Seanad Éireann is the upper house of the Oireachtas, which comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann. It is called the Seanad or Senate and its members senators. Unlike Dáil Éireann, it is not directly elected but consists of a mixture of members chosen by various methods, its powers are much weaker than those of the Dáil and it can only delay laws with which it disagrees, rather than veto them outright. It has been located, in Leinster House. Under Article 18 of the Constitution, Seanad Éireann consists of 60 senators, composed as follows: Eleven nominated by the Taoiseach. Six elected by the graduates of certain Irish universities: Three by graduates of the University of Dublin. Three by graduates of the National University of Ireland. 43 elected from five special panels of nominees by an electorate consisting of TDs, outgoing senators and members of city and county councils. Nomination is restrictive for the panel seats with only Oireachtas members and designated nominating bodies entitled to nominate.
Each of the five panels consists, in theory, of individuals possessing special knowledge of, or experience in, one of five specific fields. In practice the nominees are party members though not always, failed or aspiring Dáil candidates: Seven seats on the Administrative Panel: Public administration and social services. Eleven seats on the Agricultural Panel: Agriculture and the fisheries. Five seats on the Cultural and Educational Panel: Education, the arts, the Irish language and Irish culture and literature. Nine seats on the Industrial and Commercial Panel: Industry and commerce. Eleven seats on the Labour Panel: Labour; the general election for the Seanad must occur not than 90 days after the dissolution of Dáil Éireann. The election occurs under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. Membership is open to all Irish citizens over 21, but a senator cannot be a member of Dáil Éireann. However, as stated above, nomination to vocational panel seats is restricted.
In the case of vacancies in the Vocational Panels, the electorate in the by-election consists of Oireachtas members only. Vacancies to the university seats are filled by the full electorate in that constituency; as well as the political party groupings, there are three technical groupings of independents in the current Seanad - the Civil Engagement group, the Independent Senators group, which contains all other independent senators except David Norris and Marie-Louise O'Donnell. The powers of Seanad Éireann are modelled loosely on those of the British House of Lords, it was intended to play an advisory and revising role rather than to be the equal of the popularly elected Dáil. While notionally every Act of the Oireachtas must receive its assent, it can only delay rather than veto decisions of the Dáil. In practice, the Seanad has an in-built government majority due to the Taoiseach's nominees; the constitution imposes the following specific limitations on the powers of the Seanad: In the event that a bill approved by Dáil Éireann has not received the assent of the Seanad within 90 days, the Dáil may, within a further 180 days, resolve that the measure is "deemed" to have been approved by the Seanad.
This has only occurred twice since 1937, once in 1959 when the Seanad rejected the Third Amendment to the Constitution Bill 1958 and again in 1964 when they rejected the Pawnbrokers Bill 1964. In both instances the Dáil passed the requisite motion deeming the legislation to have been passed. A money bill, such as the budget, may be deemed to have been approved by the Seanad after 21 days. In the case of an urgent bill, the time that must have expired before it can be deemed to have been approved by the Seanad may be abridged by the Government with the concurrence of the President; the fact that 11 senators are appointed by the Taoiseach ensures that the Government, which must have the support of the Dáil enjoys a majority in the Seanad. The Constitution does, grant to the Seanad certain means by which it may defend its prerogatives against an overly zealous Dáil: The Seanad may, by a resolution, ask the President to appoint a Committee of Privileges to adjudicate as to whether or not a particular bill is a money bill.
The President may, refuse this request. This procedure has not been initiated since the re-establishment of the Seanad under the current Constitution in 1937. If a majority of senators and at least one-third of the members of the Dáil present a petition to the President stating that a bill is of great "national importance" the President can decline to sign the bill until it has been'referred to the people'; this means that he or she can refuse to sign it until it has been approved either in an ordinary referendum or by the Dáil after it has reassembled after a general election. Seanad Éireann adopts its own standing orders and appoints its president, known as the Cathaoirleach; the Taoiseach appoints a senator to direct government business there. The Seanad establish
Fine Gael is a liberal-conservative political party in Ireland. Fine Gael is the governing and largest party in Ireland in terms of members of the Oireachtas and Irish members of European Parliament; the party has a membership of 21,000 and is the senior partner governing in a minority coalition with several independent politicians, with party leader Leo Varadkar serving as Taoiseach. Varadkar succeeded Enda Kenny as Taoiseach on 14 June. Fine Gael was founded on 8 September 1933 following the merger of its parent party Cumann na nGaedheal, the National Centre Party and the National Guard, its origins lie in the struggle for Irish independence and the pro-Treaty side in the Irish Civil War and Michael Collins, in particular, is identified as the founder of the movement. Fine Gael is considered to be more of a proponent of market liberalism than its traditional rival, Fianna Fáil. However, apart from brief minority governments, Fine Gael has governed Ireland without a coalition that included the Labour Party, a social-democratic, centre-left party.
