Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Anthony Ulrich, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1685 until 1702 jointly with his elder brother Rudolph Augustus, from 1704 until his death. He was one of the main proponents of enlightened absolutism among the Brunswick dukes, he was born in Hitzacker the residence of his father Duke Augustus the Younger of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his second wife Princess Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst. The next year his father, at the age of 55, assumed the rule in the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel after his Welf cousin Duke Frederick Ulrich had died childless. Anthony Ulrich was the second surviving son of the ducal couple. Anthony Ulrich's sister was Sibylle Ursula von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, who stood out as a writer and translator, he studied at the University of Helmstedt. On his Grand Tour, he travelled to Italy and the Low Countries, he met with Madeleine de Scudéry and became passionate about theatre; when he married Elisabeth Juliane, daughter of Duke Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg, in 1656, he wrote a stage play on this occasion.
His father consulted him in politics and the government business. After Augustus the Younger's death in 1666, Rudolph Augustus, Anthony Ulrich's elder brother, became reigning duke and made Anthony Ulrich his proxy. Rudolph Augustus had more interest in hunting and his library than in government affairs and left most decisions to his brother; the young prince united the forces of the Welf principalities to combat the rebellious City of Brunswick, whose citizens had to accept the ducal overlordship in 1671. In the following year, his main concern was the rivalry with his cousin Duke Ernest Augustus, who from 1679 ruled over the Brunswick Principality of Calenberg. After the Ernest Augustus had received the new ninth prince-electorship from Emperor Leopold I in 1692 and went on to rule as Elector of Hanover, tensions between the two states rose, as both Anthony Ulrich and Rudolph Augustus were dismayed that they had not received the electorship according to the right of primogeniture. While both Hanover under Ernest Augustus' son Elector George Louis and the Welf Principality of Lüneburg sided with the Habsburg emperor in the War of the Spanish Succession, Anthony Ulrich decided to enter into an agreement with King Louis XIV of France.
This led to Hanover and Lüneburg forces invading the Principality of Wolfenbüttel in March 1702. By order of the emperor, Anthony Ulrich was deposed as duke against his brother's protestations, Rudolph Augustus remained as the only Wolfenbüttel ruler, while Anthony Ulrich fled to Saxe-Gotha. In April 1702, Rudolph Augustus signed a treaty with Hanover and Lüneburg that Anthony Ulrich agreed to. After Rudolph Augustus' death in 1704, Anthony Ulrich took over government again, he continued to settle various disputes with his Hanover cousin George Louis, who in 1705 inherited Lüneburg, until a final agreement between the two sister principalities was reached in 1706. Wolfenbüttel renounced all claims to the former Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg and received several smaller estates in compensation, it was now Anthony Ulrich's turn to approach the Imperial Habsburg dynasty. In 1704, he had concluded an agreement with his cousin Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg, wife of the future Emperor Joseph I, to marry his granddaughter Elisabeth Christine off to Joseph's brother Archduke Charles of Austria.
The young woman was reluctant to convert to the Catholic faith, which she did in a solemn ceremony at Bamberg Cathedral on 1 May 1707. The marriage took place the next year in Vienna. In 1709, Anthony Ulrich himself converted to the Catholic Church, he guaranteed to his subjects that this would not influence his government, although he allowed the consecration of the first Catholic church in Brunswick. He lived to see the election of Archduke Charles as Emperor Charles VI in 1711 and the marriage of his granddaughter Charlotte Christine with Alexei Petrovich Romanov, son of Tsar Peter I, in the same year, he died at the age of 80 at his Schloss Salzdahlum residence, which he had built, was buried in the crypt of the Wolfenbüttel Marienkirche. He was succeeded by Augustus William; as an admirer of King Louis XIV of France, Anthony Ulrich is known as a supporter of scholarship and the arts. He introduced the French language at the Wolfenbüttel court and spent enormous sums on cultural events and amusements.
