Kalundborg is a Danish city with a population of 16,523, the main town of the municipality of the same name and the site of its municipal council. It is situated on the northwestern coast of the largest Danish island, Zealand, on the opposite, eastern side of which lies Copenhagen, 110 km away. Kalundborg is famous as the location of the Kalundborg transmitter; the city is home to the largest coal-fired power station in Denmark. Kalundborg is a trading and industrial town, but is well known for the beautiful five-spired Church of Our Lady, associated with King Valdemar I and the famous Archbishop Absalon; the church itself is said to have been built by Esbern Snare. Kalundborg is the traditional seat of the aristocratic Lerche family, their stately home, the best example of rococo architecture in Denmark, can be seen in the town's outskirts. Ferries connect Kalundborg westward to the island of Samsø. Kalundborg is at latitude 55°41′N, longitude 11°6′E, about 110 km west of Copenhagen on the island of Zealand.
The Kalundborg area was first settled in 1170 at a natural harbour at the head of the narrow bay today known as Kalundborg Fjord. It became more urbanized during the nineteenth century and had grown into a major industrial centre by the mid-twentieth century. Kalundborg Municipality has 20,000 inhabitants, its network is the most published example of Industrial Symbiosis; the history of Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis activities began in 1961 when a project was developed and implemented to use surface water from Lake Tisso for a new oil refinery, to save the limited supplies of ground water. The City of Kalundborg took the responsibility for building the pipeline while the refinery financed it. Starting from this initial collaboration, a number of other collaborative projects were subsequently introduced and the number of partners increased. By the end of the 1980s, the partners realised that they had "self-organised" into what is the best-known example of Industrial Symbiosis; the material exchanges in the Kalundborg region include: conservation of natural and financial resources.
Kalundborg Municipality is home to 19,000 jobs of which 13,000 are in the private sector. Novo Nordisk has extensive production facilities in Kalundborg with a total of more than 2,400 employees. Since 1999 they have invested more than DKK 7.5 billions in the complex. Pronova BioPharma Danmark, a bulk manufacturer of Omega-3 products, acquired by BASF in 2014 has a manufaction plant in Kalundborg; the port plays a central role in the town's economy. It is a municipal self-governing port with independent finances. Kalundborg Container Terminal is served by Unifeeder on a weekly basis. Schultz Shipping is a local shipping company; as of 2015, the port is being expanded with a new west harbor on the south side of the Asnæs peninsula. Statoil Refining Denmark operates Denmark's largest oil refinery on the harbor with a capacity of 6.6 million ton oil products per year. Haldor Topsøe is one of the companies. Jørgen Bjelke an exiled Norwegian officer and nobleman Hans Hagerup Gyldenpalm a Danish born, Norwegian jurist and civil servant Henrik Steffens Hagerup a Norwegian naval officer and politician who served as Minister of the Navy Johan Thomas Lundbye a young Danish painter and graphic artist, known for his animal and landscape paintings Wilhelm Hellesen a Danish helped invent the dry cell battery and industrialist Elisabeth Dons a Danish operatic mezzo-soprano, performed at the Royal Danish Theatre from 1885 Margrethe Lendrop a Danish operatic soprano, performed at the Royal Danish Theatre from 1898 Sigrid Undset a Norwegian novelist, awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1928, lived in Kalundborg for 2 years before emigrating to Norway in 1884 Viggo Rørup a Danish artist, joined the artists' colony the Odsherred Painters Thøger Birkeland a Danish teacher and writer known for his children's books Anne Elisabet Jensen a Danish politician and Member of the European Parliament Marianne Larsen a Danish poet and novelist Søren Ulrik Thomsen a Danish poet.