Fine Gael describes itself as a "party of the progressive centre" which it defines as acting "in a way, right for Ireland, regardless of dogma or ideology". It lists its core values as "equality of opportunity, free enterprise and reward, security and hope." It is in favour of the European Union and opposed to physical force Irish republicanism. The party's youth wing, Young Fine Gael, was formed in 1977, has four thousand members. Fine Gael is a founding member of the European People's Party; the following is timeline of participation in governments and positions on proposed constitutional referenda: 1933: Fine Gael is formed through the merger of Cumann na nGaedheal with two smaller groups, the National Centre Party and the National Guard known as the Blueshirts. 1937: It campaigns against the enactment of a new constitution proposed by Fianna Fáil advocating a no vote in the referendum, however the new constitution was approved by a majority of voters. 1948–51: It forms part of Ireland’s first coalition government including the Labour Party, Clann na Poblachta, Clann na Talmhan and the National Labour Party.
1954–57: It takes part in a three-party coalition government with the Labour Party and Clann na Talmhan. 1959: It opposed a proposal to amend the constitution to scrap proportional representation with single member constituencies, advocating a no vote in the referendum, the amendment was rejected by voters. 1968: It opposed two proposals to amend the constitution advocating no votes for both proposals, a proposal to permit greater malapportionment in favour of rural areas, rejected by voters and another proposal to amend the constitution to scrap proportional representation with single member constituencies, again rejected by voters, this time by a larger margin than 1959. 1972: It supported the campaign for a yes vote in the referendum to join the European Communities, voters approved of this proposal in the referendum. 1973: It supported the campaign for a yes vote for two constitutional amendments, a proposal to reduce to minimum voting age from 21 to 18 and a proposal to remove the "special position" of the Roman Catholic Church from the constitution in order to make Ireland a secular state.
Both amendments were approved by voters in referenda. 1973–77: It takes part in a two-party coalition government with the Labour Party. 1979: It supported the campaign for a yes vote for two constitutional amendments, one proposal to reverse a 1977 finding that certain orders made by the adoption board were unconstitutional, a proposal to extend the voting franchise for Seanad Éireann. Both amendments were approved by voters in referenda. 1981–82: It takes part in a two-party minority coalition government with the Labour Party. 1982 –87: It takes part in a two-party coalition government with the Labour Party. 1983: It was divided on the referendum on the Eighth amendment, a bill introduced by the Fianna Fáil minority government of 1982 to introduce a constitutional de facto ban on abortion, though the Fine Gael party leader at the time, Garret FitzGerald advocated a no vote, the amendment was approved by voters in the referendum. 1984: It proposed and supported the campaign for a yes vote for a constitutional amendment to extend the voting franchise to allow votes for non-citizens who are residents.
This amendment was approved by voters in the referendum. 1986: It proposed and supported the campaign for a yes for a constitutional amendment to make divorce constitutional. This amendment was rejected by voters in the referendum. 1987: It supported the campaign for a yes vote for a constitutional amendment permitting the state to ratify the Single European Act. This amendment was approved by voters in the referendum. 1992: It supported the campaign for a yes vote for a constitutional amendment permitting the state to ratify the Maastricht Treaty. This amendment was approved by voters in the referendum. 1994–97: It takes part in a three-party coalition government with the Labour Party and Democratic Left. 1995–97: It proposed and supported the campaign for a yes vote for three constitutional amendments between 1995 and 1997. An amendment in 1995 to make divorce constitutional. An amendment in 1996 to reverse a 1965 Supreme Court ruling by allowed a court to refuse someone bail if it suspected a person would commit a serious criminal offence while at liberty.
