South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Sarasota is a city located in Sarasota County on the southwestern coast of the U. S. state of Florida. The area is renowned for its cultural and environmental amenities, resorts, connections to the Ringling family, Amish community, the city is located at the southern end of the Tampa Bay Area, north of Fort Myers and Punta Gorda. Its current official limits include Sarasota Bay and several islands between the bay and the Gulf of Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, in 2013 Sarasota had a population of 53,326, in 1986 it became designated as a certified local government. Sarasota is a city of the Sarasota metropolitan area, and is the seat of Sarasota County. The islands separating Sarasota Bay from the gulf near the city, known as keys, include Lido Key and Siesta Key, which are famous worldwide for the quality of their sandy beaches. The keys that are included in the boundary of Sarasota are Lido Key, St. Armands Key, Otter Key, Coon Key, Bird Key, Siesta Key was named Sarasota Key. At one time, it and all of Longboat Key were considered part of Sarasota, Longboat Key is the largest key separating the bay from the gulf, but it is now evenly divided by the new county line of 1921.
The city limits had expanded significantly with the real estate rush of the twentieth century. The wild speculation boom began to crash in 1926 and following that, the city limits began to contract, shrinking to less than a quarter of that area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city currently has an area of 25.9 square miles. Sarasota has a subtropical climate closely bordering a tropical savanna climate, with hot, humid summers. There are distinct rainy and dry seasons in Sarasota, with the season lasting from June to September. As of the census of 2000, there were 52,715 people,23,427 households, the population density was 3,539.8 per square mile. There were 26,898 housing units at a density of 1,806.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76. 91% White,16. 02% African American,0. 35% Native American,1. 02% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,3. 74% from other races, and 1. 91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11. 92% of the population,38. 3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.12 and the family size was 2.81
The ATP World Tour Finals is the second highest tier of mens tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments. It is held annually in November at the O2 Arena in London, the ATP World Tour Finals are the season-ending championships of the Association of Tennis Professionals World Tour, featuring the top eight singles players and doubles teams of the ATP Rankings. The tournament was first held in 1970, roger Federer holds the record for the most singles titles, with six, while Peter Fleming and John McEnroe hold record with 7 titles in doubles. In the current tournament, winners are awarded up to 1500 rankings points, the event is the fourth evolution of a championship which began in 1970. It was originally known as the Masters Grand Prix and was part of the Grand Prix Tennis Circuit and it was organised by the International Lawn Tennis Federation ITF. It ran alongside the competing WCT Finals the other season ending championships for the rival World Championship Tennis Tour, the Masters was a year-end showpiece event between the best players on the mens tour, but did not count for any world ranking points.
In 1990, the Association of Tennis Professionals took over the running of the mens tour, World ranking points were now at stake, with an undefeated champion earning the same number of points they would for winning one of the four Grand Slam events. In December 1999, the ATP and ITF agreed to discontinue the two events and create a new jointly-owned event called the Tennis Masters Cup. As with the Masters Grand Prix and the ATP Tour World Championships, player who is ranked number eight in the ATP Champions Race world rankings does not have a guaranteed spot. If two players outside the top eight win Grand Slam events, the higher placed player in the world takes the final spot in the Tennis Masters Cup. In 2009 the Masters was renamed to the ATP World Tour Finals, in 2012 the organisers extended the contract by two years up to 2015. In 2015 the contract was extended again for three years up to 2018. For many years, the event was held as a separate tournament the week after the singles competition.
There are eight players or teams, and playing is mandatory except for injury or other good cause. Qualification is as follows, the top seven players in the ATP rankings up to two grand slam winners ranked between 8 and 20 the next players in the ATP rankings, until the quota of eight is reached. The ATP World Tour Finals currently rewards the following points and prize money, there is an appearance fee of $179,000 singles, and $88,000 per doubles team. The two alternates are paid $100,000 and $34,000, an undefeated champion would earn the maximum 1,500 points, and $2,391,000 in singles or $455,000 in doubles. In addition, prizes include the Barclays ATP Singles and Doubles World Tour Finals Trophies, unlike all other singles events on the mens tour, the ATP World Tour Finals is not a straightforward knock-out tournament. Eight players are divided into two groups of four and play three matches each against the other players in their group
The Swiss Indoors is a professional mens tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts. Originally an event of the Grand Prix tennis circuit between 1970 and 1989, since 2009 it has been part of the World Tour 500 Series of the ATP Tour. Before 2009, it was part of the ATP International Series which in 2009 became the ATP World Tour 250 series and it has been held annually at the St. Jakobshalle in Basel, Switzerland, in October, since 1995. Roger Federer holds the record for most singles titles, having won the tournament seven times, in 2006–2008, 2010–2011, Federer has reached the final a record twelve times, which is an Open Era record for most finals reached at a single ATP event. Three Swiss players have won the title, Michel Burgener, in 1972, Jakob Hlasek, in 1991. The tournament has been sponsored in the past by Ebel and Davidoff. com profile Swiss Indoors Basel Schedule
Global Water Foundation
The Global Water Foundation is a non-profit organisation dedicated to delivering clean water and sanitation to the worlds neediest communities. Professional tennis player Johan Kriek founded the organisation in 2005 after attending meetings of the World Economic Forum in Cape Town, the goals of the GWF echo the Millennium Development Goals established at the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000. The GWF is in the service of humanity, to make the world a better place, a healthier place. All projects and programs funded by the GWF have the same goal, the GWF completed their first project in 2006 in the Kamuli District in eastern Uganda. The GWF addressed grave water problems at the 983-student Ndolwa Parents School in the town of Budiope, the project was so successful that it quickly expanded outward from the school grounds and today serves the surrounding area of 15,000 people with clean water. The GWF worked with skilled contractors and members of the community to drill a borehole and this self-contained system stores water in a 2,600 gallon holding tank and is solar-powered, providing maximum water output without relying on fuel that drives up costs.
