Asse is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. It comprises the towns of Asse proper, Kobbegem, Mollem and Zellik. On January 1, 2006, Asse had a total population of 29,191; the total area is 49.64 km² which gives a population density of 588 inhabitants per km². Asse was inhabited by the Celtic tribe of the Nervii; the name itself comes from a pre-Celtic word meaning "water". It was inhabited from an early date; the fertility of the soil and the relief which rises above the wetter plains of present-day Flanders would suggest that his would have been an early area of settlement. From the middle of the first century, a Roman military road connected it to the capital of the Roman province of Nervii in Bavay, it continued northwards as far as the naval port at present-day Rumst, with various side roads to the East and West. It is possible that there was a Roman military camp to the south east of the present town centre in what is now known as "borgstad", though its role has not been proven.
What is sure is that Asse grew to be a substantial settlement or vicus at an, at least locally, important road junction. Though no Roman buildings are extant there have been frequent archaeological finds including in 2007 a pottery and in 2008 a section of a Roman road, it is possible that there was local cult of Epona as a large number of clay horse figurines votive offerings, have been found. It is presumed that the Germanic language, which evolved into present-day Dutch, was introduced during the Frankish invasions in the late fourth and fifth centuries. Place-name study would at least suggest that but there are no extant written sources. During the Carolingian period Asse was part of the region of Brabant. During the period of the Viking invasions it would seem that there was a important fortified site in Asse. From 1085 or 1086 Asse was part of the Duchy of Brabant under the Dukes of Leuven; the local vassal of the Duke was known as the "Heer van Asse", the Duke's hereditary standard bearer.
Asse was situated on the cross roads of both north-south as well as east-west trade routes, having a fertile cultivated and well-drained soil. It therefore grew to be a regionally important centre and a important military-strategic one. Asse has been the subject of military campaigns and has been recorded as having been burnt down several times; the St Martins church gained some local fame as a centre of pilgrimage connected to the miraculous blossoming of a tree in which a Host had been hidden and the miraculous appearance of a cross – the Miracles of the Holy Cross. During this period lots of the power was inherited by the descendants of John II of Cottereau, Lord of Assche, he placed some important coloured windows in the church and was buried there, his descendants today still are family of the current Marquess of Assche. In continuation of its role as seat of an important judicial court under the Ancien Régime, Asse was made capital of a canton during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Period.
Lacking any mineral resources, being far from any navigable watercourses and being in close proximity to other larger centres such as Aalst and Brussels, Asse never developed into an important commercial, political or industrial centre but remained a locally important market town. There was some marketing of the local hop production, it is now a commuting town for Brussels with a number of light commercial activities. The Hopduvel represents the storm that hit Asse-Ternat at the end of the month of August; the hop vine crop, ready for harvest, could be damaged if the hop vines were knocked to the ground. It is thought that the' hopduvel' was invented by the hop farmers to personify this danger and was institutionalised by the founder of the "Hopduvelfeesten", Eugeen Van den Broeck; every year the Hopduvelfeesten is organised after the hop harvest in order to have a good harvest in the following years. This is symbolically done by burning the effigies of hopduvels that have been assembled by the local farmers and for which a contest is organised to elect the best Hopduvel.
This tradition is still continued though there has been little hop production in the area since the 1970s Media related to Asse at Wikimedia Commons Official website – Available only in Dutch Gazetteer Entry for Asse
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Henri Estienne known as Henricus Stephanus, was a 16th-century French printer and classical scholar. He was the eldest son of Robert Estienne. Estienne was born in Paris, he displayed in his youth a genuine enthusiasm for Greek and Latin. His father took special pains with his education; as part of his general training, he undertook in his nineteenth year a protracted journey to Italy and Flanders, where he busied himself in collecting and collating manuscripts for his father's press. In 1554 he published at Paris the Anacreon, he went again to Italy, helping Aldus at Venice, discovering a copy of Diodorus Siculus at Rome, returning to Geneva in 1555. In 1557 he seems to have had a printing establishment of his own. In the spirit of modern times, he advertised himself as the "Parisian printer"; the following year he assumed the title illustris viri Huldrici Fuggeri typographus from his patron, Ulrich Fugger. In 1559 Estienne assumed charge of his father's presses and became Printer of the Republic of Geneva.
