MLB.com is the official site of Major League Baseball and is overseen by Major League Baseball Advanced Media, L. P.. MLB.com is a source of baseball-related information, including baseball news and sports columns. MLB.com is a commercial site, providing online streaming video and streaming audio broadcasts of all Major League Baseball games to paying subscribers, as well as "gameday", a near-live streaming box score of baseball games for free. In addition, MLB.com sells official baseball merchandise, allows users to buy tickets to baseball games, runs fantasy baseball leagues, runs auctions of baseball memorabilia. In association with HB Studios, MLB.com has developed recent R. B. I. Baseball installments. MLB.tv is an American subscription based audio and video service which through two different service tiers allows users to listen and watch HD quality out of market Major League Baseball games live via a high-speed Internet connection. Users can subscribe to the "MLB.tv All Teams" package which access to every MLB teams live feeds as well as in-game highlights and stats and live DVR control, full game archives and pitch widget.
The other option, the "MLB.tv Single Team" gives subscribers access to a single MLB team's live audio and video feeds as well as in-game highlights and live DVR controls. MLB.tv services were offered as a "Basic" and "Premium" tiers with basic receiving only HD quality audio and video on their desktop or laptop devices whereas the Premium subscribers were given access to live game audio and video on desktop and laptop as well as on mobile devices such as Android or iOS devices through a free subscription to the At-Bat mobile app and through certain connected devices including smart televisions, Blu-ray players, TiVo DVRs, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 4. MLB. TV has since eliminated these restrictions and now users of both the "All Teams" and "Single Game" tier can share the same access including new access via a Amazon Fire TV, Google Chromecast and Roku devices. Starting with the 2012 season MLB. TV Premium had begun a service called Audio Overlay which allows the user to replace the video's home or away audio with the audio feed from the home or away radio feed or Park which removes all audio commentary and lets the viewer hear the ball park's natural sounds.
As with MLB's Extra Innings cable and satellite television service normal blackout restrictions will apply where applicable, see below. This service has since been discontinued starting with the new subscription tier. Mosaic was a downloadable program which provided features not available when streaming through a web browser, it was only available to subscribers of MLB.tv Premium. Live games were shown, on-demand games available for a period of two days previous to the current date. Major League Baseball has not used MLB.tv Mosaic since the 2008 season. Mosaic allowed you to show multiple games at once, provided the following viewing modes: 6 games tiled across the screen. 4 games tiled across the screen. One main game, with 2 games tiled on the right hand side. One main game, with 3 games tiled on the right hand side. One main game When set on one main game, team information was shown to the right hand side of the game, including team line-ups, the boxscore, team statistics. Users could view their "player tracker", which would alert the user when a player in their chosen player list was active in a game.
Beginning with the 2009 season, Mosaic functionality was incorporated into the main viewing mode. Multiple-game viewing has been retained, with a choice of one, two side to side and four-game mode available. MLB.com has been providing live and archived streaming video since the 2002 baseball season with only audio available before that. In the United States, South Korea and the U. S. Virgin Islands are subject to blackout restrictions. In Guam all of the live Los Angeles Dodgers and Oakland A's games are blackout for the entire season. Games are blacked out to all users within the theoretical home television territory assigned to each team, irrespective of whether local television stations carry local games of those teams. Contractual stipulations with Fox and ESPN mean that regular season Saturday games scheduled before 1900 EST and Sunday games scheduled after 17:00 EST are blacked out throughout the United States. During the post-season, all games are blacked out in the United States, Japan, South Korea and the US Virgin Islands.
In all other countries and territories, no exclusivity rights have been granted and MLB.com is able to broadcast all games. MLB Gameday Audio does not have blackout restrictions. Any game, blacked out is made available as an archived game 90 minutes after the conclusion of each game. MLB.com can check a viewer's origin by using IP address information, but some users have reported inaccuracy of the ISP-based targeting used, thus leaving many fans unable to watch games on MLB.com. MLB.com At Bat is a mobile application available for different platforms including iOS, BlackBerry, HP TouchPad/webOS. The iOS application features "live audio, in-game video highlights, pitch-by-pitch live data and more." The BlackBerry and Android application features "real-time scores, live audio, in-game highlights and more." The application is free (although it requires a subscription to MLB
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
In baseball, the pitcher is the player who throws the baseball from the pitcher's mound toward the catcher to begin each play, with the goal of retiring a batter, who attempts to either make contact with the pitched ball or draw a walk. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the pitcher is assigned the number 1; the pitcher is considered the most important player on the defensive side of the game, as such is situated at the right end of the defensive spectrum. There are many different types of pitchers, such as the starting pitcher, relief pitcher, middle reliever, lefty specialist, setup man, the closer. Traditionally, the pitcher bats. Starting in 1973 with the American League and spreading to further leagues throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the hitting duties of the pitcher have been given over to the position of designated hitter, a cause of some controversy; the National League in Major League Baseball and the Japanese Central League are among the remaining leagues that have not adopted the designated hitter position.