The funds needed to drill the borehole and install the solar pump were approximately US$50,000, the GWF is working with the Rotary International to repair a broken pipeline in Manta, Ecuador. Since the pipeline break, these villages receive clean water by truck once every two weeks at best, mayor of Manta Jorge Zambrano attended the event, which featured a dinner of Ecuadorian fare and live and silent auctions. The project is underway and expected to complete work by early 2008. The Global Water Foundation understands the need to raise awareness of the importance of clean water. A public service announcement and call to action from Johan Kriek can be found on YouTube, the GWF is reaching out younger audiences through popular social networking communities such as MySpace and Facebook. In addition to the GWFs Web site, the opened a Virtual Education Center in the online community Second Life. The Virtual Education Center showcases photos from the GWFs work in Uganda, as well as, the office is complete with a sitting area and free GWF T-shirts for visitors
The French Open, often referred to as Roland Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France. Roland Garros is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen. Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros, in 1891 the Championnat de France, which is commonly referred to in English as the French Championships, was begun. It was only open to players who were members of French clubs. The first winner was a Briton—H, the first womens singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the doubles in 1907. This French club members only tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period, Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, the Racing Club de France, played on clay.
For one year,1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors. Winners of this tournament included world no, 1s such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games, in 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF. It was held at the Stade Français in Saint-Cloud in 1925 and 1927, in 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French club members only Championship, on clay. In 1928, the Roland Garros stadium was opened and the event has held there ever since. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros.
The new Stade de Roland Garros, and its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge, during World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. From 1946 through 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, in 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented, the Prix Orange, the Prix Citron, in another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place
John Patrick McEnroe Jr. is an American former World No.1 professional tennis player, often rated among the greatest players of all time in the sport, especially for his touch on the volley. He won seven Grand Slam singles titles, nine Grand Slam mens doubles titles and he won a record eight year-end championships,19 Grand Prix Super Series titles, and finished his career with 77 ATP-listed singles titles and 78 in doubles. In 1981,1983 and 1984 he was both the ATP player of the year and the ITF World Champion for Mens singles and his match record of 82–3 in 1984 remains the best single season win rate of the Open Era. McEnroe is a former Captain of the United States Davis Cup team and he continues to play tennis and competes in senior events on the ATP Champions Tour. He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1999, after his tennis career he became a television commentator, a game show host and a chat show host. Additionally, he has appeared in films and television shows as himself and has played music live.
He has been married since 1997 to musician and former Scandal lead singer Patty Smyth, McEnroe was born in Wiesbaden, West Germany, to American parents, John Patrick McEnroe Sr. and his wife Kay, née Tresham. His father, who is of Irish descent, was at the time stationed with the United States Air Force, in 1960, the family moved to the New York City area, where McEnroes father worked daytime as an advertising agent while attending Fordham Law School by night. He has two brothers and former professional tennis player Patrick. McEnroe grew up in Douglaston, New York City and he started playing tennis when he was eight, at the nearby Douglaston Club with his brothers. When he was nine, his parents enrolled him in the Eastern Lawn Tennis Association and he began competing in national juniors tournaments, and at twelve—when he was ranked seven in his age group—he joined the Port Washington Tennis Academy, Long Island, New York. McEnroe attended Trinity School and graduated in 1977 and it was the best performance by a qualifier at a Grand Slam tournament and a record performance by an amateur in the open era.
