Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl "Fatha" Hines, was an American jazz pianist and bandleader. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of jazz piano and, according to one major source, is "one of a small number of pianists whose playing shaped the history of jazz"; the trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie wrote, "The piano is the basis of modern harmony. This little guy came out of Earl Hines, he changed the style of the piano. You can find the roots of Herbie Hancock, all the guys who came after that. If it hadn't been for Earl Hines blazing the path for the next generation to come, it's no telling where or how they would be playing now. There were individual variations but the style of... the modern piano came from Earl Hines."The pianist Lennie Tristano said, "Earl Hines is the only one of us capable of creating real jazz and real swing when playing all alone." Horace Silver said, "He has a unique style. No one can get that sound, no other pianist". Erroll Garner said, "When you talk about greatness, you talk about Art Tatum and Earl Hines".
Count Basie said that Hines was "the greatest piano player in the world". Earl Hines was born in Duquesne, Pennsylvania, 12 miles from the center of Pittsburgh, in 1903, his father, Joseph Hines, played cornet and was the leader of the Eureka Brass Band in Pittsburgh, his stepmother was a church organist. Hines intended to follow his father on cornet, but "blowing" hurt him behind the ears, whereas the piano did not; the young Hines took lessons in playing classical piano. By the age of eleven he was playing the organ in his Baptist church, he had a "good ear and a good memory" and could replay songs after hearing them in theaters and park concerts: "I'd be playing songs from these shows months before the song copies came out. That astonished a lot of people and they'd ask where I heard these numbers and I'd tell them at the theatre where my parents had taken me." Hines said that he was playing piano around Pittsburgh "before the word'jazz' was invented". With his father's approval, Hines left home at the age of 17 to take a job playing piano with Lois Deppe and His Symphonian Serenaders in the Liederhaus, a Pittsburgh nightclub.
He got his board, two meals a day, $15 a week. Deppe, a well-known baritone concert artist who sang both classical and popular songs used the young Hines as his concert accompanist and took him on his concert trips to New York. In 1921 Hines and Deppe became the first African Americans to perform on radio. Hines's first recordings were accompanying Deppe – four sides recorded for Gennett Records in 1923, still in the early days of sound recording. Only two of these were issued, one of, a Hines composition, "Congaine", "a keen snappy foxtrot", which featured a solo by Hines, he entered the studio again with Deppe a month to record spirituals and popular songs, including "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child" and "For the Last Time Call Me Sweetheart". In 1925, after much family debate, Hines moved to Chicago, Illinois the world's jazz capital, the home of Jelly Roll Morton and King Oliver. Hines started in Elite No. 2 Club but soon joined Carroll Dickerson's band, with whom he toured on the Pantages Theatre Circuit to Los Angeles and back.
Hines met Louis Armstrong in the poolroom of the Black Musicians' Union, local 208, on State and 39th in Chicago. Hines was 21, Armstrong 24, they played the union's piano together. Armstrong was astounded by Hines's avant-garde "trumpet-style" piano playing using dazzlingly fast octaves so that on none-too-perfect upright pianos "they could hear me out front". Richard Cook wrote in Jazz Encyclopedia that most dramatic departure from what other pianists were playing was his approach to the underlying pulse: he would charge against the metre of the piece being played, accent off-beats, introduce sudden stops and brief silences. In other hands this might sound clumsy or all over the place but Hines could keep his bearings with uncanny resilience. Armstrong and Hines shared a car. Armstrong joined Hines in Carroll Dickerson's band at the Sunset Cafe. In 1927, this became Armstrong's band under the musical direction of Hines; that year, Armstrong revamped his Okeh Records recording-only band, Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five, hired Hines as the pianist, replacing his wife, Lil Hardin Armstrong, on the instrument.
