The vibraphone is a musical instrument in the struck idiophone subfamily of the percussion family. The vibraphone resembles the xylophone and glockenspiel, each bar is paired with a resonator tube that has a motor-driven butterfly valve at its upper end. The valves are mounted on a shaft, which produces a tremolo or vibrato effect while spinning. The vibraphone has a sustain pedal similar to that on a piano, with the pedal up, the bars are all damped and produce a shortened sound. With the pedal down, they sound for several seconds, the vibraphone is commonly used in jazz music, in which it often plays a featured role and was a defining element of the sound of mid-20th-century Tiki lounge exotica, as popularized by Arthur Lyman. It is the second most popular solo keyboard percussion instrument in music, after the marimba. It is an instrument in the modern percussion section for orchestras. The first musical instrument called vibraphone was marketed by the Leedy Manufacturing Company in the United States in 1921, this instrument differed in significant details from the instrument now called the vibraphone.
The Leedy vibraphone achieved a degree of popularity after it was used in the novelty recordings of Aloha Oe and this popularity led J. C. Deagan, Inc. in 1927 to ask its Chief Tuner, Henry Schluter, to develop a similar instrument. Schluters design was more popular than the Leedy design, and has become the template for all instruments now called vibraphone, when Deagan began marketing Schluters instrument in 1928, they called it the vibraharp. The name derived from similar aluminum bars that were mounted vertically, since Deagan trademarked the name, others were obliged to use the earlier vibraphone for their instruments incorporating the newer design. The name confusion continues, even to the present, but over time vibraphone became significantly more popular than vibraharp, by 1974, the Directory of the D. C. Federation of Musicians listed 39 vibraphone players and 3 vibraharp players, the initial purpose of the vibraphone was to add to the large arsenal of percussion sounds used by vaudeville orchestras for novelty effects.
This use was quickly overwhelmed in the 1930s by its development as a jazz instrument, the use of the vibraphone in jazz was pioneered by Paul Barbarin, the drummer with Luis Russells band. Bergerault, of Ligueil, France began manufacturing vibraphones in the 1930s, Deagan struck endorsement deals with many of the leading players, including Lionel Hampton and Milt Jackson. The Deagan company went out of business in the 1980s, its trademark, Yamaha continues to make percussion instruments based on Deagan designs. In 1948, the Musser Mallet Company was founded by Clair Omar Musser, the Musser company continues to manufacture vibraphones as part of the Ludwig Drum Company. The standard modern instrument has a range of three octaves, from the F below middle C, larger three-and-a-half or four octave models from the C below middle C are becoming more common
Oscar Pettiford was an American jazz double bassist and composer. He was one of the earliest musicians to work in the bebop idiom, Pettiford was born at Okmulgee, Oklahoma. His mother was Choctaw, and his father was half Cherokee and he grew up playing in the family band in which he sang and danced before switching to piano at the age of 12, to double bass when he was 14. He is quoted as saying he did not like the way people were playing the bass so he developed his own way of playing it. Despite being admired by the likes of Milt Hinton at the age of 14, five months later, he once again met Hinton, who persuaded him to return to music. In 1942 he joined the Charlie Barnet band and in 1943 gained wider attention after recording with Coleman Hawkins on his The Man I Love. Pettiford recorded with Earl Hines and Ben Webster around this time, after he moved to New York, he was one of the musicians who in the early 1940s jammed at Mintons Playhouse, where the music style developed that was called bebop.
He and Dizzy Gillespie led a bop group in 1943, in 1945 Pettiford went with Hawkins to California, where he appeared in The Crimson Canary, a mystery movie known for its jazz soundtrack, which featured Josh White. He worked with Duke Ellington from 1945 to 1948 and for Woody Herman in 1949 before working mainly as a leader in the 1950s, as a leader he inadvertently discovered Cannonball Adderley. After one of his musicians had tricked him into letting Adderley, Pettiford is considered the pioneer of the cello as a solo instrument in jazz music. He first played the cello as a joke on his band leader when he walked off stage during his solo spot and came back, unexpectedly with a cello. In 1949, after suffering an arm, Pettiford found it impossible to play his bass. Tuning it in fourths, like a bass, but one octave higher, Pettiford found it possible to perform during his rehabilitation. The cello thus became his instrument, and he continued to perform. He recorded extensively during the 1950s for the Debut, during the mid-1950s he played on the first three albums Thelonious Monks recorded for the Riverside label.