His debut was City Slang, 1981 Professor Claus Manniche a Danish rheumatologist and academic Christian E. Christiansen is a Danish filmmaker Axel Lerche a Danish sports shooter, competed at the 1936 and 1948 Summer Olympics Mogens Guldberg a former middle distance runner, competed at the 1988 Summer Olympics Claus Nielsen a Danish former football striker, 110 caps for Brøndby IF and 14 caps for Denmark Henrik Djernis a Danish cyclist Thomas Damgaard a Danish former professional boxer, competed from 1998 to 2007 Anders Nielsen a Danish association football player, 300 club caps Susanne Meyerhoff a Danish sport shooter, competed for Denmark in pistol shooting at the 1966 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics Thomas Frandsen a former Danish professional football player 300 club caps Lasse Ankjær a Danish football forward, plays for Hobro IK Patrick da Silva a Danish-Brazilian professional football player, who plays for FC Nordsjælland Nearby towns: Hol
Nicodemus Tessin the Younger
Count Nicodemus Tessin the Younger was a Swedish Baroque architect, city planner, administrator. The son of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and the father of Carl Gustaf Tessin, Tessin the Younger was the middle-most generation of the brief Tessin dynasty, which have had a lasting influence on Swedish architecture and history. Tessin was born on May 23, 1654, as the only child of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, son of the mayor of Stralsund, Maria Svan, daughter of the mayor of Västerås, he showed artistic talents at an early age and was given an education in Mathematics and language at Uppsala, where he must have been influenced by Olaus Rudbeck, at the time engaged in the scientific basis of architecture and botany. In 1673, 19 years old, he accompanied Marchese del Monte, the Emissary of Queen Christina, to Italy and Rome, where the royal protection ensured he would get the best teachers available; these architects, together with the compulsory study of classical monuments, made a lasting impression on Tessin.
Upon his return to Sweden after four years, the Swedish king sent him on a second trip which would last 1677-78 and take him to England and France were prominent architects such as André Le Nôtre and Jean Bérain had a deep impact on Tessin's decorations and gardens. In 1687-88 he traveled back to Sweden through Austria and Germany. During the trip he made extensive notes in a diary describing works of architecture he saw during the journey. Together with his stepbrother Abraham Winands, Tessin took part in his father's work, when Tessin inherited his father's position, he asked to share it with Winands and the two would keep working side by side until the death of Winands in 1709; when Tessin the Elder came to Stockholm, Sweden was still a major European power and Swedish nobility had the funds required to carry through prestigious architectural projects, a situation which changed with the Reduction through which the nobility lost their financial power and found themselves sidestepped by educated public officials who were raised to nobility.
As parts of this latter group, Tessin the Elder was raised to lesser nobility in 1674 and Tessin the Younger became count in 1714. However, the Reduction meant fewer assignments from the nobility, when Tessin the Younger succeeded his father in 1681, his main clients was the church and the royal court, with the many ambitious palaces and gardens of Queen Hedvig Elenora as the most important projects. In the end of the 1680s, King Charles XI commissioned Tessin to modernise the northern part of the Stockholm Palace, why the architect had the opportunity to do a second study tour, including the Netherlands and Italy; this time, however, he was met with great respect all over the continent, he proudly retold the event when King Louis XIV of France had the fountains at the Versailles Palace play upon his visit, a tribute only granted foreign princes. During this trip Tessin met Daniel Cronström who became one of his invaluable colleagues and an important contact on the continent as Tessin's projects in Sweden required him to negotiate with manufacturers and artists abroad.
Their correspondence has proven invaluable for historical research. Upon his return he begun his work on the royal palace, in 1695 his large-scale northern Baroque façade was completed inspired by Bernini's project at the Louvre. Ambitions to further renew the palace first came to a halt as the king died, were given a new perspective as the palace was destroyed by fire in 1697. Tessin was appointed to produce plans for a new palace the day after the fire and he produced a proposal which pleased both the young King Charles XII and his regency. However, as Charles XII left Sweden for his lengthy campaigns on the continent in 1700, works on the palace first progressed and following the devastating Battle of Poltava in 1709 came to a new halt. Though Tessin spent much of his remaining life producing detailed plans for the palace, it remained incomplete by the time for his death. In 1690, Tessin married his mistress Hedvig Eleonora Stenbock, maid of honour of Queen Hedvig Elenora. However, at this time Tessin still belonged to the lesser nobility and his marriage to a woman from the high nobility was regarded as inappropriate.
The marriage therefore had to take place secretly in Pomerania and, to repair the situation, Tessin had to produce a residence in accordance to his wife's status. Works on the Tessin Palace begun in 1694 and progressed but in 1697 Tessin and his family could move in and in 1701, two years after Tessin had been promoted to high nobility, the interior was completed to the extent Tessin could invite the widowed queen and the royal family to a supper. Besides his own palace, the gardens of the Drottningholm Palace and Steninge Palace, both located not far from Stockholm, are pointed out as his greatest achievements. Most of Tessin's projects as an architect were produced during the 17th century, including several churches such the King Charles' Church in Kungsör and the Holy Trinity Church in Karlskrona, many of his proposals never were built. During his life, he played an important role as an administrator and he produced ambitious city plans for Stockholm in connection to his work for the royal palace.
Tessin the Younger was the father of Carl Gustaf Tessin, one of the most influential Swedish politicians of his time. Carl Erik Tessin Hedvig Tessin von Schwerin Ulrika Maria Tessin Sparre, she was the mother of Fredrik Sparre, Lord High Chancellor of Sweden in the 1790
Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen and part of Copenhagen Inner City. The name is taken from the successive castles and palaces located on the island since Bishop Absalon constructed the city's first castle on the island in 1167 at the site where Christiansborg Palace lies today. Recognised as the centre of the Government of Denmark since the Middle Ages, the island is sometimes referred to as'the Island of Power', is lined with central government institutions and ministries; the island is dominated by the vast Christiansborg Palace which houses the Danish Parliament, the Supreme Court of Denmark, the Prime Minister's Office and the State Rooms of the Queen. Located on the island are the most important ministries, the Danish National Archives, the Royal Danish Library, several museums and the historic buildings of the Christian IV's Stock Exchange, the Chancellery and Christian IV's Brewhouse; the site used to consist of several small natural islands in the sound between the islands of Zealand and Amager.
On the largest of these, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde constructed a small castle in 1167. In 1250 the castle was extended with two side towers to get the appearance, now depicted on Copenhagen's Coat of Arms; the castle was conquered by the Hanseatic League 1368 and pulled down the following year as part of peace terms. Shortly after Copenhagen Castle was built on the same site and it became the residence for the Danish king in 1443. After the 1535-36 siege of Copenhagen during the Count's Feud, it became clear that the castle was outdated as a military installation, King Christian III transformed the castle from a military stronghold to a more liveable royal residence. However, the reconstruction took place in a rather haphazard way and continued during the reign of the following kings, resulting in a rather irregular appearance of the castle. At the same time, it became clear that the castle was becoming too small to hold the functions necessary in order to function as a royal residence and seat of the administration so a series of smaller buildings began to be erected on Slotsholmen.
During the reign of Christian III a building was constructed on the quay of the canal in front of the castle to house the Chancellery. During the reign of Christian III and Frederick II an arsenal was constructed by the beach south of the castle, during the reign of Frederick II also a supply depot. Under King Christian IV Slotsholmen saw considerable development in the southern part of the island. Here a new naval harbour was established, surrounded on one side by an Arsenal and on the other side by a Supply Depot. Other new buildings constructed were the Brewhouse. All four of these historic buildings are still there today. By the time of the introduction of the absolute monarchy in 1660, the role of Slotsholmen as the centre of administration was established. During the reign of King Frederick III, further lack of space in the castle led to the construction in 1665-1673 of an additional building between the Supply Depot and the Arsenal; this building still visible today, was to house the Cabinet of curiosities of the king, founded about 1650, the Royal Library, founded in 1648.
During the reign of King Frederick IV, a magnificent administration building was constructed in 1716-21 next to the palace adjacent to the Supply Depot. This new building was to house the chancelleries, thus replacing the previous chancellery building situated by the canal; the new chancellery building was connected to the castle by an arched passageway, thus allowing the king to stay in close contact with his government. The Chancellery Building has functioned as the heart of the central administration for 300 years, is today used by the Ministry of Finance. In spite of many attempts and projects to replace the small and antiquated castle with a more up-to-date royal residence fit for an absolute king, the old castle continued to exist well into the 18th century. Several renovations were made, most notably by Frederick IV in 1721-29; this rebuilding changed the irregular appearance of the castle to a more regular shape. However, just two years after the rebuilding was completed, the Copenhagen Castle was demolished in 1731 to give room for three consecutive Christiansborg Palaces, the two first of which were destroyed by fires.
Parts of the first and second Christianborg Palace still remain and is integrated in the present palace. The ruins of Absalon's Castle and the Copenhagen Castle are excavated and at display today under the present Christiansborg. Slotsholmen is surrounded by Copenhagen Inner Harbour by canals. Nine bridges connect Slotsholmen to the rest of Copenhagen, both Amager-side. Knippelsbro is a bascule bridge and one of two bridges over Copenhagen's Inner Harbour, the other being Langebro, it connects Slotsholmen to Christianshavn by extending Børsgade to Torvegade. Marmorbroen connects Christiansborg Riding Ground Complex to Ny Vestergade that continues to Dantes Plads with the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek; the bridge was constructed from 1739-45. It has a sandstone cladding with medallion ornamentation on the sides while to top is covered with marble. Stormbroen is a small arch bridge in stone; the bridge is named after the Assault on Copenhagen in 1659. It was at this spot, where the city ramparts at that time was located, that the Swedish tro
Frederiksberg Palace is a Baroque residence, located in Frederiksberg, adjacent to the Copenhagen Zoo. It commands an impressive view over Frederiksberg Gardens designed as a palace garden in the Baroque style. Constructed and extended from 1699 to 1735, the palace served as the royal family’s summer residence until the mid-19th century. Since 1869, it has housed the Royal Danish Military Academy; as crown prince, Frederick IV had broadened his education by travelling in Europe. He was impressed by the architecture in Italy and, on his return to Denmark, asked his father, Christian V, for permission to build a summer palace on Solbjerg as the hill in Valby was known; the original building designed by Ernst Brandenburger, was completed in 1703 for Frederick IV as a small, one-storey summer residence. The first major extension, when it was converted into a three-storey H-shaped building, was completed in 1709 by Johan Conrad Ernst, giving the palace an Italian Baroque appearance, it was Lauritz de Thurah who executed the third and final extension from 1733 to 1738 when the palace received extensions to the lateral wings encircling the courtyard.
Frederick IV spent many happy years at the palace. In 1716, he received the Russian czar Peter the Great at Frederiksberg Palace and in 1721, shortly after the death of his first wife, Queen Louise, he married his mistress Anne Sophie Reventlow there. Christian VII, married to the English princess Caroline Matilda spent some time in the palace, their son, to become Frederick VI, loved the palace and lived there both as crown prince and as king. After Frederick VI's dowager wife Queen Marie died at the palace in March 1852, the building lay empty and fell into disrepair. In 1868, it was transferred to the War Ministry and the following year it became the Officers Academy; the building has twice undergone significant restoration work, first from 1927 to 1932 and from 1993 to 1998. During the construction of the original palace building, it was decided that there should be a chapel in the east wing; this explains why there is no indication of the chapel from the outside. It covers the space behind the six central windows on the ground floor.
Wilhelm Friedrich von Platen and Ernst Brandenburger designed the chapel in the Baroque style. It was inaugurated on 31 March 1710; when the palace was taken over by the Officers Academy, the chapel's furnishings, including the impressive pulpit, were transferred elsewhere. However, they can still be seen there today; the palace and the chapel can be visited. They contain imposing stucco work, ceiling paintings, an elegant marble bathroom with a secret access staircase, the Princesses' pancake kitchen. In 1854, British MP S. M. Peto gave an altar window to the King of Demark for the chapel. Since 1932, the chapel has been used as the local parish church; the palace overlooks Frederiksberg Gardens which dates back to the first palace in 1703. At that time, it was designed by H. H. Scheel with the assistance of garden architect J. C. Krieger as a symmetrical Baroque garden with waterfalls and rows of linden trees along the palace terrace. From 1795 to 1804, it was redesigned by Peter Pedersen as an English landscape garden with the winding paths, lakes and canals which can be seen today.
It was during this period that the Apis Temple were added. List of castles and palaces in Denmark Tourism in Denmark Media related to Frederiksberg Slot at Wikimedia Commons
Elers' Kollegium is a student residence located in the medieval part of Copenhagen. The dormitory or society provides living quarters for 20 students from the University of Copenhagen or from the Technical University of Denmark; the dormitory is one of five small dormitories referred to as the old dormitories. They are administered by the University of Copenhagen, only students who have passed at least two years of studies are considered for admission, it is an academic honor to be a member of these dormitories. It was founded on November 29, 1691 by Councilor of State Jørgen Elers, having lost his last two children in the theater fire in 1689; the building was inaugurated in 1705, had to be reconstructed after the great fire in 1728. Official website
Fredensborg Palace is a palace located on the eastern shore of Lake Esrum in Fredensborg on the island of Zealand in Denmark. It is the Danish Royal Family’s spring and autumn residence, is the site of important state visits and events in the Royal Family, it is the most used of the Royal Family’s residences. At the end of the Great Northern War King Frederick IV asked architect Johan Cornelius Krieger, royal gardener to the court at Rosenborg Castle, to build him a small pleasure palace on the site of a farmyard named Østrup. Krieger built the French-inspired baroque palace 1720–1726, the King himself took an active part in the planning of the building and grounds, followed construction closely; the man responsible for the actual construction was General Building Master Johan Conrad Ernst, responsible for the construction of Frederiksberg Palace. While the building was still under construction Denmark–Norway and Sweden negotiated a peace treaty, signed July 3, 1720 on the site of the unfinished palace The treaty determined the fate of Skåne, which since that time has been a part of Sweden, ended Denmark’s eleven-year participation in the Great Northern War.