In most cases, the objective of the pitcher is to deliver the pitch to the catcher without allowing the batter to hit the ball with the bat. A successful pitch is delivered in such a way that the batter either allows the pitch to pass through the strike zone, swings the bat at the ball and misses it, or hits the ball poorly. If the batter elects not to swing at the pitch, it is called a strike if any part of the ball passes through the strike zone and a ball when no part of the ball passes through the strike zone. A check swing is when the batter begins to swing, but stops the swing short. If the batter checks the swing and the pitch is out of the strike zone, it is called a ball. There are the windup and the set position or stretch. Either position may be used at any time; each position has certain procedures. A balk can be called on a pitcher from either position. A power pitcher is one. Power pitchers record a high percentage of strikeouts. A control pitcher thus records few walks. Nearly all action during a game is centered on the pitcher for the defensive team.
A pitcher's particular style, time taken between pitches, skill influence the dynamics of the game and can determine the victor. Starting with the pivot foot on the pitcher's rubber at the center of the pitcher's mound, 60 feet 6 inches from home plate, the pitcher throws the baseball to the catcher, positioned behind home plate and catches the ball. Meanwhile, a batter stands in the batter's box at one side of the plate, attempts to bat the ball safely into fair play; the type and sequence of pitches chosen depend upon the particular situation in a game. Because pitchers and catchers must coordinate each pitch, a system of hand signals is used by the catcher to communicate choices to the pitcher, who either vetoes or accepts by shaking his head or nodding; the relationship between pitcher and catcher is so important that some teams select the starting catcher for a particular game based on the starting pitcher. Together, the pitcher and catcher are known as the battery. Although the object and mechanics of pitching remain the same, pitchers may be classified according to their roles and effectiveness.
The starting pitcher begins the game, he may be followed by various relief pitchers, such as the long reliever, the left-handed specialist, the middle reliever, the setup man, and/or the closer. In Major League Baseball, every team uses Baseball Rubbing Mud to rub game balls in before their pitchers use them in games. A skilled pitcher throws a variety of different pitches to prevent the batter from hitting the ball well; the most basic pitch is a fastball. Some pitchers are able to throw a fastball at a speed over 100 miles per ex. Aroldis Chapman. Other common types of pitches are the curveball, changeup, sinker, forkball, split-fingered fastball and knuckleball; these are intended to have unusual movement or to deceive the batter as to the rotation or velocity of the ball, making it more difficult to hit. Few pitchers throw all of these pitches, but most use a subset or blend of the basic types; some pitchers release pitches from different arm angles, making it harder for the batter to pick up the flight of the ball.
A pitcher, throwing well on a particular day is said to have brought his "good stuff." There are a number of distinct throwing styles used by pitchers. The most common style is a three-quarters delivery in which the pitcher's arm snaps downward with the release of the ball; some pitchers use a sidearm delivery. Some pitchers use a submarine style in which the pitcher's body tilts downward on delivery, creating an exaggerated sidearm motion in which the pitcher's knuckles come close to the mound. Effective pitching is vitally important in baseball. In baseball statistics, for each game, one pitcher will be credited with winning the game, one pitcher will be charged with losing it; this is not the starting pitchers for each team, however, as a reliever can get a win and the starter would get a no-decision. Pitching is physically demanding if the pitcher is throwing with maximum effort. A full game involves 120–170 pitches thrown by each team, most pitchers begin to tire before they re
The Seattle Mariners are an American professional baseball team based in Seattle, Washington. The Mariners compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West Division; the team joined the American League as an expansion team in 1977 playing their home games in the Kingdome. Since July 1999, the Mariners' home ballpark has been T-Mobile Park, located in the SoDo neighborhood of Seattle; the "Mariners" name originates from the prominence of marine culture in the city of Seattle. They are nicknamed the M's, a title featured in their primary logo from 1987 to 1992, they adopted their current team colors – Navy blue, northwest green, silver – prior to the 1993 season, after having been royal blue and gold since the team's inception. Their mascot is the Mariner Moose; the organization did not field a winning team until 1991, any real success eluded them until 1995 when they won their first division championship and defeated the New York Yankees in the ALDS. The game-winning hit in Game 5, in which Edgar Martínez drove home Ken Griffey Jr. to win the game in the 11th inning, clinched a series win for the Mariners, served as a powerful impetus to preserve baseball in Seattle, has since become an iconic moment in team history.
