1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games
The 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Cardiff, from 18–26 July 1958. Thirty-five nations sent a total of 1,130 athletes and 228 officials to the Cardiff Games and 23 countries and dependencies won medals, for the first time, Ghana and the Isle of Man; the Cardiff Games introduced the Queen's Baton Relay, conducted as a prelude to every British Empire and Commonwealth Games since. The British Empire and Commonwealth Games, including the opening and closing ceremonies, were held at the Cardiff Arms Park in the centre Cardiff. A new Wales Empire Pool was constructed for the event; the Sophia Gardens Pavilion was used for the boxing and wrestling events, Maindy Stadium was used for cycling. 178,000 tickets were sold during the Games. Rowing took place on Llyn Padarn in Llanberis. 36 countries and territories were represented, being the largest number to date, with a significant number of teams competing for the first time at the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games. At Cardiff Arms Park, an anti-apartheid crowd protested at the all-white South African team.
South Africa left the Commonwealth in 1961 and next appeared at the Games in 1994.. * Host nation Boxing Events were at Sophia Gardens Pavilion, Cardiff. The track cycling events were held at the Maindy Stadium in Cardiff; the rowing events were held on Llyn Padarn in Llanberis. Swimming events were held at the Wales Empire Pool in Cardiff. Diving events were held at the Wales Empire Pool in Cardiff. Commonwealth Games Official Site Pathe news: Commonwealth Games Cardiff 1958 reel 1 Pathe news: Commonwealth Games Cardiff 1958 reel 2
Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running as a way of reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis. In athletics and track and field, sprints are races over short distances, they are among the oldest running competitions, being recorded at the Ancient Olympic Games. Three sprints are held at the modern Summer Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres. At the professional level, sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before leaning forward and moving into an upright position as the race progresses and momentum is gained; the set position differs depending on the start. Body alignment is of key importance in producing the optimal amount of force.
Ideally the athlete should begin in a 4-point stance and push off using both legs for maximum force production. Athletes remain in the same lane on the running track throughout all sprinting events, with the sole exception of the 400 m indoors. Races up to 100 m are focused upon acceleration to an athlete's maximum speed. All sprints beyond this distance incorporate an element of endurance; the first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event—the stadion race, a spriting race from one end of the stadium to the other. The Diaulos was a double-stadion race, c. 400 metres, introduced in the 14th Olympiad of the ancient Olympic Games. The modern sprinting events have their roots in races of imperial measurements which were altered to metric: the 100 m evolved from the 100-yard dash, the 200 m distance came from the furlong, the 400 m was the successor to the 440-yard dash or quarter-mile race. Biological factors that determine a sprinter's potential include: The 60 metres is run indoors, on a straight section of an indoor athletic track.
Since races at this distance can last around six or seven seconds, having good reflexes and thus getting off to a quick start is more vital in this race than any other. This is the distance required for a human to reach maximum speed and can be run with one breath, it is popular for testing in other sports. The world record in this event is held by American sprinter Christian Coleman with a time of 6.34 seconds. 60-metres is used as an outdoor distance by younger athletes. Note: Indoor distances are less standardized as many facilities run shorter or longer distances depending on available space. 60m is the championship distance. The 100 metres sprint takes place on one length of the home straight of a standard outdoor 400 m track; the world-record holder in this race is considered "the world's fastest man/woman." The current world record of 9.58 seconds is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica and was set on 16 August 2009, at the 2009 World Athletics Championships. The women's world record was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner.
World class male sprinters need 41 to 50 strides to cover the whole 100 metres distances. The 200 metres begins on the curve of a standard track, ends on the home straight; the ability to "run a good bend" is key at the distance, as a well conditioned runner will be able to run 200 m in an average speed higher than their 100 m speed. Usain Bolt, ran 200 m in the world-record time of 19.19 sec, an average speed of 10.422 m/s, whereas he ran 100 m in the world-record time of 9.58 sec, an average speed of 10.438 m/s. Indoors, the race is run as one lap of the track, with only slower times than outdoors. A shorter race, the stadion, was the first recorded event at the ancient Olympic Games and the oldest known formal sports event in history; the world record in this event is 19.19 seconds, held by Usain Bolt and was set on 20 August 2009, at the 2009 World Athletics Championships. The 400 metres is one lap around the track on the inside lane. Runners are staggered in their starting positions to ensure.
While this event is classified as a sprint, there is more scope to use tactics in the race. The world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk with a time of 43.03 seconds in Rio Olympic 2016 in 400m final The 4×100 metres relay is another prestigious event, with an average speed, quicker than the 100 m, as the runners can start moving before they receive the baton. The world record in this event is 36.84 seconds, held by the Jamaican team as set 11 August 2012 at the Games of the XXX Olympiad held in London. The 4x400 metres relay is held at track and field meetings, is by tradition the final event at major championships; the event was a common event for most American students, because it was one of the standardized test events as part of the President's Award on Physical Fitness. The 50 metres is an uncommon alternative to the 60 metres. Donovan Bailey holds the men's world record with a time of 5.56 seconds and Irina Privalova holds the women's world record with a time of 5.96 seconds. A run sprinting event, once more commonplace.