In 1958 he moved to Copenhagen and started recording for European companies, after his move to Europe he often performed with European musicians, like Atilla Zoller, and with other Americans who had settled in Europe, like Bud Powell and Kenny Clarke. He died in 1960 in Copenhagen, from a closely related to polio. Along with his contemporary, Charles Mingus, Pettiford stands out as one of the most-recorded bass-playing bandleader/composers in jazz, tal Farlow, Jazz Masters 41, Finest Hour Leonard Feather, 1937–1945 Dizzy Gillespie,1945 Urbie Green, East Coast Series Vol
Sir George Shearing, OBE was a British jazz pianist who for many years led a popular jazz group that recorded for Discovery Records, MGM Records and Capitol Records. The composer of over 300 titles, including the jazz standard Lullaby of Birdland, had multiple albums on the Billboard charts during the 1950s, 1960s, 1980s and 1990s and he died of heart failure in New York City, at the age of 91. Born in Battersea, Shearing was the youngest of nine children and he was born blind to working class parents, his father delivered coal and his mother cleaned trains in the evening. He started to learn piano at the age of three and began training at Linden Lodge School for the Blind, where he spent four years. Though he was offered scholarships, Shearing opted to perform at a local pub. He joined a band during that time and was influenced by the records of Teddy Wilson. Shearing made his first BBC radio broadcast during this time after befriending Leonard Feather, in 1940, Shearing joined Harry Parrys popular band and contributed to the comeback of Stéphane Grappelli.
Shearing won seven consecutive Melody Maker polls during this time, around that time he was a member of George Evanss Saxes n Sevens band. In 1947, Shearing emigrated to the United States, where his harmonically complex style mixing swing, one of his first performances was at the Hickory House. He performed with the Oscar Pettiford Trio and led a quartet with Buddy DeFranco. Shearing said of this hit that it was as accidental as it could be and he became known for a piano technique known as Shearings voicing, a type of double melody block chord, with an additional fifth part that doubles the melody an octave lower. In 1956, Shearing became a citizen of the United States. He continued to play with his quintet, with augmented players through the years and he created his own label, that lasted a few years. Along with dozens of stars of his day, Shearing appeared on ABCs The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom. Earlier, he had appeared on the networks reality show, The Comeback Story. In 1970, he began to phase out his by-now-predictable quintet, Shearing played with a trio, as a soloist and increasingly in a duo.
Among his collaborations were sets with the Montgomery Brothers, Marian McPartland, Jim Hall, Hank Jones and Kenny Davern. In 1979, Shearing signed with Concord Records, and recorded for the label with Mel Tormé and this collaboration garnered Shearing and Tormé two Grammys, one in 1983 and another in 1984
Rainbow Records was a record label based in the United States of America in the 1920s which featured recordings of Christian gospel music and spirituals. Rainbow Records were made by the Rodeheaver Record Company of Chicago, rainbow Records were standard lateral-cut 78 double-sided disc records. The audio fidelity is decidedly below average for the era, some seem to have been recorded and pressed by Gennett Records. List of record labels The sound of light, a history of gospel music
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Coconut Grove is the oldest continuously inhabited neighborhood of Miami in Miami-Dade County, United States. The neighborhood is bound by North Prospect Drive to the south, LeJeune Road to the west, South Dixie Highway and Rickenbacker Causeway to the north. It is south of the neighborhoods of Brickell and The Roads, the neighborhoods name has been sometimes spelled Cocoanut Grove but the definitive spelling Coconut Grove was established when the city was incorporated in 1919. What is today referred to as Coconut Grove was formed in 1925 when the city of Miami annexed two areas of equal size, the city of Coconut Grove and most of the town of Silver Bluff. Coconut Grove approximately corresponds to the area as the 33133 ZIP Code although the ZIP Code includes parts of Coral Way and Coral Gables. The area is referred to as The Grove and many locals take pride that Coconut Grove is one of the greenest areas of Miami. Coconut Grove is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at Coconut Grove, several waves of immigration established Coconut Grove, the first in 1825, when the Cape Florida lighthouse went into operation and was manned by John Dubose.