He distinguished himself as the publisher and collator of manuscripts. Works of Athenagoras of Athens and Aeschylus appeared in 1557, he made new Latin translations, of many Greek authors. His most celebrated work, the Thesaurus graecae linguae or Greek thesaurus, appeared in four volumes in 1572, with a supplement in two volumes; this work was begun by his father and served up to the nineteenth century as the basis of Greek lexicography. Of the editions of the Greek New Testament that went forth from his presses, that of Beza, with his commentary, deserves mention. A triglot containing the Peshitta appeared in 1569, of which some copies are in existence, bearing the date Lyon 1571. In 1565 a large French Bible was printed. Henry's own editions of the Greek New Testament of 1576 and 1587 are noteworthy; the former contains the first scientific treatise on the language of the apostolic writers and the latter has a discussion of the ancient divisions of the text. In 1578 he published a famous edition of the complete works of Plato, translated by Jean de Serres, with commentary.
This work is the source of the standard'Stephanus numbers' used by scholars today to refer to the works of Plato. In 1594 he published a concordance of the New Testament, the preparatory studies for which his father had made. Much earlier, he had translated Calvin's catechism into Greek, printed in 1554 in his father's printing room, he died in Lyon in 1598. Married three times, Estienne had fourteen children, his son Paul, of whose life little is known, assumed control of the presses. Two of Paul's sons were printers—Joseph at La Rochelle and Antoine, who became "Printer to the King" in Paris in 1613. Fronton du Duc's Chrysostom and Jean Morin's Greek Bible were issued from Antoine's presses, his son Henry succeeded to the title of "Printer to the King" in 1649. His work closed about 1659; this Henry left no children and was the last of the family who took active interest in editing and printing. Stephanus pagination Jean de Serres, collaborator on Plato edition Schreiber, Fred The Estiennes: An Annotated Catalogue of Three Hundred Highlights of Their Various Presses.
Jehasse, Jean La Renaissance de la critique: l'essor de l'Humanisme érudit de 1560 à 1614, Presses universitaires de Saint-Etienne. Books by Bénédicte Boudou:L’Apologie pour Hérodote d’Henri Estienne, Textes littéraires français, 2 volumes, 2007, 1215 p. Henri II Estienne éditeur et écrivain, Bénédicte Boudou, Judit Keskéméti, Jean Céard et Hélène Cazes, Brépols, 2003, 764 p. Mars et les Muses dans l'Apologie pour Droz, THR n ° 335, 2000, 686 p. Articles by Bénédicte Boudou:Henri Estienne lecteur des traductions latines des Psaumes, Presses de l’Université de Paris Sorbonne, janvier 2008, p. 129-143. Le voyage satirique à Paris dans l’Apologie pour Hérodote d’Henri Estienne, RITM n° 37, éd. C. Leroy et G. Chamarat, 2007, p. 15-30. Place et signification de l’animal sauvage dans l’Apologie pour Hérodote d’Henri Estienne, L'animal sauvage à la Renaissance, éd. Ph. Ford, juillet 2007, p. 33-50. Deux regards sur le suicide dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle: Henri Estienne et Montaigne, Littérales n° 38, Horreurs et limites, 2007, p. 9-40.
