In western music, a motet is a vocal musical composition, of diverse form and style, from the late medieval era to the present. The motet was one of the pre-eminent polyphonic forms of Renaissance music. According to Margaret Bent, "a piece of music in several parts with words" is as precise a definition of the motet as will serve from the 13th to the late 16th century and beyond; the late 13th-century theorist Johannes de Grocheo believed that the motet was "not to be celebrated in the presence of common people, because they do not notice its subtlety, nor are they delighted in hearing it, but in the presence of the educated and of those who are seeking out subtleties in the arts". In the early 20th century, it was believed the name came from the Latin movere, though a derivation from the French mot, had been suggested; the Medieval Latin for "motet" is motectum, the Italian mottetto was used. If the word is from Latin, the name describes the movement of the different voices against one another.
Today, the French etymology is favoured by reference books, as the word "motet" in 13th-century French had the sense of "little word". In fact, the troped clausulas that were the forerunner of the motet were called motelli, soon replaced by the term moteti; the earliest motets arose in the 13th century from the organum tradition exemplified in the Notre Dame school of Léonin and Pérotin. The motet arose from clausula sections in a longer sequence of organum. Clausulae represent brief sections of longer polyphonic settings of chant with a note-against-note texture. In some cases, these sections were "substituted" for existing setting; these clausulae could be "troped," or given new text in the upper part, creating motets. From these first motets arose a medieval tradition of secular motets; these were two- to four-part compositions in which different texts, sometimes in different vernacular languages, were sung over a cantus firmus that once again was adapted from a passage of Gregorian chant. It is increasingly argued that the term "motet" could in fact include certain brief single-voice songs.
The texts of upper voices include subjects as diverse as courtly love odes, pastoral encounters with shepherdesses, political attacks, many Christian devotion to the Virgin Mary. The vast majority of medieval motets are anonymous compositions, there is significant re-use of music and text, they were most popular in northern France and Paris. In the 14th and 15th centuries, motets made use of repetitive patters termed panisorhythmic. Philippe de Vitry was one of the earliest composers to use this technique, his work evidently had an influence on that of Guillaume de Machaut, one of the most famous named composers of late medieval motets. Other medieval motet composers include: Adam de la Halle Johannes Ciconia John Dunstaple Franco of Cologne Jacopo da Bologna Marchetto da Padova Petrus de Cruce Willelmus de Winchecumbe The motet was preserved in the transition from medieval to Renaissance music, but the character of the composition was changed. While it grew out of the medieval isorhythmic motet, the Renaissance composers of the motet abandoned the use of a repeated figure as a cantus firmus.
Guillaume Dufay was a transitional figure in this regard. During the second half of the fifteenth century, motets came to adopt the cantus firmus technique found in contemporary "tenor masses," in which the cantus firmus was stretched out to great lengths compared to the multivoice counterpoint surrounding it; this tended to obscure the rhythm supplied by the cantus firmus, apparent in the medieval isorhythmic motet. The cascading, passing chords created by the interplay between multiple voices, the absence of a strong or obvious beat, are the features that distinguish medieval and renaissance motet styles. Instead, the Renaissance motet is a polyphonic musical setting, sometimes in imitative counterpoint, for chorus, of a Latin text sacred, not connected to the liturgy of a given day, therefore suitable for use in any service; the texts of antiphons were used as motet texts. This is the sort of composition, most familiarly designated by the term "motet", the Renaissance period marked the flowering of the form.