Dr. Horace P. Porter is credited for coming up with the name when in 1873 he rented a home from Edmond D. Beasley’s widow and he lived there for only a year but during that time he established a post office which he named Coconut Grove. Around the same time the area saw an influx of Americans from the Northeastern US, as well as British, the first hotel on the South Florida mainland was located in Coconut Grove. Coconut Groves first black settlement, in the 1880s, was established by Bahamian laborers who worked at the Peacock Inn, the Barnacle Historic State Park is the oldest house in Miami-Dade County still standing in its original location. Formerly an independent city, Coconut Grove was annexed by the city of Miami in 1925, in the 1960s, bay-shore Coconut Grove served as the center of South Floridas youth countercultural movement, notably hosting several love-ins and concerts during the latter part of the decade. Coconut Grove has a number of festivals and events, the most prominent of which is the annual Coconut Grove Arts Festival.
Others include the King Mango Strut, which began as a parody of the Orange Bowl Parade, the Great Taste of the Grove Food & Wine Festival takes place each April. Each June, the Goombay Festival transforms Grand Avenue in Coconut Grove into a Carnaval, celebrating Bahamian culture, with Bahamian food, the Grove has numerous restaurants, open air and streetside cafes, and several waterfront restaurants and bars. By night, the Grove becomes a center of nightlife frequented by locals, young professionals, students from the-nearby University of Miami and Florida International University, and tourists. Shopping is abundant in the Grove, with two malls, CocoWalk, the Streets of Mayfair, and many other street shops. Development and redevelopment continue to redefine and transform the area, major corporations including Arquitectonica, Spanish Broadcasting System, and Watsco are located in the Grove. The eastern border of Coconut Grove is Biscayne Bay, which lends itself to the boating and sailing communities
The xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. The term xylophone may be used generally, to all such instruments such as the marimba, balafon. The term is popularly used to refer to similar instruments of the lithophone and metallophone types. The bars of metal sound more high pitched than the wooden ones, the modern western xylophone has bars of rosewood, padauk, or various synthetic materials such as fiberglass or fiberglass-reinforced plastic which allows a louder sound. Some can be as small a range as 2½ octaves but concert xylophones are typically 3½ or 4 octaves, the xylophone is a transposing instrument, its parts are written one octave below the sounding notes. Xylophones should be played with hard rubber, polyball, or acrylic mallets. Sometimes medium to hard rubber mallets, very hard core, or yarn mallets are used for softer effects, lighter tones can be created on xylophones by using wooden-headed mallets made from rosewood, birch, or other hard woods.
Concert xylophones have tube resonators below the bars to enhance the tone, frames are made of wood or cheap steel tubing, more expensive xylophones feature height adjustment and more stability in the stand. In other music cultures some versions have gourds that act as Helmholtz resonators, others are trough xylophones with a single hollow body that acts as a resonator for all the bars. Old methods consisted of arranging the bars on tied bundles of straw, ancient mallets were made of willow wood with spoon-like bowls on the beaten ends. The instrument has obscure, ancient origins, according to Nettl, it originated in southeast Asia and came to Africa c. AD500 when a group of Malayo-Polynesian speaking peoples migrated to Africa, one piece of evidence for this is the similarity between East African xylophone orchestras and Javanese and Balinese gamelan orchestras. This, however has been questioned by ethnomusicologist and linguist Roger Blench who posits an independent origin in Africa, the xylophone-like ranat was used in Hindu regions.