Traduttore, Henri Estienne et la trahison philologique, Réforme, Renaissance, n° 63, décembre 2006, p. 39-58. Proverbes et formules gnomiques chez Henri Estienne, De l’Histoire à la Poésie, Seizième siècle, n° 1, 2005, p. 161-174. La réception d’Hérodote au XVIe siècle, Grecs et Romains aux prises avec l’Histoire, Représentations, Récits et idéologies, Presses universitaires de Rennes, éd. G. Lachenaud, 2003, vol. 2, p. 729-743. Henri Estienne et la traduction par Sébastien Castellion de la Bible en français, Cité des hommes, cité de Dieu, Mélanges offerts à Daniel Ménager, 2003, p. 523-532. La place de la mémoire dans la composition chez Henri Estienne, Nouvelle Revue du XVIe siècle, 2002, n° 20/2, p. 57-72. Le chroniqueur du temps présent dans l’Apologie pour Hérodote, Histoire et Littérature au siècle de Montaigne, Mélanges offerts à Cl.-G. Dubois, Droz, 2002, p. 51-62. La laideur italienne, selon Henri Estienne, Littérales n° 28, Propos sur les Muses et la laideur, 2001, pp. 143–156. Henri Estienne éditeur d’historiens, ou Comment écrire l’Histoire?, Nouvelle Revue du Seizième siècle, 2001, n° 19/1, p. 37-50.
Le Commentariolus de Henri Estienne sur la Correspondance de Cicéron, L’Épistolaire en France, Actes du Cent
Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine. Basel is Switzerland's third-most-populous city with about 180,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss and German borders meet, Basel has suburbs in France and Germany; as of 2016, the Swiss Basel agglomeration was the third-largest in Switzerland, with a population of 541,000 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland. The initiative Trinational Eurodistrict Basel of 62 suburban communes including municipalities in neighboring countries, counted 829,000 inhabitants in 2007; the official language of Basel is German, but the main spoken language is the local Basel German dialect. The city is known for its many internationally renowned museums, ranging from the Kunstmuseum, the first collection of art accessible to the public in Europe and the largest museum of art in the whole of Switzerland, to the Fondation Beyeler; the University of Basel, Switzerland's oldest university, the city's centuries-long commitment to humanism, have made Basel a safe haven at times of political unrest in other parts of Europe for such notable people as Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Holbein family, Friedrich Nietzsche and in the 20th century Hermann Hesse and Karl Jaspers.
The city of Basel is Switzerland's second-largest economic centre after the city of Zürich and has the highest GDP per capita in the country, ahead of the cantons of Zug and Geneva. In terms of value, over 94% of Basel City's goods exports are in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors. With production facilities located in the neighboring Schweizerhalle, Basel accounts for 20% of Swiss exports and generates one third of the national product. Basel has been the seat of a Prince-Bishopric since the 11th century, joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1501; the city has been a commercial hub and an important cultural centre since the Renaissance, has emerged as a centre for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in the 20th century. In 1897, Basel was chosen by Theodor Herzl as the location for the first World Zionist Congress, altogether the congress has been held there ten times over a time span of 50 years, more than in any other location; the city is home to the world headquarters of the Bank for International Settlements.
In 2019 Basel, was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Geneva. There are traces of a settlement at the Rhine knee from the early La Tène period. In the 2nd century BC, there was a village of the Raurici at the site of Basel-Gasfabrik, to the northwest of the Old City identical with the town of Arialbinnum mentioned on the Tabula Peutingeriana; the unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an oppidum on the site of Basel Minster in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul. In Roman Gaul, Augusta Raurica was established some 20 km from Basel as the regional administrative centre, while a castra was built on the site of the Celtic oppidum; the city of Basel grew around the castra. In AD 83, Basel was incorporated into the Roman province of Germania Superior. Roman control over the area deteriorated in the 3rd century, Basel became an outpost of the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum formed by Diocletian; the Germanic confederation of the Alemanni attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled.
However, in the great invasion of AD 406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time and settling what is today Alsace and a large part of the Swiss Plateau. From that time, Basel has been an Alemannic settlement; the Duchy of Alemannia fell under Frankish rule in the 6th century, by the 7th century, the former bishopric of Augusta Raurica was re-established as the Bishopric of Basel. Based on the evidence of a third solidus with the inscription Basilia fit, Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century. Under bishop Haito, the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle replaced by a Romanesque structure consecrated in 1019. At the partition of the Carolingian Empire, Basel was first given to West Francia, but it passed to East Francia with the treaty of Meerssen of 870; the city was plundered and destroyed by a Magyar invasion in 917. The rebuilt city became part of Upper Burgundy, as such was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire in 1032.