The Mariners won 116 games in 2001, which set the American League record for most wins in a single season and tied the 1906 Chicago Cubs for the Major League record for most wins in a single season. Through the end of the 2018 season, the franchise has finished with a losing record in 28 of 42 seasons; the Mariners are one of seven Major League Baseball teams who have never won a World Series championship, one of two never to have played in a World Series. With the National Football League's Buffalo Bills ending their 17-year playoff drought on December 31, 2017, the Mariners now hold the longest playoff drought in all of the four major North American professional sports, having not qualified for the playoffs since 2001; the Mariners were created as a result of a lawsuit. In 1970, in the aftermath of the Seattle Pilots' purchase and relocation to Milwaukee as the Milwaukee Brewers by Bud Selig, the city of Seattle, King County, the state of Washington sued the American League for breach of contract.
Confident that Major League Baseball would return to Seattle within a few years, King County built the multi-purpose Kingdome, which would become home to the National Football League's expansion Seattle Seahawks in 1976. The name "Mariners" was chosen by club officials in August 1976 from over 600 names submitted by 15,000 entrants in a name-the-team contest; the Mariners played their first game on April 6, 1977, to a sold-out crowd of 57,762 at the Kingdome, losing 7–0 to the California Angels. The first home run in team history was hit on April 1977, by designated hitter Juan Bernhardt; that year, star pitcher Diego Seguí, in his last major league season, became the only player to play for both the Pilots and the Mariners. The Mariners finished with a 64 -- 98 record. In 1979, Seattle hosted the 50th Major League Baseball All-Star Game. After the 1981 season, the Mariners were sold to California businessman George Argyros, who in turn sold the team to Jeff Smulyan in 1989, to Nintendo of America in 1992.
During the 1992–93 offseason, the Mariners hired manager Lou Piniella, who had led the Cincinnati Reds to victory in the 1990 World Series. Mariner fans embraced Piniella, he would helm the team from 1993 through 2002, winning two American League Manager of the Year Awards along the way; the 2001 Mariners club finished with a record of 116-46, leading all of Major League Baseball in winning percentage for the duration of the season and winning the American League West division championship. In doing so, the team broke the 1998 Yankees American League single-season record of 114 wins and matched the all-time MLB single-season record for wins set by the 1906 Chicago Cubs. At the end of the season, Ichiro Suzuki won the AL MVP, AL Rookie of the Year, one of three outfield Gold Glove Awards, becoming the first player since the 1975 Boston Red Sox's Fred Lynn to win all three in the same season. On October 22, 2008 the Mariners announced the hiring of Jack Zduriencik scouting director of the Milwaukee Brewers, as their general manager.
Weeks on November 18, the team named Oakland Athletics bench coach Don Wakamatsu as its new field manager. Wakamatsu and Zduriencik hired an new coaching staff for 2009, which included former World Series MVP John Wetteland as bullpen coach; the off-season saw a litany of roster moves, headlined by a 12-player, 3-team trade that included sending All-Star closer J. J. Putz to the New York Mets and brought 5 players—including prospect Mike Carp and outfielder Endy Chávez from New York and outfielder Franklin Gutiérrez from the Cleveland Indians—to Seattle. Many of the moves, like the free agent signing of Mike Sweeney, were made in part with the hope of squelching the clubhouse infighting that plagued the Mariners in 2008, it saw the return of Seattle favorite Griffey Jr. The 2009–10 offseason was highlighted by the trade for 2008 American League Cy Young Award winner Cliff Lee from the Philadelphia Phillies, the signing of third baseman Chone Figgins and the contract extension of star pitcher "King" Félix Hernández.