Java and Bali use xylophones in gamelan ensembles and they still have traditional significance in Africa, Melanesia, Thailand and regions of the Americas. The term marimba is applied to traditional folk instruments such as the West Africa balafon. Early forms were constructed of bars atop a gourd, the wood is first roasted around a fire before shaping the key to achieve the desired tone. A skilled maker can produce startling amplification, the mallets used to play dibinda and mbila have heads made from natural rubber taken from a wild creeping plant. This usually doubles an already rapid rhythmic pulse that may co-exist with a counter-rhythm, the Mbila is associated with the Chopi people of the Inhambane Province, in southern Mozambique
The Juilliard School located in the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is a performing arts conservatory established in 1905. It is informally referred to as Juilliard, the school trains about 850 undergraduate and graduate students in dance and music. It is widely regarded as one of the leading music schools. In 2016, QS Quacquarelli Symonds ranked it as the worlds best institution for Performing Arts in their global ranking of the discipline. The Institute opened in the former Lenox Mansion, Fifth Avenue and 12th Street and it moved in 1910 to 120 Claremont Avenue in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, onto a property purchased from Bloomingdale Insane Asylum. In 1920, the Juilliard Foundation was created, named after textile merchant Augustus D. Juilliard, in 1924, the foundation purchased the Vanderbilt family guesthouse at 49 E. 52nd Street and established the Juilliard Graduate School. In 1926, the Juilliard School of Music was created through a merger of the Institute of Musical Art, the two schools shared a common Board of Directors and President but retained their distinct identities.
The conductor and music-educator Frank Damrosch continued as the Institutes dean, in 1937, Hutcheson succeeded Erskine as president of the two institutions, a job he held until 1945. In 1946, the Institute of Musical Art and the Juilliard Graduate School completely merged to form a single institution, the president of the school at that time was William Schuman, the first winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Music. Schuman established the Juilliard String Quartet in 1946 and the Dance Division in 1951, William Schuman graduated from Columbias Teachers College and attended the Juilliard Summer School in 1932,1933 and 1936. While attending Juilliard Summer School, he developed a dislike for traditional music theory and ear training curricula, finding little value in counterpoint. L&M was Schumans reaction against more formal theory and ear training, the general mandate was to give the student an awareness of the dynamic nature of the materials of music. The quality and degree of each students education in harmony, music history or ear training was dependent on how each composer-teacher decided to interpret this mandate, William Schuman resigned as president of Juilliard after being elected president of Lincoln Center in 1962.
Peter Mennin, another composer with experience at the Peabody Conservatory, was elected as his successor. Mennin made significant changes to the L&M program—ending ear training and music history, in 1968, Mennin hired John Houseman to manage a new Drama Division, and in 1969 oversaw Juilliards relocation from Claremont Avenue to Lincoln Center. Polisis many accomplishments include philanthropic successes, broadening of the curriculum, in 2001, the school established a jazz performance training program. In 1999, the Juilliard School was awarded the National Medal of Arts, in 2006, Juilliard received a trove of precious music manuscripts from board chair and philanthropist Bruce Kovner. Many of the manuscripts had been unavailable for generations,2, and manuscripts of Brahmss Symphony No.2 and Piano Concerto No.2
Bethlehem Records was a jazz record company and label founded by Gus Wildi in 1953. Bethlehem is remembered for its releases from the 1950s. Producers included Creed Taylor and Teddy Charles, Bethlehem released the first albums recorded by singers Chris Connor in 1954, Nina Simone in 1958, and singer/actress Julie London. London did not record an album for the label. She recorded four songs that would be released on the compilation LP Bethlehems Girlfriends in 1955, in 1958, Bethlehem began a distributing deal with King Records. In 1962, it was sold and absorbed by King, after Syd Nathans death in 1968, King was acquired by Starday Records and relaunched as Starday and King Records. It was acquired in 1970 by Lin Broadcasting and in 1972 by Tennessee Recording & Publishing, at that time, Bethlehem was purchased by the Cayre brothers Salsoul Records, who initially intended to release its back catalog for inexpensive 8-track tapes in the 1970s. In 1993, the Bethlehem name was revived as Bethlehem Music Company and it was licensed by the Verse Music Group in 2010.