An amendment in 1997 to reverse a 1992 Supreme Court ruling that meetings of the cabinet were absolu
An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, selling the item to the highest bidder. The open ascending price auction is arguably the most common form of auction in use today. Participants bid against one another, with each subsequent bid required to be higher than the previous bid. An auctioneer may announce prices, bidders may call out their bids themselves, or bids may be submitted electronically with the highest current bid publicly displayed. In a Dutch auction, the auctioneer begins with a high asking price for some quantity of like items. While auctions are most associated in the public imagination with the sale of antiques, rare collectibles and expensive wines, auctions are used for commodities, radio spectrum and used cars. In economic theory, an auction may refer to any set of trading rules for exchange; the word "auction" is derived from the Latin augeō, which means "I increase" or "I augment". For most of history, auctions have been a uncommon way to negotiate the exchange of goods and commodities.
In practice, both haggling and sale by set-price have been more common. Indeed, before the seventeenth century the few auctions that were held were sporadic. Nonetheless, auctions have a long history, having been recorded as early as 500 B. C. According to Herodotus, in Babylon auctions of women for marriage were held annually; the auctions began with the woman the auctioneer considered to be the most beautiful and progressed to the least. It was considered illegal to allow a daughter to be sold outside of the auction method. During the Roman Empire, following military victory, Roman soldiers would drive a spear into the ground around which the spoils of war were left, to be auctioned off. Slaves captured as the "spoils of war", were auctioned in the forum under the sign of the spear, with the proceeds of sale going towards the war effort; the Romans used auctions to liquidate the assets of debtors whose property had been confiscated. For example, Marcus Aurelius sold household furniture to pay off debts, the sales lasting for months.
One of the most significant historical auctions occurred in the year 193 A. D. when the entire Roman Empire was put on the auction block by the Praetorian Guard. On 28 March 193, the Praetorian Guard first killed emperor Pertinax offered the empire to the highest bidder. Didius Julianus outbid everyone else for the price of 6,250 drachmas per guard, an act that initiated a brief civil war. Didius was beheaded two months when Septimius Severus conquered Rome. From the end of the Roman Empire to the eighteenth century auctions lost favor in Europe, while they had never been widespread in Asia. In some parts of England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries auction by candle began to be used for the sale of goods and leaseholds. In a candle auction, the end of the auction was signaled by the expiration of a candle flame, intended to ensure that no one could know when the auction would end and make a last-second bid. Sometimes, other unpredictable processes, such as a footrace, were used in place of the expiration of a candle.
This type of auction was first mentioned in 1641 in the records of the House of Lords. The practice became popular, in 1660 Samuel Pepys's diary recorded two occasions when the Admiralty sold surplus ships "by an inch of candle". Pepys relates a hint from a successful bidder, who had observed that, just before expiring, a candle-wick always flares up slightly: on seeing this, he would shout his final - and winning - bid; the London Gazette began reporting on the auctioning of artwork at the coffeehouses and taverns of London in the late 17th century. The first known auction house in the world was Stockholm Auction House, founded by Baron Claes Rålamb in 1674. Sotheby's the world's second-largest auction house, was founded in London on 11 March 1744, when Samuel Baker presided over the disposal of "several hundred scarce and valuable" books from the library of an acquaintance. Christie's, now the world's largest auction house, was founded by James Christie in 1766 in London and published its first auction catalog in that year, although newspaper advertisements of Christie's sales dating from 1759 have been found.
Other early auction houses that are still in operation include Dorotheum, Bonhams, Phillips de Pury & Company, Freeman's and Lyon & Turnbull. By the end of the 18th century, auctions of art works were held in taverns and coffeehouses; these auctions were held daily, auction catalogs were printed to announce available items. In some cases these catalogs were elaborate works of art themselves, containing considerable detail about the items being auctioned. At this time, Christie's established a reputation as a leading auction house, taking advantage of London's status as the major centre of the international art trade after the French Revolution. During the American Civil War, goods seized by armies were sold at auction by the Colonel of the division. Thus, some of today's auctioneers in the U. S. carry the unofficial title of "colonel". The development of the internet, has led to a significant rise in the use of auctions as auctioneers can solicit bids via the internet from a wide range of buyers in a much wider range of commodities than was practical.
