A defensive tackle is the largest and strongest of the defensive players in American football. The defensive tackle lines up opposite one of the offensive guards. Depending on a team's individual defensive scheme, a defensive tackle may be called upon to fill several different roles; these roles may include holding the point of attack by refusing to be moved or penetrating a certain gap between offensive linemen to break up a play in the opponent's backfield. If a defensive tackle reads a pass play, his primary responsibility is to pursue the quarterback, or knock the pass down at the line if it's within arm's reach. Other responsibilities of the defensive tackle may be to pursue the screen pass or drop into coverage in a zone blitz scheme. In a traditional 4–3 defense, there is no nose tackle. Instead there is a left and right defensive tackle; some teams in the National Football League, do have a nose tackle in this scheme, but most of them do not. Nose tackle is a defensive alignment position for a defensive lineman.
In the 3–4 defensive scheme the sole defensive tackle is referred to as the nose tackle. The nose tackle aligns across the line of scrimmage from the offense's center before the play begins in the "0-technique" position. In this position taking on the center and at least one if not both of the guards, the nose tackle is considered to be the most physically demanding position in football. In five-linemen situations, such as a goal-line formation, the nose guard is the innermost lineman, flanked on either side by a defensive tackle or defensive end. According to Pat Kirwan, a traditional 3–4 defense demands "a massive man who can clog up the middle," while a 4–3 defense is looking for "a nose tackle who relies on quickness to penetrate and move along the front." Typical 3–4 nose tackles are "big wide bodies who can hold the point of attack and force double teams by the guard and center." They are the heaviest players on the roster, with weights ranging from 320 to 350 pounds. Height is critical, as they are supposed to get "under" the offensive line, which means ideal 3–4 nose tackles are no taller than 6 ft 3 in.
Recent examples of such nose tackles include Gilbert Brown, Casey Hampton, Jamal Williams, Vince Wilfork, Damon Harrison. Rather uncommon are taller nose tackles, such as Ted Washington and Ma'ake Kemoeatu, who each won a Super Bowl ring, are both 6 ft 5 in tall. In some 4 -- 3 defenses, the nose tackle; some teams in the NFL, do have a nose tackle in the 4–3 defense, which lines up against the opposing center and likely the weak-side or pulling guard. In a 4–3 defense, nose tackles are rather quick and supposed to "shoot the'A gap' and beat the center and likely the weak-side or pulling guard into the backfield." Height is not as important, their weight is closer to 300 pounds. The terms "nose guard" or "middle guard" were more used with the five-man defensive line of the older 5-2 defense. Effective against most plays of the day, but with a weakness to the inside short pass, the 5–2 was phased out of the pro game in the late 1950s. In the 4–3 defense, the upright middle linebacker replaced the middle guard.
The nose guard is used in a 50 read defense. In this defense there is a nose guard, two defensive tackles, two outside linebackers who can play on the line of scrimmage or off the line of scrimmage in a two-point stance; the nose guard lines up head up on the center about six to eighteen inches off the ball. In a reading 50 defense, the nose guard's key is to read the offensive center to the ball. In run away, the nose guard's job is to shed the blocker and pursue down the line of scrimmage, taking an angle of pursuit; the primary responsibility of the nose tackle in this scheme is to absorb multiple blockers so that other players in the defensive front can attack ball carriers and rush the quarterback
Westwood is a town in Norfolk County, United States. The population was 14,618 at the 2010 census. In July 2005, CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Westwood 13th on its list of the 100 Best Places to Live in the United States. Boston magazine included Gay Street in Westwood on its list of the Best Streets in the Boston area, it is the 9th wealthiest town in the state of Massachusetts. Westwood was first settled in 1641 and was part of the town of Dedham called'West Dedham', until it was incorporated in 1897, it was the last town to split from the original town of Dedham. It was to have been named the "Town of Nahatan:" In 1970, Westwood was home to The Westwood Study, an assessment which measured the amount of racism in the entirely white town. Conducted in the context of efforts at integrating housing, what the study revealed was how large proportions of the town had racist views while at the same time viewing themselves as not racist. In July 2005, CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Westwood 13th on its list of the 100 Best Places to Live in the United States.