In essence, these motets were sacred madrigals. The relationship between the two forms is most obvious in the composers who concentrated on sacred music Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose "motets" setting texts from the Canticum Canticorum, the biblical "Song of Solomon", are among the most lush and madrigal-like of Palestrina's compositions, while his "madrigals" that set poems of Petrarch in praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary would not be out of place in church; the language of the text was the decisive feature: if it is Latin, it is a motet. Religious compositions in vernacular languages were called madrigali spirituali, "spiritual madrigals". Like their madrigal cousins, Renaissance
Sonata, in music means a piece played as opposed to a cantata, a piece sung. The term evolved through the history of music, designating a variety of forms until the Classical era, when it took on increasing importance. Sonata is a vague term, with varying meanings depending on the time period. By the early 19th century, it came to represent a principle of composing large-scale works, it was applied to most instrumental genres and regarded—alongside the fugue—as one of two fundamental methods of organizing and analyzing concert music. Though the musical style of sonatas has changed since the Classical era, most 20th- and 21st-century sonatas still maintain the same structure; the term sonatina, pl. sonatine, the diminutive form of sonata, is used for a short or technically easy sonata. In the Baroque period, a sonata was for one or more instruments always with continuo. After the Baroque period most works designated as sonatas are performed by a solo instrument, most a keyboard instrument, or by a solo instrument accompanied by a keyboard instrument.
Sonatas for a solo instrument other than keyboard have been composed, as have sonatas for other combinations of instruments. In the works of Arcangelo Corelli and his contemporaries, two broad classes of sonata were established, were first described by Sébastien de Brossard in his Dictionaire de musique: the sonata da chiesa, the type "rightly known as Sonatas", the sonata da camera, which consists of a prelude followed by a succession of dances, all in the same key. Although the four, five, or six movements of the sonata da chiesa are most in one key, one or two of the internal movements are sometimes in a contrasting tonality; the sonata da chiesa for one or more violins and bass, consisted of a slow introduction, a loosely fugued allegro, a cantabile slow movement, a lively finale in some binary form suggesting affinity with the dance-tunes of the suite. This scheme, was not clearly defined, until the works of Arcangelo Corelli when it became the essential sonata and persisted as a tradition of Italian violin music.
The sonata da camera consisted entirely of idealized dance-tunes. On the other hand, the features of sonata da chiesa and sonata da camera tended to be intermixed. Although nearly half of Bach's 1,100 surviving compositions and transcriptions are instrumental works, only about 4% are sonatas; the term sonata is applied to the series of over 500 works for harpsichord solo, or sometimes for other keyboard instruments, by Domenico Scarlatti published under the name Essercizi per il gravicembalo. Most of these pieces are in one binary-form movement only, with two parts that are in the same tempo and use the same thematic material, though there will be changes in tempo within the sections, they are virtuosic, use more distant harmonic transitions and modulations than were common for other works of the time. They were admired for their great invention. Both the solo and trio sonatas of Vivaldi show parallels with the concerti he was writing at the same time, he composed over the great majority of which are of the solo type.
The sonatas of Domenico Paradies are mild and elongated works with a graceful and melodious little second movement included. The practice of the Classical period would become decisive for the sonata; this evolution stretched over fifty years. The term came to apply both to the structure of individual movements and to the layout of the movements in a multi-movement work. In the transition to the Classical period there were several names given to multimovement works, including divertimento and partita, many of which are now regarded as sonatas; the usage of sonata as the standard term for such works began somewhere in the 1770s. Haydn labels his first piano sonata as such in 1771, after which the term divertimento is used sparingly in his output; the term sonata was applied to either a work for keyboard alone, or for keyboard and one other instrument the violin or cello. It was less and less applied to works with more than two instrumentalists; the most common layout of movements was: Allegro, which at the time was understood to mean not only a tempo, but some degree of "working out", or development, of the theme.