Griffey Jr. announced his retirement on June 2010, after 22 MLB seasons. The Mariners fired field manager Don Wakamatsu along with bench coach Ty Van Burkleo, pitching coach Rick Adair and performance coach Steve Hecht on August 9, 2010. Daren Brow
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site
2000 Major League Baseball season
The 2000 Major League Baseball season ended with the New York Yankees defeating the New York Mets in five games, for their third consecutive World Series title. The 2000 World Series was known as the Subway Series because both fans and the two teams could take the subway to and from every game of the series. A then-record 5,693 home runs were hit during the regular season in 2000. Ten teams hit at least 200 home runs each, while for the first time since 1989 and only the fifth since 1949 no pitcher pitched a no-hitter. Postseason MVPs World Series MVP – Derek Jeter ALCS MVP – David Justice NLCS MVP – Mike Hampton All-Star Game, July 11 at Turner Field – American League, 6–3. Commissioner Bud Selig says he will listen to what the doctors say before deciding what punishment—if any—will be handed down to the pitcher. January 11 – The baseball writers elect catcher Carlton Fisk and first baseman Tony Pérez to the Hall of Fame. Fisk is chosen in his 2nd year on the ballot. January 31 – Braves reliever John Rocker is suspended from baseball until May 1 by Commissioner Bud Selig for his racial and ethnic remarks in an article published in Sports Illustrated last month.
He's fined $20,000 and ordered to undergo sensitivity training. February 10 – The Seattle Mariners accommodate center fielder Ken Griffey, Jr. trading him to his hometown Cincinnati Reds in exchange for four players. Cincinnati resisted giving up infielder Pokey Reese. February 29 – Manager Sparky Anderson, 19th-century star Bid McPhee, Negro League player Norman "Turkey" Stearnes are elected to the Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee. March 1 – Independent arbitrator Shyam Das cuts Braves pitcher John Rocker's suspension from 28 days to 14 days. Rocker, allowed to report to spring training with the team has his fine cut. March 29 – The Chicago Cubs open the major league season in the Tokyo Dome in Tokyo, Japan, by defeating the New York Mets 5–3, in the first big league game played outside of North America. Jon Lieber gets Mike Hampton takes the loss. Shane Andrews hits the first home run of the season. Mark Grace and Mike Piazza homer. April 3 – Andrés Galarraga hits a home run in his first game back after missing the entire 1999 season following cancer surgery.
Atlanta defeat the Colorado Rockies 2–0. April 3 – The Los Angeles Dodgers defeat the Montréal Expos 10–4, behind Eric Karros' grand slam. Right fielder Vladimir Guerrero hits a pair of home runs for Montreal as a new major league record for Opening Day is set with five players having multiple home run games. April 4 – Expos closer Ugueth Urbina strikes out the Dodgers in the top of the ninth inning on nine pitches, tying a major league record. April 7 – A total of 57 home runs are hit in the 15 games played, for a new major league record; the previous mark of 55 was set in 17 games on August 13, 1999. There were 36 homers hit in the AL. April 7 – The Tampa Bay Devil Rays open their home schedule playing home games at Tropicana Field on the new FieldTurf artificial surface, the first professional baseball venue to use that material, they lose to the Cleveland Indians, 14–5. April 9 – The Minnesota Twins defeat the Kansas City Royals 13–7. In the process, they become the first teams in major league history to each hit back-to-back-to-back home runs in the same game.
Ron Coomer, Jacque Jones, Matt LeCroy hit consecutive homers for Minnesota in the 6th inning, followed by three in a row by Carlos Beltrán, Jermaine Dye, Mike Sweeney of Kansas City an inning later. April 10 – Colorado beats Cincinnati 7–5, despite Ken Griffey, Jr.'s 400th career home run. At age of 30, Griffey is the youngest player in major league history to reach that milestone. April 11 – The Los Angeles Dodgers edge the San Francisco Giants 6–5 in the first game played at Pacific Bell Park in San Francisco. Shortstop Kevin Elster leads the Dodger attack with three home runs. April 11 – The Detroit Tigers sink the Seattle Mariners 5–2 in the first game played at Comerica Park in Detroit. April 15 – The Baltimore Orioles defeat the Twins 6–4, as Cal Ripken, Jr. gets the 3,000th hit of his career. Ripken goes 3-for-5 in becoming the 24th player to reach the milestone, the 7th to get 3,000 hits and 400 home runs. April 16 – Cleveland Indians starter Chuck Finley, the only pitcher to strike out four batters in one inning twice, does it for the third time, striking out Tom Evans, Royce Clayton, Chad Curtis and Rafael Palmeiro in the third inning.