After Wimbledon in 1977, McEnroe entered Stanford University and won the National Collegiate Athletic Association singles, in 1978, he joined the ATP tour and signed his first professional endorsement deal, with Sergio Tacchini. He again advanced to the semifinals at a Grand Slam, this time the US Open, following which, he proceeded to win five titles that year, including his first Masters Grand Prix, beating Arthur Ashe in straight sets. In 1979, McEnroe won the Wimbledon Doubles title, the duo adding the 1979 US Open Doubles title to their haul as well, McEnroe won his first Grand Slam singles title at the US Open. He defeated his friend Vitas Gerulaitis in straight sets in the final to become the youngest male winner of the title at the US Open since Pancho Gonzales. He won the prestigious season-ending WCT Finals, beating Björn Borg in four sets, McEnroe won 10 singles and 17 doubles titles that year. At Wimbledon, McEnroe reached the 1980 Wimbledon Mens Singles final—his first final at Wimbledon—where he faced Björn Borg, at the start of the final, McEnroe was booed by the crowd as he entered Centre Court following heated exchanges with officials during his semifinal victory over Jimmy Connors
He held a year-end top ten ranking for an Open Era record 16 years. By virtue of his long and prolific career, Connors still holds three prominent Open Era singles records,109 titles,1535 matches played, and 1256 match wins and his titles include eight majors, three year-end championships, and 17 Grand Prix Super Series. In 1974, he became the man in the Open Era to win three majors in a calendar year, and his total career match win rate of 81. 82% remains in the top four of the era. He is the first male player to win 5 US Open titles, Connors was known for his fiery competitiveness, acrimonious relationships with a number of peers, and boorish behavior that pandered to the crowd. For these reasons, he has likened to baseball player Pete Rose. Connors grew up in East St. Louis, across the Mississippi River from St. Louis and he played in his first U. S. Championship, the U. S. boys 11-and-under of 1961, when he was nine years old. Connors mother, took him to Southern California to be coached by Pancho Segura, starting at age 16 and he and his brother, John Johnny Connors, attended St.
In 1970, Connors recorded his first victory in the first round of the Pacific Southwest Open in Los Angeles, in 1971, Connors won the NCAA singles title as a Freshman while attending UCLA and attaining All-American status. He turned professional in 1972 and won his first tournament, the Jacksonville Open. However, Connors played in tournaments and won the 1973 US Pro Singles, his first significant title, toppling Arthur Ashe in a five-set final, 6–3, 4–6, 6–4, 3–6. Connors won eight Grand Slam singles championships, five US Opens and he did not participate in the French Open during his peak years and only played in two Australian Opens in his entire career, winning it in 1974 and reaching the final in 1975. In 1974, Connors was the dominant player and he had a 99–4 record that year and won 15 tournaments, including three of the four Grand Slam singles titles. The French Open did not allow Connors to participate due to his association with World Team Tennis, however, he won the Australian Open, defeating Phil Dent in four sets.
He beat Ken Rosewall in straight sets in the finals of both Wimbledon and the US Open and his exclusion from the French Open denied him the opportunity to become the first male player since Rod Laver to win all four Major singles titles in a calendar year. Connors reached the final of the US Open in five years from 1974 through 1978. He reached the final of Wimbledon four out of five years during his peak, despite not being allowed to play in the French Open for a number of years, he was still able to reach the semifinals four times in his career. In the open era, Connors is one of six men to win three or more Grand Slam singles titles in a calendar year. Connors reached the ATP world No.1 ranking on July 29,1974 and held it for 160 consecutive weeks, a record until it was surpassed by Roger Federer on February 26,2007
US Open (tennis)
The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hardcourt tennis tournament. The tournament is the version of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world. The US Open is held annually, starting on the last Monday in August, the main tournament consists of five event championships and womens singles and womens doubles, and mixed doubles, with additional tournaments for senior and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has played on acrylic hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens. The US Open is owned and organized by the United States Tennis Association, net proceeds from ticket sales and television deals are used to promote the development of tennis in the United States. The US Open is the only Grand Slam that employs tiebreakers in every set of a match, the first edition was won by Richard Sears, who went on to win seven consecutive singles titles. In the first years of the U. S. National Championship only men competed and this was followed by the introduction of the U. S.
Womens National Doubles Championship in 1899 and the U. S. The womens tournament used a system from 1888 through 1918. This view was opposed by another group of players which included eight former national singles champions, the contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on February 5,1915 and with 128 votes in favor and 119 against it was decided to relocate. From 1921 through 1923, the tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia and it returned to Forest Hills in 1924 following the completion of the newly constructed 14,000 seat concrete Forest Hills Stadium. Though regarded unofficially by many as a major championship beforehand, the tournament was officially designated as one of the tournaments by the ILTF commencing in 1924. At the 1922 U. S. National Championships the draw for the first time included seeded players in order to avoid leading players drawing against each other in the early rounds. Open era The open era began in 1968 when all five events were merged into the US Open, the 1968 combined tournament was open to professionals for the first time.