Boston magazine listed Gay Street in Westwood on its list of the Best Streets in the Boston area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 11.1 square miles, of which, 11.0 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Westwood is located in eastern Massachusetts, bordered by: the town of Needham to the north the town of Dedham to the east the town of Canton to the southeast the town of Norwood to the south the town of Walpole to the southwest the town of Dover to the west As of the census of 2000, there were 14,117 people, 5,122 households and 3,867 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,286.7 people per square mile. There were 5,251 housing units at an average density of 478.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 95.98% White, 0.50% African American, 0.04% Native American, 2.48% Asian, 0.21% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.94% of the population. There were 5,122 households out of which 36.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.1% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.5% were non-families.
22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.24. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 3.4% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $128,984, the median income for a family was $157,656. Males had a median income of $71,801 versus $46,194 for females; the per capita income for the town was $71,553. About 1.3% of families and 2.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.5% of those under age 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 or over. The town of Westwood operates under a home rule charter; this means. The charter defines the powers of elected boards, including the board of selectmen, which serves as the executive branch of government and hires a Town Administrator responsible for day-to-day operations of town departments.
The legislative branch operates through open town meeting, which meets at least once and twice a year where all residents are entitle to speak and vote on approval of warrant articles which authorize the town budget and may create or modify town bylaws. Selectmen and other town officials are elected through an annual town election at the end of April; the board of selectmen appoints residents to various volunteer committees. The Town Administrator appoints town staff who manage public safety and other services; the board of selectmen has three members. Michael F. Walsh, John M. Hickey, Nancy Hyde are Westwood's selectmen. On April 24, 2018, Hyde was opposed by Ellen Larkin Rollings and was elected to her 4th consecutive term on the board. Walsh's term will be up in 2019, Hickey's in 2020. In the 2007-2008 April election cycle college student Gregory J. Agnew became the youngest person to run for an elected office in Westwood, MA at age 20, running for Selectman against Doug Obey, Jason Lee, Philip N. Shapiro.
Although he did not emerge victorious, he became the first candidate to win his home precinct without winning the general election. Westwood has five public elementary schools: Deerfield Downey Paul R. Hanlon Martha Jones William E. Sheehan Westwood has one public middle school named' the Thurston Middle School, named after Edmund W. Thurston, one public high school. A new Westwood High School was constructed at a cost of $45 million, the old school, built in 1957, was demolished; the gymnasium and swimming facility from the old school were refurbished and are now part of the new high school campus. The school facilities include a new multi-use artificial turf field with a synthetic track, both of which are open to the public. Westwood is home to an all-boys Catholic prep school. Hale Reservation – A Home to North Beach, Membership Beach, several walking trails, other outdoor areas. Westwood Library – On April 7, 2010, Library Trustees hosted a groundbreaking ceremony for the town
Defensive end is a defensive position in the sport of American and Canadian football. This position has designated the players at each end of the defensive line, but changes in formations over the years have changed how the position is played. Early formations, with six- and seven-man lines, used the end as a containment player, whose job was first to prevent an "end run" around his position secondarily to force plays inside; when most teams adopted a twelve-man line, two different styles of end play developed: "crashing" ends, who rushed into the backfield to disrupt plays, "stand-up" or "waiting" ends, who played the more traditional containment style. Some teams would use both styles of end play, depending on game situations. Traditionally, defensive ends are in a three-point stance, with their free hand cocked back ready to "punch" the offensive lineman, or in a "two-point stance" like a linebacker so they can keep containment; some defensive ends play the position due to their size. Other ends play the position due to their agility.
These ends can time the snap of the ball in order to get a jump on the rush, stop the play. Most of the time it is the job of the defensive end in run defense to keep outside or contain, which means that no one should get to their outside; the defensive ends are fast for players of their size the fastest and smallest players on the defensive line. They must be able to shed blockers to get to the ball. Defensive ends are often used to cover the outside area of the line of scrimmage, to tackle ball carriers running to the far right or left side, to defend against screen passes. Since the creation of zone blitz defenses in the late 1990s, defensive ends have sometimes been used in pass coverages, dropping back to cover routes run close to the line of scrimmage. In the 3–4 defense, defensive ends are used as run stoppers and are much larger, they are 285–315 pounds. The position is played by a more agile or undersized defensive tackle; because of the increased popularity of the 3–4 defense, the value of a defensive tackle prospect that can be used in this manner has increased.
