Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
Massachusetts's 9th congressional district
Massachusetts's 9th congressional district is located in eastern Massachusetts. It is represented by Democrat William R. Keating. Redistricting after the 2010 census eliminated Massachusetts's 10th congressional district and moved many of the district's communities here; the district added some Plymouth County communities from the old 4th district, some Bristol County communities from the old 3rd and 4th districts. It eliminated a few easternmost Norfolk County communities and northernmost Plymouth County communities. All of Barnstable County, Dukes County, Nantucket County; the following municipalities in Bristol County: Acushnet, Fairhaven, Fall River: Wards 1-3, Ward 6, Precincts A and B in Ward 4, Precincts A and B in Ward 5, New Bedford, Westport. The following municipalities in Plymouth County: Carver, Halifax, Hanson, Marion, Mattapoisett, Norwell, Plymouth, Rochester and Wareham. 1849: "The towns in the County of Plymouth, excepting Abington, Hull, North Bridgewater and Wareham. 1862: "The towns of Ashburnham, Barre, Brookfield, Clinton, Dudley, Gardner, Holden, Lancaster, Leominster, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Oxford, Princeton, Shrewsbury, Spencer, Sturbridge, Templeton, West Boylston and Winchendon, the city of Worcester, in the county of Worcester."
1893: Boston, Wards 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19. 1916: In Middlesex County: Everett, Somerville. In Suffolk County: Chelsea, Winthrop. 1953: "Counties: Barnstable and Nantucket. Bristol County: City of Fall River, ward 6, city of New Bedford. Norfolk County: Town of Cohasset. Plymouth County: Towns of Abington, Carver, East Bridgewater, Hanover, Hingham, Kingston, Marion, Mattapoisett, Norwell, Plymouth, Rochester, Scituate, West Bridgewater, Whitman." 1963: Boston. 1977: "Norfolk County: Towns of Canton, Dover, Norwood and Westwood. Suffolk County: City of Boston: Wards 3, 4, 6—14, 19, 20." 1985: "Bristol County: City of Taunton. Towns of Dighton and Raynham. Norfolk County: Towns of Canton, Needham, Norwood and Westwood. Plymouth County: Towns of Bridgewater, Halifax and Middleborough. Suffolk County: City of Boston: Wards 3, 6-14, 19, 20." In Bristol County: Easton. In Norfolk County: Avon, Canton, Holbrook, Milton, Norwood, Stoughton, Westwood. In Plymouth County: Bridgewater, East Bridgewater, Precincts 1 and 3, West Bridgewater, Whitman.
In Suffolk County: Boston, Ward 3, Precincts 5 and 6. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Map of Massachusetts's 9th Congressional District, via Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth CNN.com 2004 election results CNN.com 2006 election results
Bridgewater State University
Bridgewater State University is a public university in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. It is the largest college in the Massachusetts state university system outside the University of Massachusetts system; the university consists of the main campus in Bridgewater, two satellite campuses. The school's sports teams are the Bears and the school colors are crimson red and white. Bridgewater State University was founded by Horace Mann as a normal school styled Bridgewater Normal School, it opened on September 9, 1840, making it the oldest permanently located institution of public higher education in Massachusetts. As one of the first normal schools in the nation, its initial mission was to train school teachers. Today Bridgewater, regarded as the "home of teacher education in America", has the largest enrollment of teacher education students in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Since the 1960s, the school has expanded its program to include liberal arts and aviation science, it became a university and took on its present name in 2010.
During its history, it has been known as Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater Teachers College, Bridgewater State Teachers College, State Teachers College at Bridgewater. The normal school opened in the basement of the Old Bridgewater Town Hall, in a 40-foot by 50-foot space, divided into three rooms: an ante-room for students, an apparatus room, a classroom; the first class consisted of seven men. Nicholas Tillinghast, the first principal was the only instructor; the school year consisted of two 14-week terms. Students were not required to attend consecutively. In 1845, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts agreed to construct a building for Bridgewater State Normal School, the first building erected in America for the preparation of teachers; this two-story wooden building, 64 feet by 42 feet, accommodating 84 students, was to be the institution's educational plant for half a century. There were large classrooms, with blackboards in each. Since changes were made to the school, the board of education required people to attend three terms for fourteen consecutive weeks, establishing a year's course.