A middle movement, most a slow movement: an Andante, an Adagio or a Largo. A closing movement was an Allegro or a Presto labeled Finale; the form was a Rondo or Minuet. However, two-movement layouts occur, a practice Haydn uses as late as the 1790s. There was in the early Classical period the possibility of using four movements, with a dance movement inserted before the slow movement, as in Haydn's Piano sonatas No. 6 and No. 8. Mozart's sonatas were primarily in three movements. Of the works that Haydn labelled piano sonata, divertimento, or partita in Hob XIV, seven are in t
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area. Darmstadt had a population of around 157,437 at the end of 2016; the Darmstadt Larger Urban Zone has 430,993 inhabitants. Darmstadt holds the official title "City of Science" as it is a major centre of scientific institutions and high-technology companies; the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and the European Space Operations Centre are located in Darmstadt, as well as GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research, where several chemical elements such as bohrium, hassium, darmstadtium and copernicium were discovered. The existence of the following elements were confirmed at GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research: nihonium, moscovium and tennessine; the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research is an international accelerator facility under construction. Darmstadt is the seat of the world's oldest pharmaceutical company, the city's largest employer. Darmstadt was the capital of a sovereign country, the Grand Duchy of Hesse and its successor, the People's State of Hesse, a federal state of Germany.
As the capital of an prosperous duchy, the city gained some international prominence and remains one of the wealthiest cities in Europe. In the 20th century, industry, as well as large science and electronics sectors became important, are still a major part of the city's economy, it is home to the football club SV Darmstadt 98. The name Darmstadt first appears towards the end of the 11th century as Darmundestat, its origins are unknown.'Dar-mund' in Middle Low German is translated as "Boggy Headlands", but it could be a misspelling in local dialect of another name. It is sometimes stated that the name derives from the'Darmbach'. In fact, the stream received its current name much after the city, not vice versa. Darmstadt was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, at which time it belonged to the counts of Katzenelnbogen; the city called Darmstait, became a secondary residence for the counts, with a small castle established at the site of the current, much larger edifice.
When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse, was seat of the ruling landgraves and thereafter of the grand dukes of Hesse. The city grew in population during the 19th century from little over 10,000 to 72,000 inhabitants. A polytechnical school, which became a Technical University now known as TU Darmstadt, was established in 1877. In the beginning of the 20th century, Darmstadt was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil, the German variant of Art Nouveau. Annual architectural competitions led to the building of many architectural treasures of this period. During this period, in 1912 the chemist Anton Kollisch, working for the pharmaceutical company Merck, first synthesised the chemical MDMA in Darmstadt. Darmstadt's municipal area was extended in 1937 to include the neighbouring localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, in 1938 the city was separated administratively from the surrounding district. Darmstadt was the first city in Germany to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany.
The shops were only closed for one day, for "endangering communal order and tranquility". In 1942, over 3,000 Jews from Darmstadt were first forced into a collection camp located in the Liebigschule, deported to concentration camps where most died. Several prominent members of the German resistance movement against the Nazis were citizens of Darmstadt, including Wilhelm Leuschner and Theodor Haubach, both executed for their opposition to Hitler's regime. Darmstadt was first bombed on 30 July 1940, 34 other air raids would follow before the war's end; the old city centre was destroyed in a British bombing raid on 11 September 1944. This attack was an example of the firestorm technique, subsequently used against the historic city of Dresden in February 1945. To create a firestorm, a number of incendiary bombs are dropped around the city before the explosive blast bombs are dropped, thus beginning a self-sustaining combustion process in which winds generated by the fire ensure it continues to burn until everything possible has been consumed.
Darmstadt was selected as the secondary target for the raid, but was promoted to the primary target after clouds were observed over the primary which would have hindered any reconnaissance of the after-effects. During this fire attack an estimated 11,000 to 12,500 of the inhabitants burned to death, 66,000 to 70,000 were left homeless. Over three-quarters of Darmstadt's inner city was destroyed. Post-war rebuilding was done in a plain architectural style, although a number of the historic buildings were rebuilt to their original appearance following the city's capture on 20 March 1945 by the American 4th Armored Division. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Darmstadt became home to many technology companies and research institutes, has been promoting itself as a "city of science" since 1997, it is well known as a high-tech centre in the vicinity of Frankfurt Airport, with important activities in spacecraft operations, pharmacy, in
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, pianist and critic, was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. Weber's operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon influenced the development of the Romantische Oper in Germany. Der Freischütz came to be regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera, Euryanthe developed the Leitmotif technique to an unprecedented degree, while Oberon may have influenced Mendelssohn's music for A Midsummer Night's Dream and, at the same time, revealed Weber's lifelong interest in the music of non-Western cultures; this interest was first manifested in Weber's incidental music for Schiller's translation of Gozzi's Turandot, for which he used a Chinese melody, making him the first Western composer to use an Asian tune, not of the pseudo-Turkish kind popularized by Mozart and others. A brilliant pianist himself, Weber composed four sonatas, two concertos and the Konzertstück in F minor, which influenced composers such as Chopin and Mendelssohn.