They are used to distract the offensive lineman on pass rushing plays to let the outside linebackers get a sack. They are 6'3"–6'8", they block screen are put outside the offensive tackles to get a sack. Glossary of American football
University of New Hampshire
The University of New Hampshire is a public research university in the University System of New Hampshire, in the United States. The university's Durham campus, comprising six colleges, is located in the Seacoast region of the state. A seventh college, the University of New Hampshire at Manchester, occupies the university's campus in Manchester, the state's largest city; the University of New Hampshire School of Law, known as the Franklin Pierce Law Center until 2010, is located in Concord, the state's capital. The University of New Hampshire was founded and incorporated in 1866, as a land grant college in Hanover in connection with Dartmouth College. In 1893, UNH moved to Durham. Between its Durham and Concord campuses, UNH is the largest university in the state, with over 15,000 students. UNH is one of only a few universities, designated a land-, sea-, space-grant institution; the university's current President is James W. Dean Jr. the 20th President of the University, who took over from Mark Huddleston on June 30, 2018.
Their mascot is a wildcat and the university's colors are white and blue. The Morrill Act of 1862 granted federal lands to New Hampshire for the establishment of an agricultural-mechanical college. In 1866, the university was first incorporated as the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts in Hanover, New Hampshire, in association with Dartmouth College; the institution was associated with Dartmouth College and was directed by Dartmouth's president. Durham resident Benjamin Thompson left his farm and assets to the state for the establishment of an agricultural college. On January 30, 1890, Benjamin Thompson died and his will became public. On March 5, 1891 Gov. Hiram Americus Tuttle signed an act accepting the conditions of Thompson's will. On April 10, 1891, Gov. Tuttle signed a bill authorizing the college's move to Durham, New Hampshire. In 1892, the Board of Trustees hired Charles Eliot to draw a site plan for the first five campus buildings: Thompson, Conant and Hewitt Shops and the Dairy Barn.
Eliot worked for three months to create a plan prior to the move to Durham. The Class of 1892, excited about the pending move to Durham, held commencement exercises in an unfinished barn on the Durham campus. On April 18, 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to "authorize the faculty to make all the arrangements for the packing and removal of college property at Hanover to Durham." The Class of 1893, followed the previous class and held commencement exercises in unfinished Thompson Hall, the Romanesque Revival campus centerpiece designed by the prominent Concord architectural firm of Dow & Randlett. In fall 1893, classes began in Durham with 51 freshmen and 13 upperclassmen, three times the projected enrollment. Graduate study was established in fall 1893 for the first time; the number of students and the lack of state funds for dormitories caused a housing crunch and forced students to find housing in town. The lack of housing caused difficulty for attracting women to the university. In 1908, construction on Smith Hall, the first women's dorm, was completed using private and state funds.
Prior to the construction of Fairchild Hall in 1915 for male students, 50 freshmen lived in the basement of DeMerritt Hall. With the continuing housing shortage for men, the administration encouraged the growth of the UNH Greek system. From the late 1910s through the 1930s, the fraternity system expanded and provided room and board for male students. In 1923, Gov. Fred Herbert Brown signed a bill changing the name of the college to University of New Hampshire. In the spring of 2015, the university was given $4 million from the estate of Robert Morin, a librarian at the university for 50 years. Having lived a frugal and secluded life, he allowed for his life's savings to be given to the university without restraint. In 2016, the news that the university was spending $1 million on a new video screen for the football stadium provoked criticism, on and off-campus, with critics noting that the difference between that amount and the $100,000 the university transferred to the library was jarring. A story on Deadspin connected the money for the video screen to the amount of money spent on football and other sports at UNH, arguing that UNH had turned a small hobby of Morin's, watching football during the last months of his life, into an excuse to spend a quarter of his gift on a video screen.
The University of New Hampshire is the flagship of the University System of New Hampshire. UNH is composed of graduate schools, offering 2,000 courses in over 100 majors; the eight colleges of UNH are: College of Engineering and Physical Sciences College of Liberal Arts College of Life Sciences and Agriculture Thompson School of Applied Science College of Health and Human Services University of New Hampshire at Manchester UNH Graduate School Peter T. Paul College of Business and Economics the Whittemore School of Business and Economics University of New Hampshire School of Law Carsey School of Public Policy School of Marine Science and Ocean EngineeringThe university is a member of the New England Board of Higher Education's New England Regional Student Program where New England public universities and colleges offer a number of undergraduate curricula with special considerations to students from other New England states. If an out-of-state student's home state school does not offer a certain degree program offered by UNH, that student can receive the in-state tuition rate, plus 75 percent if enrolled in the program.
