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Joel Hastings Metcalf

Joel Hastings Metcalf was an American astronomer and minister. Reverend Metcalf graduated from Harvard Divinity School in 1892, he served as a Unitarian minister in Burlington, Vermont and in Taunton, Winchester and Portland, Maine. He discovered or co-discovered several comets, including 23P/Brorsen-Metcalf and 97P/Metcalf-Brewington, 41 asteroids during 1905–1914, as credited by the Minor Planet Center. Two of his discoveries, the main-belt asteroids 726 Joëlla and 792 Metcalfia, were named in his honor. Joel Hastings Metcalf – Minister, Astronomer Joel H. Metcalf "home page"


Berneval-le-Grand is a former commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Petit-Caux. A farming village in the Pays de Caux, situated on the cliff-lined coast of the English Channel some 5 miles northeast of Dieppe, at the junction of the D54 and D113 roads. On the morning of 19 August 1942, the beach at Berneval was one of the landing locations of the Anglo-Canadian raid on Dieppe. No. 3 Commando landed on "Yellow 1", the beach of Petit Berneval, but got stuck at the top of the cliffs, unable to fulfil their mission. Most were killed or captured, only one managed to escape by swimming back to the boats; those who landed on "Yellow 2", at the Fond de Belleville, crossed the fields and attacked the gun emplacements, preventing the German gunners aiming at the beaches of Dieppe where the bulk of the landings took place. They all were able to return to Newhaven; the church of Notre-Dame, rebuilt, as was most of the village, after the Second World War.

The original church, dating back to the 13th century, was destroyed on 3 June 1944 by Allied bombers. After his release from Reading Prison, Oscar Wilde stayed in Berneval in June 1897, he was accompanied by his friend and future literary executor, the Canadian journalist, art critic and art dealer Robert Ross. Most of his former friends abandoned him, he found Wilde a broken man, still a prisoner in his soul despite his freedom. In Berneval, Wilde wrote The Ballad of Reading Gaol. Edward Vincent Loustalot, regarded as the first American soldier killed by the Germans in the Second World War, died here on 19 August 1942. During the 1970s, a large part of Walerian Borowczyk's film, Les Contes immoraux, was made in Berneval in the Grand Hôtel, Avenue du Capitaine-Porthéous. Auguste Renoir and Hippolyte Camille Delpy, among others, painted landscapes in Berneval-le-Grand. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department INSEE Berneval-le-Grand on the Quid website


CECOSESOLA is a hierarchy-free, solidary association of cooperatives in Venezuela. The umbrella organization of cooperatives for social services in the state of Lara was founded in late in 1967; the first project of CECOSESOLA was a funeral home. It is now the largest in the region; the Institute operates its own coffin production. About fifty-based organizations with a total of 20,000 members are connected to the network. 1,200 Cooperative fashionistas work as "full-time" at CECOSESOLA. They get their livelihood directly from the total composite, they pay a weekly amount, mentioned in the definition of wage labor "advance". The height is about twice the government-set minimum wage; this advance is based on people's requirements, so it is not the same for everyone. Those with children, for example, get more. In 2010, the turnover of the company amounted to 430 million Bolivares - around 100 million U. S. dollars. Barquisimeto: The organization operates three weekly markets, where every week 55,000 families – about a quarter of the urban population – provide them with fruits and foods.

450 tonnes of fruit and vegetables are sold weekly. The prices are on average 30 percent lower than those of operated markets. In addition, there is a shop for home appliances and furniture, where members can buy the products with installment payments without the usual high interest rates. In the six projects of 190,000 health care treatments are performed per year. In 2009, the newly built health center was inaugurated in CICS. Here, alternative treatments such as acupuncture and massages are offered, but surgical procedures and laboratory and X-ray examinations; the prices are 60 percent below those of private hospitals. For members of the cooperatives certain treatments are free; the cooperative includes farms: Twelve organizations in the states of Lara and Trujillo with over 200 small farms supply the markets. In some, companies will try to replace agrochemicals with biological crop protection. Small production cooperatives produce foods that are sold in the markets - bread, whole grain pasta, tomato sauce, spices, fruit pulp etc.