The building was dedicated on August 19, 1846, with Horace Mann saying on the occasion: "Among all the lights and shadows that crossed my path, this day’s radiance is the brightest... I consider this event as marking an era in the progress of education—which as we all know is the progress of civilization-on this western continent, throughout the world, it is the completion of the first normal schoolhouse erected in Massachusetts,—in the Union,—in this hemisphere. It belongs to that class of events which are not capable of being repeated. Coiled up in this institution, as in a spring, there is a vigor whose uncoiling may wheel the spheres." This first normal school established a professional standard for the preparation of teachers, breaking away from traditional academics for attendance. It was the next step toward establishing educational institutions for specific purposes. Bridgewater Normal School trained its students in elementary-school subjects. An early-morning fire on Wednesday December 10, 1924, destroyed three of the college's buildings, over half of the campus: Tillinghast Hall, the Training School, old Woodward dormitories.
The Normal School and the boiler room were saved. The fire was so large; the cause of the fire was not established, but it is believed to have been either "rats or mice" gnawing in the heating ducts, or a spontaneous combustion. There were no injuries; the Normal School and boiler room were repaired immediately. Tillinghast Hall was rebuilt and a new Woodward dorm built; the training school was housed in a different building temporarily and a new building was built for it exemplifying a well equipped elementary school, with a gym and playground. The total State appropriation for the Normal School repairs and rebuilding of the training school was $606,566, in addition to $86,500 from the town. In the 1950s, many veterans of the Korean War enrolled and proms were the highlight of the year for them. In 1957 the John J. Kelly Gym was built and in 1959 SAT scores were required to be submitted for the first time. During the 1960s the liberal arts curriculum was introduced; the Ivy Exercises, in which the junior class would form an archway with ivy leaves leading up to the school on graduation day, were dying out.
In 1960 Pope Hall was built as an all women's dorm. Scott Hall was built in 1961 as an all men's dorm; the Marshall Conant Science Building was built in 1964 and was named after the school's second principal. In 1967 Shea and Durgin Halls were built as co-ed dorms. In 1971 The Clement C. Maxwell Library was completed. In 1976 the tennis courts opened and students could enjoy movies on Sundays and Tuesdays for 25 to 75 cents. From 1970 to 1990 the college expanded and enrollment quadrupled; the number of faculty tripled. During this time, Education became the most popular major, remains so today. In 1992 the college established the School of Education and Allied Studies and the School of Arts and Sciences. In 1995 the Moakley Center opened. From 1999 to 2002 the college had an endowment campaign to raise 10 million dollars to support academics. In 2010 Bridgewater State was one of the Massachusetts state colleges that chose to become a university; this would boos
1968 Democratic National Convention
The 1968 Democratic National Convention was held August 26–29 at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois. As President Lyndon B. Johnson had announced he would not seek reelection, the purpose of the convention was to select a new presidential nominee to run as the Democratic Party's candidate for the office; the keynote speaker was Senator Daniel Inouye. Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey and Senator Edmund S. Muskie Maine were nominated for President and Vice President, respectively; the convention was held during a year of violence, political turbulence, civil unrest riots in more than 100 cities following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4. The convention followed the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy on June 5. Both Kennedy and Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota had been running for the Democratic nomination at the time; the Democratic Party, which controlled the House of Representatives, the Senate, the White House, was divided in 1968. Senator Eugene McCarthy entered the campaign in November 1967, challenging incumbent President Johnson for the Democratic nomination.