The Thompson School of Applied Science, first established in 1895 and now a division of COLSA, confers an associate degree in applied science i
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League is a professional sports league in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football; the league consists of each located in a city in Canada. They are divided into two divisions: four teams in the East Division and five teams in the West Division; as of 2018, it features a 21-week regular season where each team plays 18 games with three bye weeks. This season traditionally runs from mid-June to early November. Following the regular season, six teams compete in the league's three-week divisional playoffs which culminate in the Grey Cup championship game in late November; the Grey Cup is television events. The CFL was founded on January 19, 1958; the league was formed through a merger between the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the Western Interprovincial Football Union. Rugby football began to be played in Canada in the 1860s, many of the first Canadian football teams played under the auspices of the Canadian Rugby Football Union, founded in 1884.
The CRFU was reorganized as the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891, served as an umbrella organization for several provincial and regional unions. The Grey Cup was donated by Governor General Earl Grey in 1909 to the team winning the Senior Amateur Football Championship of Canada. By that time, the sport as played in Canada had diverged markedly from its rugby origins, started to become more similar to the American game. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the two senior leagues of the CRU, the eastern Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and Western Interprovincial Football Union evolved from amateur to professional leagues, amateur teams such as those in the Ontario Rugby Football Union were no longer competitive for the Grey Cup. From 1945 onward, the WIFU's champion faced the Big Four's champion for the Grey Cup, though until 1954 it had to play in a semi-final against the champion of the ORFU–by the only amateur union still competing for the Grey Cup; the ORFU withdrew from Grey Cup competition after the 1954 season, the WIFU champion was automatically awarded a berth in the Grey Cup final.
For this reason, 1954 is reckoned as the start of the modern era of Canadian football, in which the Grey Cup has been contested by professional teams. Since 1965, Canada's top amateur teams, competing in what is now U Sports, have competed for the Vanier Cup. In 1956, the IRFU and WIFU formed the Canadian Football Council. In 1958, the CFC became the Canadian Football League; as part of an agreement between the CRU and CFL, the CFL took possession of the Grey Cup though amateurs had not competed for it since 1954. The CRU remained the governing body for amateur play in Canada adopting the name Football Canada; the two unions remained autonomous, there was no intersectional play between eastern and western teams except at the Grey Cup final. This situation was analogous to how the American baseball leagues operated for years; the IRFU was renamed the Eastern Football Conference in 1960, while the WIFU was renamed the Western Football Conference in 1961. In 1961, limited intersectional play was introduced.
Because the West played 16 games by this time while the East still only played 14, this arrangement oddly allowed both the four-team Eastern Conference and the five-team Western Conference to play three games per intraconference opponent and one game per interconference opponent. It wasn't until 1974. In 1981, the two conferences agreed to a full merger, becoming the East and West Divisions of the CFL. With the merger came a balanced and interlocking schedule of 16 games per season. Since 1986, the CFL's regular season schedule has been 18 games; the separate histories of the IRFU and the WIFU accounted for the fact that two teams had the same name: the IRFU's Ottawa Rough Riders were called the "Eastern Riders", while the WIFU's Saskatchewan Roughriders were called the "Western Riders" or "Green Riders". Other team names had traditional origins. With rowing a national craze in the late 19th century, the Argonaut Rowing Club of Toronto formed a rugby team for its members' off-season participation.
The football team name Toronto Argonauts still remains though it and the rowing club have long since gone their separate ways. After World War II, the two teams in Hamilton—the Tigers and the Flying Wildcats—merged both their organizations into the Hamilton Tiger-Cats; the league remained stable with nine franchises—the BC Lions, Calgary Stampeders, Edmonton Eskimos, Saskatchewan Roughriders, Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Toronto Argonauts, Ottawa Rough Riders and Montreal Alouettes—from its 1958 inception until 1981. After the 1981 season, the Alouettes folded and were replaced the next year by a new franchise named the Concordes. In 1986 the Concordes were renamed the Alouettes to attract more fan support, but the team folded the next year; the loss of the Montreal franchise forced the league to move its easternmost Western team, into the East Division from 1987 to 1994, again from 1997 to 2001 and 2006 to 2013 when Montreal resumed operations, but Ottawa was unable to field a team.