In 2008, the National Auctioneers Association reported that the gross revenue of the auction industry for that ye
Kilbeggan is the main town in Barony of Moycashel, County Westmeath, Ireland. Kilbeggan is situated in the south of County Westmeath, it lies south of Lough Ennell, Castletown Geoghegan, north of the boundary with County Offaly, about 9 kilometres north of Tullamore. Kilbeggan is surrounded by the rolling Esker Riada, the linear sand hills that stretch across the Irish midlands, which were left by retreating glaciers at the end of the last ice age, it is famous as the location of the oldest recorded incidence of a tornado in Europe. Kilbeggan comprises 29 townlands: Aghamore, Ardnaglew,Ballinderry Big, Ballinderry Little, Ballymacmorris, Ballyoban, Camagh,Clonaglin, Demesne or Mearsparkfarm and Kiltober, Greenan, Guigginstown,Hallsfarm, Kilbeggan North, Kilbeggan South, Kiltober / Kiltubber and Grange, Meadowpark,Meeldrum, Meersparkfarm or Demesne and Ballynasuddery, Stonehousefarmand Tonaphort; the neighbouring civil parishes are: Castletown kindalen to the north, Newtown to the east, Rahugh to the east and south, Durrow to the south and Ardnurcher or Horseleap to the west.
The N6 - the main route between Dublin and Galway - passed through Kilbeggan, meeting the N52 in the town centre. Both the N6 and N52 have been re-routed to bypass the town to the south, with the road through the centre now reclassified as the R446 regional road. Kilbeggan being situated on the main Dublin - Galway route means it has an efficient public transport system to these main cities. A townlink service connects the main surrounding towns such as Mullingar and Tullamore, it is the first Westmeath town. St Bécán, one of the'Twelve Apostles of Ireland', founded a monastery here in the 6th century, giving rise to the town's Irish name Cill Bheagáin, meaning "the church of St Bécán". In time the monastery fell into disrepair. A new monastery was founded on the site in 1150, by a member of the Mac Loghlan family, the ruins of the previous one having been rebuilt by the Dalton family, it was subsequently home to Cistercian monks from Mellifont Abbey. The great priest of Clonmacnois, O'Catharnaigh, died at the monastery in 1196 and Hugh O'Malone, Bishop of Clonmacnois, was buried there in 1236.
In 1217 the monastery was involved in the riot of Jerpoint, the abbot was punished as a result. Following the Conspiracy of Mellifont, the monastery was made subject to Buildwas Abbey. After its dissolution in 1539, the monastery and its extensive lands were granted to the Lambart family; the monastery was subsequently demolished and its location was lost. However, the location and full plan of the monastery were uncovered by geophysical survey by Archaeological Projects in 2003 west of the early-medieval graveyard. A parish church was built northeast of the early medieval church and served as the parish church for the reformed Church of Ireland; the church is no longer in use. The tower survives, in a ruinous state. A ford crossing the River Brosna at Kilbeggan was the site, in 972, of a battle between the Danes and the Irish. A skirmish led by the United Irishmen took place in the town, as part of the Irish Rebellion of 1798 The Lambart family came to be politically dominant in the midlands, they established themselves in and around Kilbeggan replacing the Geoghegan Family who were the leaders of Moycashel and the formidable Irish of Meath Alliance who kept the English of Meath in check from the Norman Invasion through the War of the Three Kingdoms, during which they sat as members for the two county Westmeath boroughs, after The Restoration were restored to some land up to the ultimate defeat of the Irish by William and Mary's forces and allies and the Treaty of Limerick.
Sir Oliver Lambart was made Governor of Connaught in 1601 upon the completion of the Tudor Conquest and the last great battle for a Gaelic Ireland at Kinsale, where Bryan Geoghegan and his small band was the great holdout at Dunboy. At payback time Lambart was charged with curbing the intransigent Geoghegans and their allies and was subsequently granted plan for a model Tudor 700 acres of land and 60 houses. Lambart inaugurated a weekly market in the town in 1606. Kilbeggan became a borough town by charter of James I in 1612. Kilbeggan's market became important to the surrounding agricultural community; the substantial market house still stands in the town, though no longer used for its original purpose. Kilbeggan Distillery, standing on the banks of the River Brosna, commenced whiskey production in 1757. Within the distillery complex, the owner constructed a house and gardens on an island in the river. A member of the Locke family established the Convent of Mercy in the town in 1879. A branch of the Grand Canal, between Dublin and the River Shannon, served the town, opening in 1835.