That year,96 men and 63 women entered the event, from 1970 to 1974 the US Open used a best-of-nine point, sudden death tiebreaker before moving to the ITF best-of-twelve point system. In 1973 the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women with that years singles champions John Newcombe, another US Open innovation came in 1975 when floodlights enabled night play for the first time. In 1978 the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club, Forest Hills, Queens to the larger USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, three miles to the north. In the process, the tournament switched the court surface from clay, jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on all three surfaces, while Chris Evert is the only woman to win on two surfaces. The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that has played every year since its inception
Vytautas Kevin Gerulaitis was an American professional tennis player. In 1975, Gerulaitis won the doubles title at Wimbledon. He won the singles title at one of the two Australian Open tournaments held in 1977. Gerulaitis won two Italian Open titles, in 1977 and 1979, and the WCT Finals in Dallas, in 1978. Gerulaitis, a Lithuanian American, was born on July 26,1954, in Brooklyn, New York, to Lithuanian immigrant parents and he attended Archbishop Molloy High School in Queens, graduating in 1971. He attended Columbia College of Columbia University for one year before dropping out to pursue tennis full-time, Gerulaitis was nicknamed The Lithuanian Lion. Gerulaitis led the Pittsburgh Triangles to the World TeamTennis championship title at Pittsburghs Mellon Arena in 1975, Gerulaitis was coached by Fred Stolle from 1977 until 1983. He won the doubles title at Wimbledon in 1975. He was a singles semi-finalist at Wimbledon in both 1977 and 1978. In 1977 he lost a Wimbledon semifinal to his friend and practice partner, Björn Borg, 6–4, 3–6, 6–3, 3–6, 8–6.
In 1977 Gerulaitis won the most significant title of his career at the Australian Open, in 1978 Gerulaitis won the year-end championship WCT Finals for the World Championship Tennis tour, beating Eddie Dibbs 6–3, 6–2, 6–1. By 1978 he was the mens singles player in the world. In 1979 Gerulaitis lost in the singles finals at the US Open to fellow New Yorker, John McEnroe. He was a member of the United States team which won the Davis Cup in 1979 and he won two singles rubbers in the final, as the US beat Italy 5–0. Gerulaitis reached his third Grand Slam singles final in 1980, when he lost in the final of the French Open to Björn Borg in straight sets. In February 1981 Gerulaitis won an invitational tournament in Toronto. During his career Gerulaitis won 25 top-level singles titles and 8 doubles titles and his career-high singles ranking was World No.3 which he reached on February 27,1978. Gerulaitis was known for his quick hands at the net
The Australian Open is a major tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia. First held in 1905, the tournament is chronologically the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events of the year – the other three being the French Open and the US Open. It features mens and womens singles, mens and mixed doubles and juniors championships, as well as wheelchair, the Australian Open typically has high attendances and occasionally exceeding the US Open. The tournament holds the record for the highest attendance at a Grand Slam event, the Australian Open is managed by Tennis Australia, formerly the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, and was first played at the Warehousemans Cricket Ground in Melbourne in November 1905. This facility is now known as the Albert Reserve Tennis Centre, the tournament was first known as the Australasian Championships and became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969. Since 1905, the Australian Open has been staged in five Australian and two New Zealand cities, Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Hastings.
Though started in 1905, the tournament was not designated as being a championship until 1924. The tournament committee changed the structure of the tournament to include seeding at that time, in 1972, it was decided to stage the tournament in Melbourne each year because it attracted the biggest patronage of any Australian city. The tournament was played at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club from 1972 until the move to the new Melbourne Park complex in 1988, the new facilities at Melbourne Park were envisaged to meet the demands of a tournament that had outgrown Kooyongs capacity. The move to Melbourne Park was an success, with a 90 percent increase in attendance in 1988 on the previous year at Kooyong. Because of Australias geographic remoteness, very few foreign players entered this tournament in the early 20th century, in the 1920s, the trip by ship from Europe to Australia took about 45 days. The first tennis players who came by boats were the US Davis Cup players in November 1946, even inside the country, many players could not travel easily.
When the tournament was held in Perth, no one from Victoria or New South Wales crossed by train, in Christchurch in 1906, of a small field of 10 players, only two Australians attended and the tournament was won by a New Zealander. The first tournaments of the Australasian Championships suffered from the competition of the other Australasian tournaments, before 1905, all Australian states and New Zealand had their own championships, the first organised in 1880 in Melbourne and called the Championship of the Colony of Victoria. In those years, the best two players – Australian Norman Brookes and New Zealander Anthony Wilding – almost did not play this tournament, Brookes came once and won in 1911, and Wilding entered and won the competition twice. Their meetings in the Victorian Championships helped to determine the best Australasian players, even when the Australasian Championships were held in Hastings, New Zealand, in 1912, though three times Wimbledon champion, did not come back to his home country.
It was a problem for all players of the era. Brookes went to Europe only three times, where he reached the Wimbledon Challenge Round once and won Wimbledon twice