Robert F. Kennedy entered the race in March 1968. Johnson, facing dissent within his party, having only won the New Hampshire primary, dropped out of the race on March 31. Vice President Hubert Humphrey entered into the race, but did not compete in any primaries. After Kennedy's assassination on June 5, the Democratic Party's divisions grew. At the moment of Kennedy's death the delegate count stood at Humphrey 561.5, Kennedy 393.5, McCarthy 258. Kennedy's murder left. Support within the party was divided between Senator McCarthy, who ran a decidedly anti-war campaign and was seen as the peace candidate, Vice President Humphrey, seen as the candidate representing the Johnson point of view, Senator George McGovern, who appealed to some of the Kennedy supporters. Before the start of the convention on August 26, several states had competing slates of delegates attempting to be seated at the convention; some of these delegate credential fights went to the floor of the convention on August 26, where votes were held to determine which slates of delegates representing Texas, Alabama and North Carolina would be seated at the convention.
The more racially integrated challenging slate from Texas was defeated. In the end, the Democratic Party nominated Humphrey. Though 80 percent of the primary voters had been for anti-war candidates, the delegates had defeated the peace plank by 1,567¾ to 1,041¼; the loss was perceived to be the result of President Johnson and Chicago Mayor Richard Daley influencing behind the scenes. Humphrey, who had not entered any of 13 state primary elections, won the Democratic nomination, went on to lose the election to the Republican Richard Nixon. Source: Keating Holland, "All the Votes... Really," CNN CBS News correspondent Dan Rather was grabbed by security guards and roughed up while trying to interview a Georgia delegate being escorted out of the building. CBS News anchorman Walter Cronkite turned his attention towards the area where Rather was reporting from the convention floor. Rather was grabbed by security guards after he walked towards a delegate, being hauled out, asked him "what is your name, sir?"
Rather was wearing a microphone headset and was heard on national television saying to the guards "don't push me" and "take your hands off me unless you plan to arrest me". After the guards let go of Rather, he told Cronkite:"Walter... we tried to talk to the man and we got violently pushed out of the way. This is the kind of thing, going on outside the hall, this is the first time we've had it happen inside the hall. We... I'm sorry to be out of breath. What happened is a Georgia delegate, at least he had a Georgia delegate sign on, was being hauled out of the hall. We tried to talk to him to see why, who he was, what the situation was, at that instant the security people, well as you can see, put me on the deck. I didn't do well." An angry Cronkite tersely replied, "I think we've got a bunch of thugs here, Dan." Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley intended to showcase his and the city's achievements to national Democrats and the news media. Instead, the proceedings became notorious for the large number of demonstrators and the use of force by the Chicago police during what was supposed to be, in the words of the Yippie activist organizers, "A Festival of Life."
Rioting took place by the Chicago Police Department and the Illinois National Guard against the demonstrators. The disturbances were well publicized by the mass media, with some journalists and reporters being caught up in the violence. Network newsmen Mike Wallace, Dan Rather, Edwin Newman were assaulted by the Chicago police while inside the halls of the Democratic Convention; the Democratic Presidential Nominating Convention had been held in Chicago 12 years earlier. Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley had played an integral role in the election of John F. Kennedy in 1960. In 1968, however, it did not seem that Daley had maintained the clout which would allow him to bring out the voters again to produce a Democratic victory as he had in 1960. On October 7, 1967, Daley and Johnson had a private meeting at a fund raiser for President Johnson's re-election campaign, with an entry fee of one thousand dollars per plate. During the meeting, Daley explained to the president that there had been a disappointing showing of Democrats in the 1966 congressional races, the president might
Suffolk University Law School
Suffolk University Law School. Suffolk University Law School is a private, non-sectarian law school located in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. Suffolk University Law School was founded in 1906 by Gleason Archer, Sr. to provide a legal education for those who traditionally lacked the opportunity to study law because of socio-economic or racial discrimination. Suffolk is the fourth-oldest New England law school in continuous existence; the law school has both day and evening, part-time divisions. Suffolk University Law School has been accredited by the American Bar Association since 1953 and the Association of American Law Schools since 1977; the school is located in Sargent Hall on Tremont Street in downtown Boston. Suffolk offers over 200 upper-level electives, the most of any law school in the country, is ranked one of the most technologically advanced schools in the nation. Suffolk publishes six law reviews, to which students and other scholars contribute. Suffolk University Law School alumni are found in high-level judicial and private positions throughout the United States.