From the donation by Rudolph III of Burgundy of the Moutier-Grandval Abbey and all its possessions to Bishop Adalbero II of Metz in 999 until the Reformation, Basel was ruled by prince-bishops. In 1019, the construction of the cathedral of Basel began under Holy Roman Emperor. In 1225–1226, a bridge, now known as the Middle Bridge, was constructed by Bishop Heinrich von Thun and Lesser Basel founded as a bridgehead to protect the bridge; the bridge was funded by Basel's Jewish community who had settled there a century earlier. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river "between Lake Constance and the sea"; the Bishop allowed the furriers to establish a guild in 1226. About 15 guilds were established in the 13th century, they increased the town's, hence the bishop's, reputation and income from the taxes and duties on goods in Basel's expanding market. The plague came to Europe in 1347, but did not reach Basel until June 1349. The
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent and complete work; the editing process begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created. Editing can involve human relations and a precise set of methods. There are various editorial positions in publishing. One finds editorial assistants reporting to the senior-level editorial staff and directors who report to senior executive editors. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product for its final release; the smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap. The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, executive editor, or the editor. A frequent and regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor.
Mid-level newspaper editors manage or help to manage sections, such as business and features. In U. S. newspapers, the level below the top editor is the managing editor. In the book publishing industry, editors may organize anthologies and other compilations, produce definitive editions of a classic author's works, organize and manage contributions to a multi-author book. Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an acquisitions editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor. Copy editors correct spelling and align writings to house style. Changes to the publishing industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors. At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on more substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy and taste. In some positions, they select news stories for inclusion.
At U. K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-editor. They may communicate with the printer; these editors may have the title of makeup editor. Within the publishing environment, editors of scholarly books are of three main types, each with particular responsibilities: Acquisitions editor, who contracts with the author to produce the copy Project editor or production editor, who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript to bound book and assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities Copy editor or manuscript editor, who prepares the copy for conversion into printed form. In the case of multi-author edited volumes, before the manuscript is delivered to the publisher it has undergone substantive and linguistic editing by the volume's editor, who works independently of the publisher; as for scholarly journals, where spontaneous submissions are more common than commissioned works, the position of journal editor or editor-in-chief replaces the acquisitions editor of the book publishing environment, while the roles of production editor and copy editor remain.
However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of scholarly research articles. Called the authors' editor, this editor works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication; the primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. Most scholarly publishers have a preferred style that specifies a particular dictionary and style manual—for example, the Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA Style Manual or the APA Publication Manual in the US, or the New Hart's Rules in the U. K. Technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide. Technical editing may include the correction of grammatical mistakes, mistyping, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in usage, poorly structured sentences, wrong scientific terms, wrong units and dimensions, inconsistency in significant figures, technical ambivalence, technical disambiguation, statements conflicting with general scientific knowledge, correction of synopsis, index and subheadings, correcting data and chart presentation in a research paper or report, correcting errors in citations.
Large companies dedicate experienced writers to the technical editing function. Organizations that cannot afford dedicated editors have experienced writers peer-edit text produced by less experienced colleagues, it helps. The "technical" knowledge that an editor gains over time while working on a particular product or technology does give the editor an edge over another who has just started editing content related to that product or technology, but essential general skills are attention to detail, the ability to sustain focus while working through lengthy pieces of text on complex topics, tact in dealing with writers, excellent communication skills. Editing is a growing field of work in the service industry. Paid editing services may be provided by self-employed editors. Editing firms may employ a team of in-house editors, rely on a network of individual contractors or both; such firms are able to handle editing in a wide range of topics and genres, depending on the skills of individual editors