The inhabitants of Kilbeggan have been attempting to have the Kilbeggan branch of the Grand canal restored at the junction of Murphy's bridge to Kilbeggan harbour. Rostella, 3 km south of Kilbeggan is the site of the earliest recorded tornado in Europe, which occurred on 30 April 1054. Today, the town serves as a service centre for the local farming community; the canal branch closed in the 1960s and the basin is now dry. The harbour buildings, have survived and are now in use as offices and workspace. Although whiskey pro
Leader of the Seanad
The Leader of the Seanad is a member of Seanad Éireann appointed by the Taoiseach to direct government business. Since June 2016, the incumbent is Jerry Buttimer of Fine Gael; the Leader plays a similar role in the Seanad's procedure to that played by the Taoiseach in Dáil Éireann: moving the day's order of business may present a government bill without prior notice ex-officio member of the Committee on Procedure and Privileges may move a vote of sympathy In the old Seanad of the Irish Free State, there was no separate position of Leader. The order of business was controlled by the Cathaoirleach; this was a symptom of the Seanad's independence from the Executive Council, which annoyed Éamon de Valera as President of the Executive Council. De Valera's Fianna Fáil government secured the abolition of the Seanad in 1936. De Valera's 1937 Constitution created a new Seanad with less independence from the Dáil; the standing orders of the new Seanad provided for the role of Leader to control the flow of business from the government.
A 2004 Seanad report into reforming its own functions recommended that the Leader be allowed to attend cabinet meetings, with a rank of minister or minister of state. Maurice Manning noted in 2010 that recent Leaders had more influence with the government, leading to increased input by the Seanad into legislation
1961 Irish general election
The Irish general election of 1961 was held on 4 October 1961, just over three weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 8 September. The newly elected members of the 17th Dáil assembled at Leinster House on 11 October, when the new Taoiseach and government were appointed; the general election took place in 38 parliamentary constituencies throughout Ireland for 144 seats in the lower house of parliament, Dáil Éireann, reduced in size by three seats from the previous election. The general election of 1961 saw the three main parties being led by three new leaders. Seán Lemass had taken charge of Fianna Fáil in 1959, it was the first time Fianna Fáil faced a general election campaign without Éamon de Valera. James Dillon had taken over at Fine Gael in 1959 while the Labour Party was now under the leadership of Brendan Corish. While the election was caused by the "crisis" surrounding Ireland's application for membership of the European Economic Community and various other international affairs, little attention was paid to these matters during the campaign.
Fianna Fáil fought the election on its record in a reforming theme. The Labour Party campaigned against the "conservative" Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael parties, it favoured major expansion in the public sector. It was the first and only general election for the new National Progressive Democrats party led by Noël Browne. Fianna Fáil minority government formed; the opposition parties gained ground on Fianna Fáil, while Sinn Féin failed to defend the four seats it had won in the previous election. Lorcan Allen Mark Clinton George Colley Patrick Connor Paddy Harte Brian Lenihan Tom O'Donnell Séamus Pattison Eugene Timmons Seán Treacy Seán Collins Paddy Belton Terence Boylan Sheila Galvin Joan Burke John Donnellan Eileen Desmond Batt Donegan Patrick Giles Gus Healy Denis Larkin Frank Loughman Peadar Maher Richard Mulcahy James O'Toole Oscar Traynor Members of the 17th Dáil Government of the 17th Dáil Parliamentary Secretaries of the 17th Dáil
Mullingar is the county town of County Westmeath in Ireland. It is the 3rd most populous town in the midlands region, with a population of 20,928 in the 2016 census; the Counties of Meath and Westmeath Act of 1543, proclaimed Westmeath a county, separating it from Meath. Mullingar became the administrative centre for County Westmeath; the town was named Maelblatha, takes its modern name from a mill noted in the legend of Colman of Mullingar. Traditionally a market town serving the large agricultural hinterland, Mullingar remains a significant commercial location, it had a tradition of cattle-trading until 2003, when its cattle market was closed for development of a mixed commercial and residential scheme called Market Point. However, in 2014 the local County Council have allowed an annual Christmas Market to take place on Mount Street. Mullingar has a number of neighbouring lakes, Lough Owel, Lough Ennell and Lough Derravaragh, which attract anglers. Lough Derravaragh is known for its connection with the Irish legend of the Children of Lir.