The world record
1956 Summer Olympics
The 1956 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held in Melbourne, Australia, from 22 November to 8 December 1956, with the exception of the equestrian events, which were held in Stockholm, Sweden, in June 1956. These Games were the first to be staged in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania, as well as the first to be held outside Europe and North America. Melbourne is the most southerly city to host the Olympics. Due to the Southern Hemisphere's seasons being different from those in the Northern Hemisphere, the 1956 Games did not take place at the usual time of year, because of the need to hold the events during the warmer weather of the host's spring/summer; the Olympic equestrian events could not be held in Melbourne due to Australia's strict quarantine regulations, so they were held in Stockholm five months earlier. This was the second time that the Olympics were not held in one country, the first being the 1920 Summer Olympics, which were held in Antwerp, with some events taking place in Amsterdam and Ostend.
Despite uncertainties and various complications encountered during the preparations, the 1956 Games went ahead in Melbourne as planned and turned out to be a success. The enduring tradition of national teams parading as one during the closing ceremony was started at these Olympics. Several teams boycotted the Games in protest of the IOC’s rejection to suspend the USSR after their invasion of Hungary. Melbourne was selected as the host city over bids from Buenos Aires, Mexico City and six American cities on 28 April 1949, at the 43rd IOC Session in Rome, Italy. Many members of the IOC were sceptical about Melbourne as an appropriate site, its location in the Southern Hemisphere was a major concern, since the reversal of seasons would mean the Games must be held during the northern winter. The November–December schedule was thought to inconvenience athletes from the Northern Hemisphere, who were accustomed to resting during their winter. Notwithstanding these concerns, the field of candidates narrowed to two Southern Hemisphere cities, these being Melbourne and Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Melbourne was selected, in 1949. The first sign of trouble was the revelation that Australian equine quarantine would prevent the country from hosting the equestrian events. Stockholm was selected as the alternative site, so equestrian competition began on 10 June, five and a half months before the rest of the Olympic Games were to open; the above problems of the Melbourne Games were compounded by bickering over financing among Australian politicians. Faced with a housing shortage, the Premier of Victoria refused to allocate money for the Olympic Village, the country's Prime Minister barred the use of federal funds. At one point, IOC President Avery Brundage suggested that Rome, to host the 1960 Games, was so far ahead of Melbourne in preparations that it might be ready as a replacement site in 1956; as late as April 1955, Brundage was still doubtful about Melbourne, was not satisfied by an inspection trip to the city. Construction was well under way by thanks to a $4.5 million federal loan to Victoria, but it was behind schedule.
He still held out the possibility. By the beginning of 1956, though, it was obvious. Egypt and Lebanon announced that they would not participate in the Olympics in response to the Suez Crisis when Egypt was invaded by Israel, the United Kingdom, France after Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal. Meanwhile, in 1956 the Soviet Union crushed the Hungarian Revolution, the Soviet presence at the Games led to the withdrawal of the Netherlands, Cambodia and Switzerland. Less than two weeks before the 22 November opening ceremony, the People's Republic of China chose to boycott the event because the Republic of China had been allowed to compete. Although the number of countries participating was the same as in 1952, the number of athletes competing dropped from 4,925 to 3,342. Once underway, the Games progressed smoothly, came to be known as the "Friendly Games". Betty Cuthbert, an 18-year-old from Sydney, won the 100 and 200 metre sprint races and ran an exceptional final leg in the 4 x 100 metre relay to overcome Great Britain's lead and claim her third gold medal.
The veteran Shirley Strickland repeated her 1952 win in the 80 metre hurdles and was part of the winning 4 x 100 metre relay team, bringing her career Olympic medal total to seven: three golds, a silver, three bronze medals. Australia triumphed in swimming, they won all of the freestyle races, men's and women's, collected a total of eight gold, four silver and two bronze medals. Murray Rose became the first male swimmer to win two freestyle events since Johnny Weissmuller in 1924, while Dawn Fraser won gold medals in the 100 metre freestyle and as the leadoff swimmer in the 4 x 100 metre relay team; the men's track and field events were dominated by the United States. They not only won 15 of the 24 events, they swept four of them and took first and second place in five others. Bobby Morrow led the way with gold medals in the 100 and 200 metre sprints and the 4 x 100 metre relay. Tom Courtney overtook Great Britain's Derek Johnson in the 800 metre run collapsed from the exertion and needed medical attention.
Ireland's Ronnie Delany ran an outstanding 53.8 over the last 400 metres to win the 1,500 metre run, in