Armstrong and Hines recorded what are regarded as some of the most important jazz records made.... with Earl Hines arriving on piano, Armstrong was approaching the stature of a concerto soloist, a role he would play more or less throughout the next decade, which makes these final small-group sessions something like a reluctant farewell to jazz's first golden age. Since Hines is magnificent on these discs the results seem like eavesdropping on great men speaking quietly among themselves. There is nothing in jazz finer or more moving than the playing on "West End Blues", "Tight Like This", "Beau Koo Jack" and "Muggles"; the Sunset Cafe closed in 1927. Hines and the drummer Zutty Singleton agreed that they would become the "Unholy Three" – they would "stick together and not play for anyone unless the three of us were hired", but as Louis Armstrong and His Stompers, they ran into difficulties trying to establish their own venue, the Warwick Hall Club. Hines went to New York and returned to find that Armstrong and Singleton had rejoined the rival Dickerson band at the new Savoy Ballro
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Mills Blue Rhythm Band
The Mills Blue Rhythm Band was an American big band of the 1930s. The band was formed in Harlem with reedman Bingie Madison the first of its many leaders, it started life as the Coconut Grove Orchestra, changing to Mills Blue Rhythm Band when Irving Mills became its manager in 1931. At various times the group was known as the "Blue Rhythm Band", "Blue Ribbon Band", "Blue Rhythm Boys", "The Blue Racketeers", "Earl Jackson's Musical Champions", "Earl Jackson and his Orchestra", "Duke Wilson and his Ten Blackberries", "King Carter's Royal Orchestra", "Mills Music Masters", "Harlem Hot Shots" and uncredited playing behind Louis Armstrong; the Mills Blue Rhythm Band were based at The Cotton Club in Manhattan. They worked through the 1930s deputizing for the Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway Orchestras. Violinist Carroll Dickerson fronted the band, followed by Drummer Willie Lynch in 1931 and compere Jimmy Ferguson. Edgar Hayes, Eddie Mallory and Dave Nelson all had temporary stints as band leader until Lucky Millinder permanently took over the role in 1934.
The band recorded 150 sides for a variety of labels including Brunswick, Victor, the ARC stable of labels and Vocalion. Despite success with a few hit records and a strong lineup of talented soloists, the group never attained the prominence of their peers; this is attributed to the lack of a single identifiable leader, Irving Mills' preference to have the band perform an understudy role. The group disbanded in 1938. Millinder joined Bill Doggett's band before reforming it into his own orchestra in 1940Irving Mills revived the Mills Blue Rhythm Band name for two recording sessions in 1947 under the guidance of Van Alexander; the only original band member at either of the 1947 sessions was trumpeter Charlie Shavers. Red Allen – trumpet Hayes Alvis – double bass Ed Anderson – trumpet Harold Arnold – tenor saxophone Buster Bailey – clarinet Billy Banks Danny Barker – guitar Alfred Cobbs – trombone Carroll Dickerson – violin Harry "Sweets" Edison – trumpet Joe Garland – tenor saxophone, arrangements Edgar Hayes – piano Shelton Hemphill – trumpet J. C.
Higginbotham – trombone Alex Hill – piano Charlie Holmes – alto saxophone Benny James – guitar Elmer James – bass Wardell Jones – trumpet Billy Kyle – piano Baron Lee Lawrence Lucie – guitar Willie Lynch – drums Bingie Madison – clarinet, tenor saxophone Eddie Mallory – trumpet Castor McCord – saxophone Ted McCord – saxophone Gene Mikell – clarinet, alto saxophone Lucky Millinder – bandleader Frankie Newton – trumpet Lester Nichols – drums Wilbur de Paris – trombone Charlie Shavers – trumpet Tab Smith – alto saxophone O'Neill Spencer – drums Bob Stephens Carl Warwick – trumpet George Washington – trombone Crawford Wethington – clarinet – alto saxophone – baritone saxophone Harry White – trombone Ben Williams – tenor saxophone Eddie Williams – tenor saxophone John Williams – double bass
Horace W. Henderson, the younger brother of Fletcher Henderson, was an American jazz pianist, organist and bandleader. Henderson was born in Georgia. While attending Wilberforce University he formed a band called the Collegians, which included Benny Carter and Rex Stewart; this band was known as the Horace Henderson Orchestra and as the Dixie Stompers. Henderson left it to work with Sammy Stewart in 1928 organized a new band called the Collegians. Don Redman took over this band in 1931. Fletcher Henderson's book contained about as many of Horace's arrangements as of Fletcher's. Although Horace worked continually, led bands, arranged and composed into the 1980s, although he is considered by many the more talented and skillful of the Henderson brothers, Fletcher remained more popular and accomplished more in the field. Horace Henderson arranged for many other jazz musicians of the era. Among his other clients for arrangements were Charlie Barnet, the Casa Loma Orchestra, Tommy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, Earl Hines, Jimmie Lunceford.
His best-known arrangements were of his own "Hot and Anxious" and "Christopher Columbus", of which he was one of the writers. He wrote another popular instrumental of the big band era titled "Big John's Special"; these were three important compositions of the period. At different times in his career, Horace was pianist and musical director for both Lena Horne and Billie Holiday. Horace Henderson at Find a Grave
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website