With over 25,000 alumni, Suffolk is the fourth largest law school in the United States. According to Suffolk Law's 2017 ABA-required disclosures, 148 members of the Class of 2017 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. One of New England's oldest law schools, Suffolk was founded in 1906 by lawyer Gleason Leonard Archer as the "Suffolk School of Law." The school was named after its location in Massachusetts. Archer's goal was to provide the working class with the opportunity to study law. In 1907, Archer moved the school from Massachusetts to downtown Boston. Suffolk Law School's first student passed the bar in 1908. By 1930, Archer developed Suffolk into one of the largest law schools in the country, the law school received full accreditation from the American Bar Association. An all-male school, with the New England School of Law serving as a sister school, Suffolk became co-educational in 1937. In 1999, Suffolk Law School opened its new building at 120 Tremont Street, near the Boston Common.
Suffolk Law School has a 3-year day program and a 4-year evening program offering a broad selection of courses. The law school maintains a traditional first-year Juris Doctor curriculum which includes the year-long courses of Civil Procedure, Property and Legal Writing, in addition to the semester-long Constitutional Law and Criminal Law courses. A course in Professional Responsibility is required, each student must fulfill legal writing and legal skills requirements prior to graduation; until 2008 Fiduciary Relations, a class concentrating on the law of Agency and Trusts, was required. Upon completion of the required curriculum, students at Suffolk choose from over 200 upper-level courses, many of which focus on learning practical skills, including several legal clinics. Students may receive credit for diverse internships and clerkships, including those at various courts in the Boston area. Academic concentrations are available in Civil Litigation, Financial Services, Health/Biomedical, Intellectual Property.
In addition to the JD, Suffolk offers an advanced LLM in Global Technology. Suffolk University Law School offers joint degrees with Suffolk's Sawyer Business School, the Suffolk College of Arts and Sciences; the average faculty to student ratio at Suffolk is 16.5 students per faculty member. Tuition for the 2013–2014 academic year is $44,934 for the day division and $33,700 for the evening division. Suffolk Law School students come from 50 states, 30 countries and more than 375 colleges and universities. Suffolk averages over 3,500 applications for its entering class of 340 full-time students. For the class of 2013, the median GPA for incoming Suffolk Law students was 3.3, the median LSAT score was 157. The admission rate for the class of 2013 was 47%; the 25th – 75th percentile GPA was 3.0 – 3.5 and the 25th – 75th percentile LSAT was 155 – 159. Entering students from the class of 2013 came from 34 different states and graduated from 247 different undergraduate colleges and universities. 14 countries are represented in the class of 2013.
Employment Outcomes: According to the law professor blog, The Faculty Lounge, based on 2012 ABA data, only 39.8% of graduates obtained full-time, long term positions requiring bar admission, 9 months after graduation, ranking 174th out of 197 law schools. Suffolk University Law School places graduates in all 10 geographic regions according to the Association for Legal Career Professionals. Suffolk places a majority in its home region, New England, with 71% of its graduates finding employment in region, 87% of those staying in the New England region obtain employment in the state of Massachusetts; the most popular states for Suffolk University Law School graduates to find employment are in Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, the District of Columbia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, California and Maine. The table to the right represents regional placement, with percentages, for the most recent Suffolk University Law School graduates. Suffolk University Law School has alumni that practice in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and twenty-two foreign nations.
The ABA collects data on placement and puts them into seven major categories. They are law firms, business & industry, judicial clerkships, military and public interest. Suffolk University Law School places a majority of its students into law firms, with eleven percent of the entire class working in Big Law, or alternatively twenty-one percent of th
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo