Grose, the housekeeper. Miles and Flora's uncle, the governess' new employer, gives her full charge of the children and explicitly states that she is not to bother him with communications of any sort; the governess begins her duties. Miles soon returns from school for the summer just after a letter arrives from the headmaster stating that he has been expelled. Miles never speaks of the matter, the governess is hesitant to raise the issue.
She fears there is some horrible secret behind the expulsion but is too charmed by the adorable young boy to want to press the issue. Soon thereafter, around the grounds of the estate, the governess begins to see the figures of a man and woman whom she does not recognize; these figures come and go at will without being seen or challenged by other members of the household, they seem to the governess to be supernatural. She learns from Mrs. Grose that the governess' predecessor, Miss Jessel, another employee, Peter Quint, had had a sexual relationship. Before their deaths and Quint spent much of their time with Flora and Miles, this fact has grim significance for the current governess when she becomes convinced that the two children are secretly aware of the ghosts' presence. Without permission, Flora leaves the house while Miles is playing music for the governess; the governess goes with Mrs. Grose in search of her, they find her in a folly on the shore of the lake, the governess is convinced that Flora has been talking to the ghost of Miss Jessel.
When the governess confronts Flora, the girl denies seeing Miss Jessel, but the Governess forces the girl to say Miss Jessel's name. That releases Miss Jessel's power over the girl. However, Flora demands never to see the governess again. At the governess' suggestion, Mrs. Grose takes Flora away to her uncle, leaving the governess with Miles, who that night at last talks to her about his expulsion; the governess shields Miles. The governess tells Miles he is no longer controlled by the ghost and finds that Miles has died in her arms, the ghost has gone. Throughout his career James was attracted to the ghost story. However, he was not fond of literature's stereotypical ghosts, he preferred to create ghosts that were eerie extensions of everyday reality, "the strange and sinister embroidered on the type of the normal and easy", as he put it in the New York Edition preface to his final ghost story, "The Jolly Corner". With The Turn of the Screw, many critics have wondered if the "strange and sinister" were only in the governess's mind and not part of reality.
The result has been a longstanding critical dispute about the reality of the ghosts and the sanity of the governess. Beyond the dispute, critics have examined James's narrative technique for the story; the framing introduction and subsequent first-person narrative by the governess have been studied by theorists of fiction interested in the power of fictional narratives to convince or manipulate readers. The imagery of The Turn of the Screw is reminiscent of gothic fiction; the emphasis on old and mysterious buildings throughout the novella reinforces this motif. James relates the amount of light present in various scenes to the strength of the supernatural or ghostly forces at work; the governess refers directly to The Mysteries of Udolpho and indirectly to Jane Eyre, evoking a comparison of the governess not only to the character of Jane Eyre, but to the character of Bertha, the madwoman confined in Thornfield. Oliver Elton wrote in 1907 that "There is...doubt and kept hanging, after all, the two ghosts who can choose to which persons they will appear, are facts, or delusions of the young governess who tells the story."
Edmund Wilson was another of the earlier proponents of the theory questioning the governess's sanity, positing sexual repression as a cause for her experiences. Wilson recanted his opinion after considering the governess's point-by-point description of Quint. John Silver pointed out hints in t
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals; when used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, Bretons. It may refer to citizens of the former British Empire. Though early assertions of being British date from the Late Middle Ages, the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 triggered a sense of British national identity; the notion of Britishness was forged during the Napoleonic Wars between Britain and the First French Empire, developed further during the Victorian era. The complex history of the formation of the United Kingdom created a "particular sense of nationhood and belonging" in Great Britain and Ireland.
Because of longstanding ethno-sectarian divisions, British identity in Northern Ireland is controversial, but it is held with strong conviction by Unionists. Modern Britons are descended from the varied ethnic groups that settled in the British Isles in and before the 11th century: Prehistoric, Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Normans; the progressive political unification of the British Isles facilitated migration and linguistic exchange, intermarriage between the peoples of England and Wales during the late Middle Ages, early modern period and beyond. Since 1922 and earlier, there has been immigration to the United Kingdom by people from what is now the Republic of Ireland, the Commonwealth, mainland Europe and elsewhere; the British are a diverse, multinational and multilingual society, with "strong regional accents and identities". The social structure of the United Kingdom has changed radically since the 19th century, with a decline in religious observance, enlargement of the middle class, increased ethnic diversity since the 1950s.
The population of the UK stands at around 66 million, with a British diaspora of around 140 million concentrated in Australia and New Zealand, with smaller concentrations in the United States, Republic of Ireland, South Africa and parts of the Caribbean. The earliest known reference to the inhabitants of Great Britain may have come from 4th century BC records of the voyage of Pytheas, a Greek geographer who made a voyage of exploration around the British Isles. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them. Pytheas called the islands collectively αἱ Βρεττανίαι, translated as the Brittanic Isles, the peoples of what are today England, Wales and the Isle of Man of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Pritani or Pretani; the group included Ireland, referred to as Ierne "inhabited by the different race of Hiberni", Britain as insula Albionum, "island of the Albions". The term Pritani may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls, who used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands.
Greek and Roman writers, in the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD, name the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland as the Priteni, the origin of the Latin word Britanni. It has been suggested that this name derives from a Gaulish description translated as "people of the forms", referring to the custom of tattooing or painting their bodies with blue woad made from Isatis tinctoria. Parthenius, a 1st-century Ancient Greek grammarian, the Etymologicum Genuinum, a 9th-century lexical encyclopaedia, mention a mythical character Bretannus as the father of Celtine, mother of Celtus, the eponymous ancestor of the Celts. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia, although the people of Caledonia and the north were the self same Britons during the Roman period, the Gaels arriving four centuries later.
