Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
A currency, in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money in common use for people in a nation. Under this definition, US dollars, pounds sterling, Australian dollars, European euros, Russian rubles and Indian Rupees are examples of currency; these various currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote and money; the latter definition, pertaining to the currency systems of nations, is the topic of this article. Currencies can be classified into two monetary systems: fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the currency's value.
Some currencies are legal tender in certain political jurisdictions. Others are traded for their economic value. Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of the Internet. Money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia and in Ancient Egypt. In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities; this formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. However, the collapse of the Near Eastern trading system pointed to a flaw: in an era where there was no place, safe to store value, the value of a circulating medium could only be as sound as the forces that defended that store. A trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military. By the late Bronze Age, however, a series of treaties had established safe passage for merchants around the Eastern Mediterranean, spreading from Minoan Crete and Mycenae in the northwest to Elam and Bahrain in the southeast.
It is not known what was used as a currency for these exchanges, but it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus, may have functioned as a currency. It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought the trading system of oxhide ingots to an end, it was only the recovery of Phoenician trade in the 10th and 9th centuries BC that led to a return to prosperity, the appearance of real coinage first in Anatolia with Croesus of Lydia and subsequently with the Greeks and Persians. In Africa, many forms of value store have been used, including beads, ivory, various forms of weapons, the manilla currency, ochre and other earth oxides; the manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to sell slaves. African currency is still notable for its variety, in many places, various forms of barter still apply; these factors led to the metal itself being the store of value: first silver both silver and gold, at one point bronze.
Now we have other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined and stamped into coins; this was to assure the individual accepting the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but the existence of standard coins created a new unit of account, which helped lead to banking. Archimedes' principle provided the next link: coins could now be tested for their fine weight of metal, thus the value of a coin could be determined if it had been shaved, debased or otherwise tampered with. Most major economies using coinage had several tiers of coins of different values, made of copper and gold. Gold coins were the most valuable and were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities. Units of account were defined as the value of a particular type of gold coin. Silver coins were used for midsized transactions, sometimes defined a unit of account, while coins of copper or silver, or some mixture of them, might be used for everyday transactions.
This system had been used in ancient India since the time of the Mahajanapadas. The exact ratios between the values of the three metals varied between different eras and places. However, the rarity of gold made it more valuable than silver, silver was worth more than copper. In premodern China, the need for credit and for a medium of exchange, less physically cumbersome than large numbers of copper coins led to the introduction of paper money, i.e. banknotes. Their introduction was a gradual process which lasted from the late Tang dynasty into the Song dynasty, it began as a means for merchants to exchange heavy coinage for receipts of deposit issued as promissory notes by wholesalers' shops. These notes were valid for temporary use in a small regional territory. In the 10th century, the Song dynasty government began to circulate these notes amongst the traders in its monopolized salt industry; the Song government granted several shops the right to issue banknotes, in the early 12th century the government took over these shops to produce state-issued currency.
Yet the banknotes issued w
Kuopio is a Finnish city and municipality located in the region of Northern Savonia. It has a population of 118,667. Kuopio has a total area of 4,326.35 square kilometres, of which 719.85 km2 is water and half is forest. Though the city’s population is a spread-out 74/km2, the city's urban areas are populated comparably densely, making Kuopio Finland’s second-most densely populated city. Since 1969 Kuopio has grown extensively through municipality mergers. Kuopio’s population surpassed 100,000 when the town of Nilsiä joined the city in the beginning of 2013. Several explanations are behind the name Kuopio; the first is that in the 16th century, a certain influential person named Kauhanen in Tavinsalmi changed his name to Skopa and the people's pronunciation was Coopia and Cuopio. The second explanation is that it comes from the verb kuopia, meaning "paw", as when a horse paws the ground with its hoof. A third explanation is that it came from a certain Karelian man's name Prokopij, from Ruokolahti in the Middle Ages.
This explanation is the most and is supported by the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland. In the 1550s, under the influence of Mikael Agricola, a church and a parish were founded in Kuopionniemi. Governor Peter Brahe founded the city of Kuopio in 1653, but the official date is recognized as November 17, 1775, when King Gustav III of Sweden ordered the formal establishment of the city; the period of Russian rule brought notable transportation development within Eastern Finland. The Saimaa Canal opened up a summer route towards the Baltic Sea, the Savo railroad improved transport in winter; the municipality of Maaninka joined the city of Kuopio in 2015, the town of Nilsiä in 2013, Karttula in 2011, as did Vehmersalmi in 2005, Riistavesi in 1973, Kuopion maalaiskunta in 1969. The city is surrounded by Lake Kallavesi, several parts of it are built on islands. Kuopio's ample waterfronts and islands are used in the Saaristokaupunki -project, the biggest residential area being built in Finland.