There is a credit union and other financing and a Solidarity Fund. There is a high turnout of customers; some of the customers are involved in the cooperatives. Inside the most striking feature is the absence of hierarchical positions. "All members can always get involved at all levels with the same rights. Decisions in consensus and met again for discussion, if someone declares his non-acceptance in hindsight, was independent of whether the person involved in the decision or absent. In 2011, there were about 3,000 of the weekly meetings in individual and cooperative projects instead, 300 cross-meetings."There is no governing body, no managing director and no supervision. You trying to make sure that the meetings are not a substitute for, the manager; each person or group to take responsibility for decisions. Consensus means for the members otherwise than unanimity. For the unanimity all members of a group or organization must be present; this corresponds to a vote. A consensus decision is when they'corresponds to, We, the criteria that you share in this moment -.

Whether this decision was made by a person, a group or an informal gathering this kind, to make decisions, can lead to chaos and missteps that may attract large economic losses. But all economic losses are by far compensated by the flexibility and dynamism that results in the organization, in that we free ourselves from the cultural shackles that restrict all our capacities and creative potential."CECOSESOLA trying to take the place of power and enforcement of personal interests in an opposite process. Dismantle hierarchies, making information accessible to all, build trust relationships and to establish its own identity on the collective power of solidarity; the experience of CECOSESOLA can explain different concepts: The productive force "cooperation" leads to increased efficiency. The way of cooperation and cohesion increased motivation of employees; the construction of network structures based on trust and cooperation supports the long-term survival of cooperatives. Here, the forms that people interact with each other like here in relationship, beyond the sphere of work and production.

It is here rather a different way of life that needs no justification for efficiency criteria. "When we succeed, the self-organization of living with respect for others and the Other, we will do by and by this momentum to our own, our behavior will be consistent with the process of life. This opens us the possibility to go beyond the dutiful ecological behavior that will get only from a utilitarian nature, at the service of man. We have the opportunity to be ecologically from scratch, since the nature some of us will not be Separated: We are all natural Maybe we are just before opting for a form of life.. A choice that requires us to overcome the hierarchical relationship of power over the others that are part of our cultural heritage. An election in which it is clear that the takeover may be no alternative but to change the world..... " CECOSESOLA—official website

W. H. Grattan Flood

William Henry Grattan Flood was a noted Irish author, composer and historian. As a writer and ecclesiastical composer, his personal contributions to Irish music produced enduring works, although he is regarded today as controversial due to the inaccuracy of some of his work; as a historian, his output was prolific on topics of local and national historical or biographical interest. In 1917, Flood was awarded the papal cross Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice by Pope Benedict XV and in 1922 was elevated by Pope Leo XIII to the Order of St Gregory with the title Chevalier, thereafter he was called "Chevalier Flood", he is not to be confused with the unrelated Irish statesmen Henry Henry Grattan. Flood was born in County Waterford, Ireland, his family had a great influence on his education. He was born to the Master and Matron of the Lismore Union Workhouse, he had one older sister, five brothers (Francis, Frederick and James. Flood received his elementary education at his grandfather's boys academy in Lismore, was given music lessons by his aunt, Elizabeth FitzSimon.