Following the end of Roman rule in Britain, the island of Great Britain was left open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors such as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Jutes from Continental Europe, who gained control in areas around the south east, to Middle Irish-speaking people migrating from what is today Northern Ireland to the north of Great Britain, founding Gaelic kingdoms such as Dál Riata and Alba, which would subsume the native Brittonic and Pictish kingdoms and become Scotland. In this sub-Roman Britain, as Anglo-Saxon culture spread across southern and eastern Britain and Gaelic through much of the north, the demonym "Briton" became restricted to the Brittonic-speaking inhabitants of what would be called Wales, North West England, parts of Scotland such as Strathearn, Morayshire and Strathclyde. In addition the term was applied to Brittany in what is today France and Britonia in north west Spain, both regions having been colonised by Britons in the 5th century fleeing the Anglo-Saxon invasions.
The Last of the Mohicans (1992 film)
The Last of the Mohicans is a 1992 American epic historical drama film set in 1757 during the French and Indian War. It was written and directed by Michael Mann and was based on James Fenimore Cooper's 1826 novel The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 and George B. Seitz's 1936 film adaptation, owing more to the film than the novel; the film stars Daniel Day-Lewis, Madeleine Stowe, Jodhi May, with Russell Means, Wes Studi, Eric Schweig, Steven Waddington in supporting roles. The soundtrack features music by Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman, the song "I Will Find You" by Clannad; the main theme of the film is taken from the tune "The Gael" by Scottish singer-songwriter Dougie MacLean. Released on September 25, 1992 in the United States, The Last of the Mohicans was met with positive reviews and commercial success during its box-office run; the story takes place in 1757, during the French and Indian War in the Adirondack Mountains, in the British colony of New York. British Army Major Duncan Heyward arrives in Albany.
He has been sent to serve under the commander of Fort William Henry. Heyward is given the task of escorting the colonel's two daughters and Alice, to their father, he in love with Cora. He proposes to her before they leave. Major Heyward, the two women, a troop of British soldiers march through a rugged countryside, guided by Magua, a Huron warrior. Magua leads the party into an ambush. Heyward and the women are rescued by the timely intervention of the Mohican chief Chingachgook, his son Uncas, his white, adopted son "Hawkeye", who kill all of the ambushers except Magua, who escapes; the rescuers agree to take Heyward to the fort. During the fight, Hawkeye noticed that Magua asks Duncan if he knows why. During the trek and Hawkeye are attracted to each other, as are Uncas and Alice; when the party nears the fort, they find it under siege by their Huron allies. The party manages to sneak in and are greeted by Colonel Munro, who asks Major Heyward about the requested needed reinforcements. While there and Hawkeye share a passionate kiss, Heyward becomes jealous.
In response, Cora tells him that she will not marry him. When Munro refuses to allow the militiamen to sneak away to defend their own families and homes, as he had earlier promised, Hawkeye arranges it anyway, he stays, is condemned to be hanged for sedition. Before that can happen, during a parley, French general Louis-Joseph de Montcalm shows Munro an intercepted message which states that no reinforcements have been sent. Montcalm offers keeping their weapons. Munro has little choice. However, Magua, a French ally, is furious at this arrangement, he harbors great hatred for Munro, blaming him for past wrongs done to his family. The following day, Colonel Munro, his soldiers, their women and children leave the fort. Magua and his Huron warriors ambush them. During the battle, Magua kills Munro by cutting out his heart. Hawkeye and Chingachgook fight their way out and lead Cora and Heyward to temporary safety. However, Magua captures the major and the women. Magua addresses its sachem, he is interrupted by Hawkeye.
The sachem rules. To redress the wrongs done to Magua, Alice is given to him, Cora is to be burned alive. Hawkeye, for his great bravery, is allowed to go in peace. Hawkeye tells Heyward, serving as translator, to offer his own life for Cora's. Instead, Heyward takes Cora's place himself. Once Hawkeye and Cora are safely away, Hawkeye mercifully shoots Heyward as he is being burned at the stake. Chingachgook and Hawkeye set out after Magua's party to free Alice. Uncas races ahead and slays several Huron warriors before engaging Magua in personal combat, only to have his throat slit and be thrown off the cliff. Alice chooses to commit suicide by stepping off the cliff to her death rather than go with the beckoning Magua. Hawkeye and Chingachgook slay several more of Magua's men. Hawkeye holds the remaining Hurons at bay with his musket while Chingachgook duels and kills Magua, avenging his son. In the final scene and Cora watch as Chingachgook prays to the Great Spirit to receive Uncas, proclaiming himself "the last of the Mohicans."
Much care was taken with recreating accurate props. American Bladesmith Society master bladesmith Daniel Winkler made the tomahawks used in the film and knifemaker Randall King made the knives. Wayne Watson is the maker of Hawkeye's "Killdeer" rifle used in the film; the gunstock war club made for Chingachgook was created by Jim Yellow Eagle. Magua's tomahawk was made by Fred A. Mitchell of Odin Fabrication. Costumes were designed by multiple Academy Award winner James Acheson, but he left the film and had his name removed because of artistic differences with Mann. Designer Elsa Zamparelli was brought in to finish. Despite the film taking place in upstate New York, according to the film credits, it was filmed in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Locations used include Chimney Rock Park and The Biltmore Estate; some of the waterfalls that were used in the movie include Hooker Falls, Triple Falls, Bridal Veil Falls, High Falls, all located in the DuPont State Recreational Forest. Another of these falls was Linville Falls, in the mountains of North Carolina.
Scenes of Albany were shot in NC at The Manor on Charlotte Street. The film was released theatrically in September 25, 1992 at a length of 112