A Prime Minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative holds a ceremonial position, although with reserve powers. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state.
The prime minister is but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may exercise executive powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament; as well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Prime ministers may take other ministerial posts. For example, during the Second World War, Winston Churchill was Minister of Defence and in the current cabinet of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu serves as Minister of Communications, Foreign Affairs, Regional Cooperation and Interior; the term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to Cardinal Richelieu after he was named to head the royal council in 1624.
The title was however informal and used alongside the informal principal ministre d'État more as a job description. After 1661, Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use; the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy. Over time, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century; the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII; these ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and the "prime minister".
The power of these ministers depended on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed by the monarch, the monarch presided over its meetings; when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke shared power. In the mid 17th century, after the English Civil War, Parliament strengthened its position relative to the monarch gained more power through the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and passage of the Bill of Rights in 1689; the monarch could no longer establish any law or impose any tax without its permission and thus the House of Commons became a part of the government.
It is at this point. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I to the throne. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government. From 1721 this was the Whig politician Robert Walpole. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons with his supporters. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than himself have private dealings with the king, that when the cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public, or resign; as a prime minister, Lord Melbourne, said, "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing."
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Karl Albert Staaff was a Swedish liberal politician and lawyer. He served twice as Prime Minister of Sweden. Staaff was active in the Swedish movement for universal suffrage, as the Liberal party's Prime Minister he presided in 1905 over an attempt to introduce universal and equal suffrage for men, his successor as party leader, Nils Edén managed to carry this further into universal suffrage in 1918–19, including for women. Due to conservative intervention, Staaff's proposal for first past the post was scrapped for a proportional system. In 1912, the period of leave that women were allowed following a child’s birth was extended to 6 weeks, in 1913 a tax-financed pension scheme was introduced. Staaff ran into sharp conflict with the conservative Swedish establishment, became a hated figure in the Conservative, pro-Monarchic and anti-Democratic establishment. An intense smear campaign was launched against him, picturing him as the destroyer of Swedish tradition and society: wealthy Stockholmers could buy ash-trays shaped as his head.
His staunch anti-military politics created the greatest fundraising in the Swedish history until that time, the 12 M kronor coastal battleship HSwMS Sverige where the funds where raised in a few months in 1912. Staaff had to bite the lemon, the ship was ordered. In 1914 Staaff stepped down from government in protest, after Conservatives had summoned a farmers' demonstration at the Royal castle's court in Stockholm, where King Gustaf V – who according to the law was supposed to stay out of politics – denounced Staaff's defence policies; the contemporary Swedish Liberal party The Liberals counts him as the first among the more prominent leaders of Swedish 20th century liberalism, followed by such parliamentarians as Nils Edén, Carl Ekman, Nobel Prize laureate Bertil Ohlin, Gunnar Helén, Per Ahlmark and Bengt Westerberg. Works by or about Karl Staaff at Internet Archive
Christian Lundeberg was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 2 August to 7 November 1905. Lundeberg was born in Gävleborg County, he was the son of Johan Ulrik August Lundeberg, a mill owner, Maria Eckman. He studied at Ultuna and at a military school, was a Löjtnant from 1861 to 1874, after which he left the military service, he worked at the iron works at Forsbacka bruk, where he was CEO from 1885 to 1906. He was a member of the First Chamber of Parliament for the conservative and protectionist party, became its leader in 1899. Lundeberg was a leading figure during the parliamentary discussions regarding the union between Sweden and Norway, he was the chairman of a committee, critical of, lead to the demise of Johan Ramstedt's government. In June 1905, the King appointed Lundeberg to create a government, he created a coalition government that in September 1905 reached an agreement which allowed Norway to hold a referendum for, or against, independence from Sweden. Following the resolution of the Union Crisis, Lundeberg tried to find a mandate to continue with the coalition government in order to resolve the issue of suffrage.