Finley beats the Texas Rangers 2–1 with the help of back-to-back ninth-inning home runs from Manny Ramírez and Jim Thome. April 21 – The Anaheim Angels down the Tampa Bay Devil Rays 9–6. Mo Vaughn and Tim Salmon hit back-to-back home runs for Anaheim in the fourth inning do so again in the ninth. Troy Glaus homers in both the fourth and the ninth; this the first time in major league history that three players homer in the same inning on two occasions in the same game. The Angels' three players with two home runs. April 23 – In the New York Yankees' 10–7 victory over the Toronto Blue Jays, Yankees Bernie Williams and Jorge Posada each hit home runs from both sides of the plate, marking the first time in major league history that a pair of teammates accomplish the feat in the same game. April 29 – The San F
Earned run average
In baseball statistics, earned run average is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations. Henry Chadwick is credited with devising the statistic, which caught on as a measure of pitching effectiveness after relief pitching came into vogue in the 1900s. Prior to 1900—and, in fact, for many years afterward—pitchers were expected to pitch a complete game, their win-loss record was considered sufficient in determining their effectiveness. After pitchers like James Otis Crandall and Charley Hall made names for themselves as relief specialists, gauging a pitcher's effectiveness became more difficult using the traditional method of tabulating wins and losses; some criterion was needed to capture the apportionment of earned-run responsibility for a pitcher in games that saw contributions from other pitchers for the same team.
Since pitchers have primary responsibility for putting opposing batters out, they must assume responsibility when a batter they do not retire at the plate moves to base, reaches home, scoring a run. A pitcher is assessed an earned run for each run scored by a batter who reaches base while batting against that pitcher; the National League first tabulated official earned run average statistics in 1912, the American League accepted this standard and began compiling ERA statistics. Written baseball encyclopedias display ERAs for earlier years, but these were computed retroactively. Negro League pitchers are rated by RA, or total runs allowed, since the statistics available for Negro League games did not always distinguish between earned and unearned runs; as with batting average, the definition of a good ERA varies from year to year. During the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was considered good. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s, when conditions of the game changed in a way that favored hitters, a good ERA was below 4.00.
In the 1960s, sub-2.00 ERAs returned, as other influences such as ballparks with different dimensions were introduced. Today, an ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. The all-time single-season record for the lowest ERA is held by Dutch Leonard, who in 1914 had an earned run average of 0.96, pitching 224.2 innings with a win-loss record of 19-5. The all-time record for the lowest single season earned run average by a pitcher pitching 300 or more innings is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The record for the lowest career earned run average is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, who played from 1904 through 1917. Some researchers dissent from the official Major League Baseball record and claim that the pitcher with the all-time lowest earned run average is Tim Keefe, who had an earned run average of 0.86 in 1880 while appearing in 12 of his team's 83 games and pitching 105 innings. But a purported record based on so few innings pitched is misleading. Over the years, more than a dozen part-time pitchers have pitched 105 or more innings and had an earned run average lower than 0.86.
Major League Baseball recognizes many records from the 19th century—including Will White's 1879 record of 680 innings pitched, Charles Radbourne's 1884 record of 59 wins, Pud Galvin's 1883 record for 75 games started, but does not recognize Keefe as the pitcher having the all-time lowest single season earned run average. Some sources may list players with infinite ERAs; this can happen. Additionally, an undefined ERA occurs at the beginning of a baseball season, it is sometimes incorrectly displayed as zero or as the lowest ranking ERA though it is more akin to the highest. At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter, his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead.
Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings; the reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. ERA, taken by itself, can be misleading when trying to objectively judge starting pitchers, though not to the extent seen with relief pitchers; the advent of the designated hitter rule in the American League in 1973 made the pitching environment different. Since pitchers spending all or most of their careers in the AL have been at a disadvantage in maintaining low ERAs, compared to National League pitchers who can get an easy