The Konzertstück provided a new model for the one-movement concerto in several contrasting sections, was acknowledged by Stravinsky as the model for his Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra. Weber's shorter piano pieces, such as the Invitation to the Dance, were orchestrated by Berlioz, while his Polacca Brillante was set for piano and orchestra by Liszt. Weber's compositions for clarinet and horn occupy an important place in the musical repertoire, his compositions for the clarinet, which include two concertos, a concertino, a quintet, a duo concertante, variations on a theme from his opera Silvana, are performed today. His Concertino for Horn and Orchestra requires the performer to produce two notes by humming while playing—a technique known as "multiphonics", his bassoon concerto and the Andante e Rondo ungarese are popular with bassoonists. Weber's contribution to vocal and choral music is significant, his body of Catholic religious music was popular in 19th-century Germany, he composed one of the earliest song cycles, Die Temperamente beim Verluste der Geliebten.
Weber was notable as one of the first conductors to conduct without a piano or violin. Weber's orchestration has been praised and emulated by generations of composers – Berlioz referred to him several times in his Treatise on Instrumentation while Debussy remarked that the sound of the Weber orchestra was obtained through the scrutiny of the soul of each instrument, his operas influenced the work of opera composers in Germany, such as Marschner and Wagner, as well as several nationalist 19th-century composers such as Glinka. Homage has been paid to Weber by 20th-century composers such as Debussy, Stravinsky and Hindemith. Weber wrote music journalism and was interested in folksong, learned lithography to engrave his own works. Weber was born in Eutin, Bishopric of Lübeck, the eldest of the three children of Franz Anton von Weber and his second wife, Genovefa Weber, a Viennese singer; the "von" was an affectation. Both his parents were Catholic and came from the far south of Germany. Franz Anton began his career as a military officer in the service of the Duchy of Holstein, after being fired, went on to hold a number of musical directorships.
In 1787 Franz Anton went on to Hamburg. Franz Anton's half-brother, married Cäcilia Stamm and had four musical daughters, Aloysia and Sophie, all of whom became notable singers. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart attempted composing several pieces for her, but after she rejected his advances, Mozart went on to marry Constanze. A gifted violinist, Franz Anton had ambitions of turning Carl into a child prodigy like Franz's nephew-by-marriage, Mozart. Carl did not begin to walk until he was four, but by he was a capable singer and pianist. Weber's father gave him a comprehensive education, however interrupted by the family's constant moves. In 1796, Weber continued his musical education in Hildburghausen, where he was instructed by the oboist Johann Peter Heuschkel. On 13 March 1798, Weber's mother died of tuberculosis; that same year, Weber went to Salzburg to study with Michael Haydn, the younger brother of Joseph Haydn, who agreed to teach Carl free of charge. That year, Weber traveled to Munich to study with the singer Johann Evangelist Wallishauser and organist Johann Nepomuk Kalcher.
1798 saw the twelve-year-old Weber's first published work, six fughettas for piano, published in Leipzig. Other compositions of that period, among them a mass, his first opera, Die Macht der Liebe und des Weins, are lost. In 1800, the family moved to Freiberg in Saxony, where Weber 14 years old, wrote an opera called Das stumme Waldmädchen, produced at the Freiberg theatre, it was performed in Vienna and Saint Petersburg. The young Weber began to publish articles as a music critic, for example in the Leipziger Neue Zeitung in 1801. In 1801, the fa
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.