To commemorate the signing of the peace accord the palace was named Fredens Borg. The palace complex consisted of a small square, 1 1⁄2-storey-high main palace with dome and lanterns, it is positioned at the centre of what is known as a "hunting star", a number of straight intersecting paths in a game hunting reserve. During a hunt it was permissible to shoot straight down the long paths, which radiated out from the centre; the dome hall measured 15 x 15 m, had a height of 27 m. The sumptuous room featured stucco by C. E. Brenno and a plafond by Hendrick Krock. In front of the main building was placed an octagonal courtyard encircled by the single-storey servants' wings, called Red Wing, it is the only red building at Fredensborg Palace, it has open half-timbers under a red tile roof. East of the octagon were the long stables building; the Orangery, equipped with huge glasshouse windows, was connected to the main building by a small secret passage, so that the Royal Family and the courtiers could walk to the chapel without getting their feet wet.
The palace chapel stood in the middle of the two buildings, has an exaggerated copper spire, a pilaster-decorated façade facing the riding ring, a carved gable featuring a bust of Frederik IV in relief carved by Didrick Gercken. On the other side of the church was the Courtiers Wing, residences for the court's clerks and members of the Royal Household; this section of the palace was built from 1724–1726, introduces elements of the Dutch Baroque style and Rococo. The palace was extended throughout the early 18th century, however the main structure of the palace has remained unchanged since its inauguration on October 11, 1722, the King's 51st birthday. Krieger completed his work on the palace with the erection of the “new Court Chancery building” in 1731; the black-glazed tile, half-hipped roof building is now known as The Chancellery House. It butted up to the riding-ring on the southern edge. A major alteration of Krieger's original building was made in 1741–1744 when Lauritz de Thurah, the King's favorite architect, elevated the roof of the palace's main building.
The slanted roof was replaced by a flat one, a characteristically de Thurah sandstone balustrade was erected. In 1751 he transformed the Orangery into a residential building for the ladies-in-waiting. In 1753 Nicolai Eigtved extended the palace by adding four symmetrically-positioned corner pavilions with copper pyramid-shaped roofs to the main building. In the 19th century, King Christian IX and Queen Louise, who counted England's Queen Alexandra, King George I of Greece and Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia amongst their children used Fredensborg to host annual family reunions. There, their grandchildren, including the future Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Kings George V of the United Kingdom, Haakon VII of Norway, Constantine I of Greece, as well as the future Queen Maud of Norway, would play games in the park. Queen Margrethe uses Fredensborg as a spring and autumn residence, it is the usual venue for her birthday celebrations every April; the Queen's younger sister, Princess Benedikte, married HH Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg at the Chapel of Fredensborg Palace on 3 February 1968.
Until her death, the late Queen Mother, Queen Ingrid used the Chancellery House at Fredensborg as her private residence. The part of palace Chancellery House is the spring and autumn home of Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary; the palace gardens are among Denmark's largest historical gardens, are Denmark's finest example of a baroque garden. These too was designed by Krieger, were extended and altered during the 18th century; the long, straight avenues which extend from the castle in a star-shaped pattern were recreated in the 1970s to 1990s. Between these avenues lies large wooded areas with winding paths. Most of the statues in the gardens were sculptured by Johannes Wiedewelt. Of special interest is the "Valley of the Norsemen with 70 sculptures of Norwegian and Faroese farmers and fishermen carved by J. G. Grund; the garden is open all year round. The area of the gardens closest to the palace is reserved for the Royal Family, but is open to the public in July. Here are the kitchen gardens, which supply fresh vegetables for the househ