He became an accomplished pianist and, at the age of nine, was invited to give a recital for the Duke of Devonshire at Lismore Castle. He entered Mount Melleray in 1872 and graduated in 1876. During this time, he received private tuition in music from Sir Robert Prescott Stewart and developed proficiency on other musical instruments, he was organist of St. Peter's Pro-Cathedral in Belfast, the Cathedral of the Assumption in Thurles, Co. Tipperary, Monaghan Cathedral and St. Aidan's Enniscorthy. A devout Catholic, Flood entered St. Patrick's in Co.. Carlow and spent several years studying for the priesthood, he taught music at the Jesuit Colleges of Co.. Offaly, Clongowes Wood College, St MacCartan's College, St. Kieran's College in Kilkenny. During his long residency at Enniscorthy Flood authored the majority of his musical compositions and historical publications. Flood was awarded an honorary Doctor of Music from the Royal University of Ireland in 1907. While he was organist and musical director at St. Aidan's Cathedral in Enniscorthy.

He transcribed the Wexford Carol from a local singer and had it published in The Oxford Book of Carols, putting Enniscorthy into most carol books around the world. In December 1898, he was wed to Margaret Delaney and, over the next 12 years, the couple had six children, including Catherine, Agnes, William and Margaret. Following his death, his daughter, assumed the position of organist at St. Aidan's until her death in 1956. Flood is a controversial figure in Irish musicology, he has undoubtedly inspired a lot of more recent research, but "his appreciation of detail was enthusiastic rather than thorough, the contents of his books were distorted by his national and religious commitment". Although he is known to have had access to sources in the Public Record Office which burnt down in the Irish Civil War in 1922, "he renders himself untrustworthy by the fact that, where his sources can be checked, he sometimes misquotes or misinterprets them. On the other hand, he wrote "at a time when it was either scorned or ignored, except by a few enthusiasts."

Flood's most adventurous claims included an "Irish Ancestry of Garland, Dowland and Purcell". Therefore, his writings on musical history may need to be met with some caution. Musicology A History of Irish Music The Story of the Harp The Story of the Bagpipe William Vincent Wallace. A Memoir John Field, Inventor of the Nocturne Introductory Sketch of Irish Musical History Early Tudor Composers John and William Neale, Music Printers, 1721–1741 Articles in Dictionary of National Biography, Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians and Letters, Musical Herald, Musical Opinion, Musical Quarterly, The Musical Times. General and local history History of Enniscorthy Memoir of Father James Dixon History of the Diocese of Ferns Articles in Archivium Hibernicum, The Athenaeum Saturday Review, Ave Maria, The Catholic Encyclopedia, Cork Archaeological Journal, Cork Historical Journal, Ecclesiastical Review, English Historical Review, Irish Theological Quarterly, Irish Ecclesiastical Record, The Irish Monthly, The Irish Rosary, Journal of the County Louth Archaeological Society, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, The Month, The Past, The Review of English Studies, Waterford Archaeological Journal, etc.

Worklist from Boydell, p. 395. Church music O salutaris hostia, London, 1882 Benediction Service: In honorem Sancti Stanislai, London, 1882 Benediction Service: In honorem Sancti Cuthberti, Newbury: A. Cary, 1889 Mass in Honour of Saint Aidan op. 32

Muley Jats

The Muley Jat Mola Jat and Mula Jat, are a community descended from Jats in Islam, found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, the province of Punjab in Pakistan. They are predominantly Muslim; the Muslim Muley Jats is the community who accepted Islam during the Muslim rule, but not every Muslim convert is referred to as a Muley, the term being restricted to those Jats who inhabit western Uttar Pradesh and were once found in Haryana, speak dialects of Urdu and Hindi such as Haryanvi and Khari boli. Those Muley Jat who inhabited the state of Haryana moved en masse to Pakistan, after the partition of India. There is controversy as to the exact circumstances of their conversion to Islam. Modern researchers say; the term Mula and Muley, was applied to the Muslim converts from the Jat caste only being used for those whose "ancestors were forcibly circumcised by the Emperors, not converted by persuasion", they called themselves Sheikhs, intermarried and smoked with the Hindu Jats. Muley Jats are in Pakistan.