When his attempt failed, he went back to being a member of parliament, was a speaker in the First Chamber of Parliament from 1909 until his death in 1911
Erik Gustaf Boström
Erik Gustaf Bernhard Boström was a Swedish landowner and politician, a member of the Swedish Parliament and the longest-serving Prime Minister of Sweden of the 19th century. He served twice, first from 1891 to 1900 and again from 1902 to 1905, he was known as E. G. Boström or E. Gust. Boström. In 1871, he married Carolina "Lina" Almqvist, with whom he had one son. Brother of County Governor Filip Boström and nephew of the philosopher Christopher Jacob Boström. Boström’s governmental policy was marked by its pragmatism. Over time, Boström gained a good reputation as being a rallying national icon despite being the first prime minister to have neither an academic education nor experience with upper governmental positions, he was quite popular with King Oscar II. Boström’s eventual downfall was caused by his refusal to budge on the issue of Norway. Erik Gustaf Boström was born in Stockholm, the son of Eric Samuel Boström, chief judge of the district court and his wife Elisabet Gustava Fredenheim; the family was one branch of the Laestadius family of priests from Norrland.
His paternal grandfather Christopher Laestander, a townsman and ship carpenter in the city of Piteå, took the surname Boström. He was tutored by Kristian Claëson, whose first cousin served as the Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs under Boström in 1898. In 1854, he became a student at the Uppsala Cathedral School, the year his father died, it is worth noting that five of his fellow cabinet members during his first term attended the same school: Axel Rappe, Edvard von Krusenstjerna, Ludvig Annerstedt, Gustaf Gilljam and Lars Åkerhielm. In 1861, he transferred to Uppsala University, where he studied until 1863 when his mother died and he had to take over her manor at Östanå Castle; as a youth he availed himself of the opportunity to pay to avoid conscription, last possible in 1872. Boström was quite successful as a farmer and he started to get involved in local politics. In January 1870, he became a member of the executive committee of the Agricultural Society of Stockholm County and of the county council of Stockholm County, where he served as vice-chairperson and chairperson for many years.
In 1871, he married daughter of Justice Councillor and Minister Ludvig Almqvist. In 1875, he was elected to the lower house of parliament to represent the judicial district of Södra Roslagen. In parliament, he joined the Lantmanna Party and positioned himself as a leading protectionist, supporting tariff protection, in the Standing Committees of Ways and Means and of Banking. In addition, he was interested in a strong defence, which he considered to have manifested itself as a strong marine defence, a strong opposition to the abolition of the Swedish allotment system. After he retired from his position as Prime Minister, Boström became the Chancellor of the Swedish Universities, where he tried unsuccessfully to prevent Bengt Lidforss from continuing on as associate professor at Lund University, he tendered his resignation from his position as chancellor, although he retracted it. Boström continued to be interested in politics and in a letter that he wrote to his dear old friend Carl Herslow on 4 June, he stated that it would be desirable for the retired government to have been able to stay on.
He said in a letter that Karl Staaff's government could take of social policy better than a conservative government could and that Staaff appeared to possess the ability to accomplish a lot, although he chose a different way. Boström died in his home in Stockholm on 21 February 1907. A few days the bells pealed out over Stockholm to commemorate the former Prime Minister. One brother, County Governor of Södermanland County Filip Boström. One sister Ebba Augusta. Six daughters: Hedvig, Carolina Elisabeth, Sofia Lovisa, Clara Gustafva, Ingeborg Maria and Eva Margareta. One son: Chamberlain Gustaf Samuel Boström. Married to Carolina Almqvist, daughter of Councillor of Justice and Minister Ludvig Almqvist
Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden
The Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden is the supreme court and the third and final tier for administrative court cases in Sweden, is located in Stockholm. It has a parallel status to that of the Supreme Court of Sweden, the supreme court for criminal and civil law cases, it hears cases which have been decided by one of the four Administrative courts of appeal, which represent the second tier for administrative court cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided, a leave to appeal must be obtained, only granted when the case is of interest as a precedent; the bulk of its caseload consist of taxation and social security cases. Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court are appointed by government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. By law, there shall be fourteen Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court or such a higher a number as may be required, at the government's discretion; as of 2009, there were eighteen Justices in the court.
One of the Justices serves as president and head of the court, is appointed by the government to this function. Since 3 January 2011, Justice Mats Melin serves as the court's president. In total the court has 100 employees; the court was founded in 1909. Before that, the Supreme Court of Sweden handed administrative court matters as well. From 1972 until 2009, the Supreme Administrative Court resided in the Stenbock Palace on the Riddarholmen islet in central Stockholm. Since 2011 the court sits in the Sparre Palace on Riddarholmen. Courts of Sweden: The Supreme Administrative Court