Saaristokaupunki will accommodate a total of 14,000 inhabitants in 2015. All houses will be situated no more than 500 metres from the nearest lakeshore. Kuopio falls in the subarctic climate zone bordering on continental due to its warm summers. Winters are long and cold, with average highs staying below freezing from November until March, summers are short and mild. Most precipitation occurs in early fall; the summers are warm for its latitude the lows. This is due to influence from the lake, making it much warmer on summer nights than in areas away from water. In winter, maritime moderation is eliminated; the city has a nationally unique feature in its street network, where every other street is reserved for pedestrian and cycle traffic, so-called "rännikatu". These streets provide pedestrians a calm environment away from vehicular traffic; this setup dates back to Kuopio’s first town plan by Pehr Kjellman in 1776. Rännikadut were created as a fire barrier to prevent a possible fire escalating in a wood-constructed city.
The Blue Highway passes through Kuopio. It is an international tourist route from Mo i Rana, Norway to Pudozh, Russia via Sweden and Finland. Long-distance transport connections from Kuopio include Pendolino and InterCity trains to several destinations around Finland, operated by VR, as well as multiple daily departures from Kuopio Airport on Finnair to Helsinki. Kuopio has always been a city of education; some of the first schools offering education in Finnish were established in Kuopio. The most important institutions are the University of Eastern Finland, the Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Vocational College of Northern Savonia and the Kuopio department of the Sibelius Academy. Kuopio is known as a strong center of health, environment, food & nutrition and welfare professions, as the major organisations University of Kuopio, Savonia University of Applied Sciences and Technopolis Kuopio are oriented to those areas. There are about 4,200 enterprises in Kuopio, of which 180 are export companies.
These provide about 45,000 jobs. Kuopio is known as the cultural center of Eastern Finland. A wide range of musical and dance education is available and the cultural life is active. Notable events include ANTI – Contemporary Art Festival, Kuopio Dance Festival, Kuopio Rockcock, Kuopio Wine Festival, Kuopio Marathon and Finland Ice Marathon in winter. A notable place, however, to enjoy the local flavor of Kuopio life and food is Sampo, a fish restaurant loved by locals and tourists as well. Kuopio is known for its association with a national delicacy, Finnish fish pastry, the dialect of Savo, as well as the hill of Puijo and the Puijo tower. Besides being a popular outdoor recreation area, Puijo serves as a stage for a yearly World Cup ski jumping competition. In inhabitants of Kuopio have a special reputation: they are known as jovial and verbally joking. Within the Savo culture, the onus is placed on the listen
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved wide recognition in his day and—while influential within the continental tradition of philosophy—has become influential in the analytic tradition as well. Although Hegel remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy is universally recognized. Hegel's principal achievement was his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism, sometimes termed absolute idealism, in which the dualisms of, for instance and nature and subject and object are overcome, his philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, art and philosophy. His account of the master–slave dialectic has been influential in 20th-century France. Of special importance is his concept of spirit as the historical manifestation of the logical concept and the "sublation" of contradictory or opposing factors: examples include the apparent opposition between nature and freedom and between immanence and transcendence.
Hegel has been seen in the 20th century as the originator of the thesis, synthesis triad, but as an explicit phrase it originated with Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Hegel has influenced many writers whose own positions vary widely. Karl Barth described Hegel as a "Protestant Aquinas" while Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that "all the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, German existentialism, psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel." He was born on August 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, capital of the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, he was known as Wilhelm to his close family, his father, Georg Ludwig, was Rentkammersekretär at the court of Duke of Württemberg. Hegel's mother, Maria Magdalena Louisa, was the daughter of a lawyer at the High Court of Justice at the Württemberg court, she died of a "bilious fever". Hegel and his father caught the disease, but they narrowly survived. Hegel had Christiane Luise. At the age of three, he went to the German School.
When he entered the Latin School two years he knew the first declension, having been taught it by his mother. In 1776, he entered Stuttgart's gymnasium illustre and during his adolescence read voraciously, copying lengthy extracts in his diary. Authors he read include the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and writers associated with the Enlightenment, such as Christian Garve and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, his studies at the Gymnasium were concluded with his Abiturrede entitled "The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey". At the age of eighteen, Hegel entered the Tübinger Stift, where he had as roommates the poet and philosopher Friedrich Hölderlin and the philosopher-to-be Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Sharing a dislike for what they regarded as the restrictive environment of the Seminary, the three became close friends and mutually influenced each other's ideas. All admired Hellenic civilization and Hegel additionally steeped himself in Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Lessing during this time.
They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm. Schelling and Hölderlin immersed themselves in theoretical debates on Kantian philosophy, from which Hegel remained aloof. Hegel at this time envisaged his future as that of a Popularphilosoph, i.e. a "man of letters" who serves to make the abstruse ideas of philosophers accessible to a wider public. Although the violence of the Reign of Terror in 1793 dampened Hegel's hopes, he continued to identify with the moderate Girondin faction and never lost his commitment to the principles of 1789, which he would express by drinking a toast to the storming of the Bastille every fourteenth of July. Having received his theological certificate from the Tübingen Seminary, Hegel became Hofmeister to an aristocratic family in Bern. During this period, he composed the text which has become known as the Life of Jesus and a book-length manuscript titled "The Positivity of the Christian Religion", his relations with his employers becoming strained, Hegel accepted an offer mediated by Hölderlin to take up a similar position with a wine merchant's family in Frankfurt, to which he relocated in 1797.