They comprise a large number of dispersed intermarrying clans, known as gotras. Along their original Hindu tradition, these exogamous groups are made up of myriad landholding patrilineages of varying genealogical depth and social status sometimes called biradaries or brotherhoods scattered in the various districts of western Uttar Pradesh; the biradari, or lineage, is one of the principal points of reference for the Mulley Jats, all biradaris claim descent from a common ancestor. The Muley Jat belonged to the khaps, who comprised a number of biradaries, marriages within the khap were not allowed, but this is no longer practiced. In India, the community are owner cultivators, with many being substantial landowners, inhabit villages that are Muley Jat. Animal husbandry and poultry are secondary occupations; the Muley Jat have a tribal council, known as a khap panchayat. Offences that are dealt with by the tribal council include adultery, disputes over land and water, theft, it is used to maintain a system of social control over members of the community with regards to marriage.

They speak Khari Boli among themselves, Urdu with outsiders. The Muley Jat are a community of owner cultivators, have much in common with the other neighbouring Muslim agrarian castes, such as the Ranghar and Tyagi Muslim. Like the Ranghar, the Muley Jat are endogamous, practice the custom of gotra and village exogamy, their marriage customs are similar to the wider Jat community. They are found in Mirpur Khas and Nawabshah Districts of Pakistan. Recent studies of the Muley Jat communities in Pakistan have confirmed that they maintain a distinct identity; the Muley Jat continue to speak a Haryanvi dialect, called Ranghari, culturally close to the larger Muslim Rajput community. They have maintained the system of exogamous marriages, the practice of not marrying within one's clan, which marks them out from neighbouring Punjabi Muslim communities, which prefer marriages with first cousins. In districts of Pakpattan and Okara, which have the densest concentrations of Muley Jat, they consist of landowning cultivators, with many serving in the army and police.

They maintain an overarching tribal council known as a panchayat, which deals with a number of issues, such as punishments for petty crime or co-operation over village projects. The institution of the khap has disappeared in Pakistan

Francis Trowbridge Sherman

Francis Trowbridge Sherman was a Union general during the American Civil War. He served in the cavalry and infantry, seeing action in both the Western Theater and Eastern Theater. Sherman was born in Connecticut in 1825 but his family moved to Illinois in 1834 where his father, Francis Cornwall Sherman became involved in Chicago politics serving as alderman and mayor of the city and as a state representative. Francis T. Sherman traveled to West to participate in the California Gold Rush before returning to Illinois. Early in the Civil War began, Sherman served as lieutenant colonel of the 56th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment and major of the 12th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Cavalry without seeing any significant action. On September 4, 1862 he was appointed colonel of the 88th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Sherman led his regiment at the battles of Stones River, he was not with the army during the battle of Chickamauga but took command of a brigade shortly after the battle. His brigade became the 1st Brigade in Philip H. Sheridan's 2nd Division of the newly formed IV Corps.

Sherman was one of the brigade commanders that made the charge up Missionary Ridge during the battle of Chattanooga. He continued leading his brigade during the early part of the Atlanta Campaign at Rocky Face Ridge and Resaca before he was appointed as the chief of staff to the IV Corps, he served in that capacity during the rest of the campaign until he was captured outside Atlanta on July 7, 1864. He was exchanged on October 7, 1864 and was assigned to the Army of the Potomac as the assistant inspector general of the Cavalry Corps during the Appomattox Campaign. Sherman was brevetted to brigadier general on March 13, 1865 and received a full promotion to brigadier general of volunteers on July 21, 1865, he was mustered out of the volunteer services on January 15, 1866. Following the war General Sherman embarked on a series of business ventures starting with managing a sugar plantation in Louisiana for a year before returning to Chicago. Back in Chicago he worked as the city's postmaster for two years and started a stone and sand manufacturing company called Sherman, Haley & Company.

The business was ruined in 1871 by the Great Chicago Fire which forced Sherman to seek business ventures elsewhere in the U. S. before he settled in Waukegan, Illinois where he died in 1905. List of American Civil War generals Francis Trowbridge Sherman Papers at Newberry Library