The town of Mullingar is linked to Lough Ennell via the River Brosna. Another nearby waterway is the Royal Canal. Westmeath County Council is the local authority for Westmeath; the county council comprises two constituencies or “municipal districts”. Mullingar town is in the Mullingar Municipal District; the current mayor is Councillor Ken Glynn. The town is part of the Longford–Westmeath constituency for elections to Dáil Éireann. There is a Chamber of Commerce in Mullingar, Mullingar is one of the three towns that forms the Midlands Gateway region, along with Athlone and Tullamore, set up as part of the Government’s National Spatial Strategy 2002–2020. Mullingar's main tourist attractions are its lakes – Lough Owel, Lough Derravaragh and Lough Ennell – which are visited by anglers. Nearby is Belvedere House and Gardens; the town has several hotels. The Greville Arms Hotel has latterly begun creating a mini-museum, holds the two Brit awards presented to Niall Horan. James Joyce's connection with the hotel is marked on the premises.
In the rooftop garden, there stands a large granite monument which stood at Dominick Street. It was presented to the town by Lord Greville. Mullingar's most notable building is the cathedral of Christ the King Mullingar, the cathedral of the Diocese of Meath; the Cathedral was dedicated on the day. Columb Barracks, which closed in March 2012, was a military base which housed the 4th Field Artillery Regiment, the 4th Field Supply & Transport Company and the HQ of the 54 Reserve Field Artillery Regiment; the 1916 Centenary Monument Green Bridge Mullingar was unveiled by Cllr Billy Collentine MCC on Easter Monday 2017. Mullingar Tidy Towns were the organisation that built this monument in memory of the 1916 Easter Rising. Mullingar Town Park is a public park located in Co.. Westmeath, Republic of Ireland|Ireland; the park includes a wide variety of a swimming pool and a large pond near the centre. On 22 July 2016 the park became one of 22 public spaces in Ireland to be awarded a Green Flag. Among Mullingar's exports are items of pewterware produced by Mullingar Pewter.
Associated with Mullingar is Genesis Fine Art, which produces gift items. The "Pilgrims" sculpture on Mullingar's Austin Friars Street, at which location there once stood an Augustinian Friary, was crafted by Genesis on foot of a commission by the Mullingar chapter of Soroptimists International. Mullingar's commercial sector has expanded in recent years from just a few shops on the town's main thoroughfares – Oliver Plunkett Street, Austin Friars Street, Mount Street – to several major shopping areas. There is an out-of-town retail park at Lakepoint, the Harbour Place Shopping Centre near the town centre, a development at the Green – on the site of the former Avonmore and Penneys units; the town has a mix of local retailers and chain stores, branches of the major banks. The town has one of the country's largest credit unions. A proposed development, named "Mullingar Central", was to have been located between Mount Street, the Railway station and Blackhall Street. Planning permission was granted for retail and residential units.
Phase 1, which included tax offices, civic offices and County Council buildings was opened on 11 June 2009. Phase 2 did not, however proceed. Mullingar contains several industrial estates including Lough Sheever Corporate Park and Clonmore Industrial Estate and Mullingar Business Park; the Industrial Development Authority has a business park at Marlinstown. As of 2015, only one plot on the site has been acquired by an employer, Patterson Pumps, constructing a new plant to which it intends moving its entire Irish operation from its current location, at Mullingar Business Park. Two of the town's manufacturing plants – Penn tennis balls and Tarkett – both closed in the early 2000s causing many job losses. Other local employers include the Midland Regional Hospital at Mullingar, P. E. M. Engineering, Trend Technologies, Taconic International, Mullingar Pewter. Iralco, an automotive component manufacturer, is located nearby in Collinstown; the town is home to a € 25m Lidl distribution centre. Mullingar is served by internet providers, speeds of up to 240 Mbit/s are available in the town.
As of April 2015, eircom Wholesale announced that by mid-2017, it would be able to offer ISPs the opportunity to purchase access to Fibre to the