During 2013–2014, Verve and Naxos reissued the 1950s catalogue on LP, CD and this included music by Art Blakey, Chris Connor, Paula Castle, John Coltrane, Dexter Gordon, Nina Simone, Mel Tormé, and Zoot Sims. The BCP1000 Series of 10 inch LP records commenced in September 1954, the BCP Deluxe Series of 12 inch LP records commenced in 1955 and ran until 1960. Early releases consisted of reissues of 10 inch albums from the BCP1000 Series, the 6000 series of 12 inch LP records commenced in 1956 and ran until 1964. List of record labels The Pictorial Discography of 1000 Series Bethlehem Discography
Howard McGhee was one of the first bebop jazz trumpeters, with Dizzy Gillespie, Fats Navarro and Idrees Sulieman. He was known for his fast fingers and very high notes, what is generally not known is the influence that he had on younger hard bop trumpeters, with Fats Navarro. Howard McGhee was raised in Detroit, during his career, he played in bands led by Lionel Hampton, Andy Kirk, Count Basie and Charlie Barnet. He was in a club listening to the radio when he first heard Parker and was one of the early adopters of the new style, in 1946–47, some record sessions for the new label Dial were organized at Hollywood with Charlie Parker and the Howard McGhee combo. The first was held on July 29,1946, the musicians were Charlie Parker, Howard McGhee, Jimmy Bunn, Bob Kesterson, and Roy Porter. The titles played were Max is Making Wax, Lover Man, The Gypsy, McGhee continued to work as a sideman for Parker. He played on titles like Relaxin at Camarillo, Carvin the Bird and his stay in California was cut short because of racial prejudice, particularly vicious towards McGhee as half of a mixed-race couple.
Drug problems sidelined McGhee for much of the 1950s, but he resurfaced in the 1960s and his career sputtered again in the mid-1960s and he did not record again until 1976. He led one of three big jazz bands trying to succeed in New York in the late 1960s, while the band did not survive, a recording was released in the mid-1970s. He taught music through the 1970s, both in classrooms and at his apartment in midtown Manhattan and instructed musicians like Charlie Rouse in music theory and he was as much an accomplished composer-arranger as he was a performer. 1961 The Sharp Edge 1963 Nobody Knows You When Youre Down,1947 With Johnny Hartman Songs from the Heart All of Me, The Debonair Mr. Hartman With James Moody Cookin the Blues With Don Patterson Boppin & Burnin With Joe Williams At Newport 63 DeVeaux, Scott. The birth of bebop, a social and musical history
As bebop was not intended for dancing, it enabled the musicians to play at faster tempos. Bebop musicians explored advanced harmonies, complex syncopation, altered chords, extended chords, chord substitutions, asymmetrical phrasing, Bebop groups used rhythm sections in a way that expanded their role. The term bebop is derived from nonsense syllables used in scat singing and it appears again in a 1936 recording of Ise a Muggin by Jack Teagarden. A variation, appears in several 1939 recordings, the first, known print appearance occurred in 1939, but the term was little-used subsequently until applied to the music now associated with it in the mid-1940s. Some researchers speculate that it was a used by Charlie Christian because it sounded like something he hummed along with his playing. Another theory is that it derives from the cry of Arriba, used by Latin American bandleaders of the period to encourage their bands. At times, the bebop and rebop were used interchangeably. By 1945, the use of bebop/rebop as nonsense syllables was widespread in R&B music, ability to play sustained, high energy, and creative solos was highly valued for this newer style and the basis of intense competition.
Swing-era jam sessions and cutting contests in Kansas City became legendary, the Kansas City approach to swing was epitomized by the Count Basie Orchestra, which came to national prominence in 1937. One young admirer of the Basie orchestra in Kansas City was an alto saxophone player named Charlie Parker. Young was equally daring with his rhythm and phrasing as with his approach to harmonic structures in his solos and he would frequently repeat simple two or three note figures, with shifting rhythmic accents expressed by volume, articulation, or tone. His phrasing was far removed from the two or four bar phrases that players had used until then. They would often be extended to an odd number of measures and he would take a breath in the middle of a phrase, using the pause, or free space, as a creative device. The overall effect was that his solos were something floating above the rest of the music, Parker played along with the new Basie recordings on a Victrola until he could play Youngs solos note for note.
That understatement of harmonically sophisticated chords would soon be used by young musicians exploring the new language of bebop. That solo showed a sophisticated harmonic exploration of the tune, with implied passing chords, Hawkins would eventually go on to lead the first formal recording of the bebop style in early 1944. As the 1930s turned to the 1940s, Parker went to New York as a player in the Jay McShann Orchestra. Guitarist Charlie Christian, who had arrived in New York with the Benny Goodman Orchestra in 1939 was, like Parker, christians major influence was in the realm of rhythmic phrasing