Here, Hölderlin exerted an important influence on Hegel's thought. While in Frankfurt, Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on Religion and Love". In 1799, he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate", unpublished during his lifetime. In 1797, the unpublished and unsigned manuscript of "The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism" was written, it was written in Hegel's hand, but thought to have been authored by either Hegel, Schelling, Hölderlin, or an unknown fourth person. In 1801, Hegel came to Jena with the encouragement of his old friend Schelling, who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University there. Hegel secured a position at the University as a Privatdozent after submitting the inaugural dissertation De Orbitis Planetarum, in
Finnish famine of 1866–68
The Famine of 1866–1868 was the last famine in Finland, the last major caused famine in Europe. In Finland the famine is known as "the great hunger years", or suuret nälkävuodet. About 8.5% of the entire population died of hunger. The total death toll was 270,000 in about 150,000 in excess of normal mortality; the worst-hit areas were Satakunta, Tavastia and North Karelia. Parts of the country had suffered poor harvests in previous years, most notably in 1862; the summer of 1866 was rainy, staple crops failed widely: potatoes and root vegetables rotted in the fields, conditions for sowing grain in the autumn were unfavourable. When stored food ran out, thousands took to the roads to beg; the following winter was hard, spring was late. In Helsinki, the average temperature in May 1867 was +1.8 °C, about 8 °C below the long-time average and by far the coldest such month in the meteorological record. In many places and rivers remained frozen until June. After a promisingly warm midsummer, freezing temperatures in early September ravaged crops.
By the autumn of 1867, people were dying by the thousands. The government of the Grand Duchy of Finland was ill-equipped to handle a crisis of such magnitude. There was no money available to import food from monopolized Central European markets, the government was slow to recognize the severity of the situation. Finance minister Johan Vilhelm Snellman, in particular, did not want to borrow, lest Finland's introduced currency, the Finnish markka, be weakened because of high interest rates; when money was borrowed from the Rothschild bank of Frankfurt in late 1867, the crisis was full blown, grain prices had risen in Europe. In addition, it was difficult to transport what little aid could be mustered in a country with poor communications. A number of emergency public works projects were set up, foremost among them the construction of the railway line from Riihimäki to Saint Petersburg; the weather returned to normal in 1868, that year's harvest was somewhat better than average, contagious diseases that had spread in the previous year took many additional lives.
Programs were launched to increase the diversity of Finnish agriculture, improving communications made a recurrence of such a famine less likely. In general, ordinary Finns at the time saw the famine as an act of God. Few would have expected the crown to be able to do much more, blame was directed at local officials. No significant working class political movement had developed yet that could have capitalized politically on the crisis; the urban population was small, for the people of the countryside, the first priority was to resume normal lives. In short, the famine did not threaten the social order. Great Famine of 1695–1697 List of famines Famine of 1601-03
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Kuopio Lyceum High School
Kuopio Lyceum High School is an upper secondary school for students aged 15–19. Kuopion Lyseon lukio is located in Finland. Established as a boys' school in 1872, Kuopion Lyseo opened its doors to both sexes in 1977; the origins of Kuopion Lyseo can be traced further back to Viipurin Triviaalikoulu, established in 1534 and relocated to Kuopio in 1777. Kuopion Lyseon lukio is one of the most academically prestigious upper secondary schools in Finland, it is the fifth highest scoring school in the Finnish Matriculation Examination and its International Baccalaureate class has had one of the highest average final examination scores in Europe. Around 450 students are enrolled in the school. Kuopion Lyseon lukio has been an IB World School since 1994 and as such administers the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme; the school building from 1826 is designed by Carl Ludvig Engel. Former President of Finland, Martti Ahtisaari. Former Finnish prime minister Paavo Lipponen The first professional Finnish writer Juhani Aho Film director and comedian Spede Pasanen Journalist Lasse Lehtinen, Member of European Parliament.
August Ahlqvist, critic and professor of Finnish at the University of Helsinki. In 1788, as the relocation seemed to become permanent, the school was replaced by Kuopion triviaalikoulu. In 1843 the Finnish education system was restructured and the Kuopio's trivium school became Kuopion Yläalkeiskoulu and a year in 1844 it was established as Kuopion Lukio; the first principal of Kuopion Yläalkeiskoulu was Johan Vilhelm Snellman, one of the most influential 19th-century Finnish statemsmen and philosophers. Kuopion Lyseo was established in 1872 by merging these two schools, Kuopion Yläalkeiskoulu and Kuopion Lukio. Finnish was established as the teaching language. In 1975 Kuopion Lyseo was again divited to two different schools: Kauppatorin yläaste Vuorilammen yläaste, equivalent to junior high school and Kuopion Lyseon Lukio, equivalent to senior high school. In 1994 Kuopion Lyseon Lukio started International Baccalaureate school in addition to the regular Finnish lukio senior high school; the teaching language in the IB school is English.
Kuopio Johan Vilhelm Snellman Kuopion Lyseon lukio website