In 1993, the league admitted the Sacramento Gold Miners. After modest success, the league expanded further in the U. S. in 1994 with the Las Vegas Posse, Baltimore Stallions, Shreveport Pirates. For the 1995 campaign, the American
Wellesley is a town in Norfolk County, United States. Wellesley is part of Greater Boston; the population was 27,982 at the time of the 2010 census. In 2008, Wellesley had family incomes in all of Massachusetts. In 2018, data from the American Community Survey revealed that Wellesley was the 7th wealthiest city in the United States, it is best known as the home of Wellesley College, Babson College, a campus of Massachusetts Bay Community College. Wellesley was settled in the 1630s as part of Massachusetts, it was subsequently a part of Needham, Massachusetts called Massachusetts. On October 23, 1880, West Needham residents voted to secede from Needham, the town of Wellesley was christened by the Massachusetts legislature on April 6, 1881; the town was named after the estate of local benefactor Horatio Hollis Hunnewell. Wellesley's population grew by over 80 percent during the 1920s; the town designated Cottage Street and its nearby alleys as the historic district in its zoning plan. Most houses in this district were built around the 1860s and qualify as protected buildings certified by the town's historic commission.
Wellesley is located in eastern Massachusetts. It is bordered on the east by Newton, on the north by Weston, on the south by Needham and Dover and on the west by Natick. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 10.49 square miles, of which 10.18 square miles is land and 0.32 square miles is water. The town's historic 19th century inn was demolished to make way for condominiums and mixed-use development in 2006; the Wellesley Country Club clubhouse, the building where the town was founded, was demolished in 2008, a new clubhouse was built. The town's pre-World War II high school building was torn down & replaced, with a brand new high school finished in 2012; the entire 1960s-style Linden Street strip-mall has been replaced by "Linden Square" – a shopping district that includes a flagship Roche Bros. supermarket, cafes, clothing stores, along with a mixture of national chains and local shops. The Census Bureau has defined the town as a census-designated place with an area equivalent to the town.
As of the census of 2000, there were 26,613 people, 8,594 households, 6,540 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,614.1 people per square mile. There were 8,861 housing units at an average density of 870.4 per square mile. According to a 2007 Census Bureau estimate, the racial makeup of the town was 84.6% White, 10.0% Asian, 2.2% Black, 0.01% Native American, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 8,594 households out of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.2% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.9% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.14. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 13.9% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.1 males. The median income for a household was $159,167, the median income for a family was $186,518; the per capita income in the town was $72,046. About 2.4% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.0% of those under age 18 and 2.1% of those age 65 or over. According to Boston Magazine's yearly "Best Places To Live", Wellesley ranks first in the United States in percentage of adults who hold at least one college degree. Over 66% of the households have at least one individual holding an advanced degree beyond a bachelor's degree. In 2009, Wellesley ranked #2 in "America's Most Educated Small Towns" according to Forbes.com. Wellesley was ranked number 31 on the Bloomberg list of America's 100 Richest Places with an average household income of $264,145 in 2016; the town government has been run by town meeting since the town's founding.
Since Proposition 2½ limited property tax increases to 2.5% per year in 1980, the town has had to ask residents for a number of overrides to maintain funding for certain programs. Although the main 2005 override passed, a simultaneous supplemental override to preserve certain specific programs and services failed by 17 votes; the 2006 override passed with a large majority. Wellesley receives funding from the state government. Local roads have been repaved several times in the 2000s. Wellesley opened its new Free Library building in 2003, part of the Minuteman Library Network. Due to the structure of budget override votes and the size of the new main branch of the library, the two branch libraries—one in Wellesley Hills, purpose-built to be a branch library in the 1920s, another in Wellesley Fells—closed in the summer of 2006; the branch libraries reopened in September 2008. On December 18, 2014, Wellesley College and the Town of Wellesley announced that the College's Board of Trustees had chosen the Town's $35M bid for the purchase of 46 acres of land adjacent to its campus.
Under this agreement, at least 50% of the North 40 property will be preserved in perpetuity as open space. A special town meeting in January 2015 resulted in a near-unanimous vote in favor of the purchase, in March 2015, 80 percent of residents that cast votes at the Town election, voted to approve the purchase. Wellesley is serviced by the Wel
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based