From 1689 to 1690, he had a public opera house erected in Brunswick, Staatstheater Braunschweig, which soon became a venue for Baroque composers such as Johann Rosenmüller, Johann Sigismund Kusser, Reinhard Keiser, Georg Caspar Schürmann, Johann Adolph Hasse. He extended the Bibliotheca Augusta, a library founded by his father, he hired the philosopher Leibniz as a librarian, was a supporter of Anton Wilhelm Amo, the first black Doctor of Philosophy in Europe. The new rotunda of the Bibliotheca Augusta, built according to plans by Hermann Korb and completed in 1712, was the first genuine library building in Germany. Hermann Korb designed the plans for Schloss Salzdahlum, erected between 1694 and 1695, modelled on the French Château de Marly. Here the Prussian cr
Paul Fleming (poet)
Paul Fleming spelt Flemming, was a German physician and poet. As well as writing notable verse and hymns, he spent several years accompanying the Duke of Holstein's embassies to Russia and Persia, he lived for a year at Reval on the coast of Estonia, where he wrote many love-songs. Born at Hartenstein, in Vogtland, the son of Abraham Fleming, a well-to-do Lutheran pastor, Fleming received his early education from his father before attending a school at Mittweida and the famous Thomasschule at Leipzig, he received his initial medical training at the University of Leipzig, where he studied literature and graduated as a Doctor of Philosophy before gaining his medical doctorate at the University of Hamburg. The Thirty Years' War drove Fleming to Holstein, where in 1633 Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, engaged him as physician and steward. Towards the end of 1633 the Duke sent Fleming with Adam Olearius as a member of an embassy to Russia and the Persian Empire headed by Otto Brüggemann and Philipp Kruse.
Fleming was outside Germany for six years, much of them in the two foreign empires. Travelling into Russia, Fleming was in an advance party of the embassy which went to Novgorod, where he remained while negotiations went on with the Swedes and the Russians. At the end of July 1634 the ambassadors joined the party, the embassy proceeded to Moscow, arriving on August 14. After four months in the capital city, the Holstein embassy departed again for the Baltic on Christmas Eve, 1634, on January 10 arrived at Reval in Swedish Estonia. While the ambassadors continued to Gottorp some of the party, including Fleming, remained in Reval. In the event, Fleming was there for about a year, during which he organized a poetry circle called "the Shepherds". Not long after his arrival in Reval, Fleming began his courtship of Elsabe Niehus, the daughter of Heinrich Niehus, a merchant from Hamburg, he wrote love poems for her, they became engaged to be married. In 1636 the embassy proceeded to Persia, by way of a further visit to Moscow, Elsabe was left behind.
Fleming's Epistolae ex Persia were four letters in verse written during his time in Persia, between 1636 and 1638. The embassy was at Isfahan in 1637. On returning to Reval, Fleming found that Elsabe had married another man and became engaged to her sister, Anna Niehus. In 1639 Fleming resumed his medical studies at the University of Leiden, in 1640 was awarded a doctorate, he settled in Hamburg, where he died on April 2, 1640. With his contemporaries Martin Opitz, Andreas Gryphius, Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau and the rather Daniel Casper von Lohenstein, Fleming is one of the writers now called "the Silesian poets" or "the Silesian school"; as a lyricist he stands in the front rank of German poets. Fleming's well-known poems include Auf den Tod eines Madrigal. A number of his sonnets are about the places; the only collections published in his lifetime were Rubella seu Suaviorum Liber and Klagegedichte über das unschuldigste Leiden und Tod unsers Erlösers Jesu Christi, printed early in 1632, the second of which begins with an invocation of Melpomene, the Muse of tragedy.
His Teutsche Poemata, published posthumously in 1642, was renamed Geistliche und weltliche Gedichte and contains many notable love-songs. Fleming wrote in Latin as well as in German, his Latin poems were published in a single volume in 1863, edited by Johann Martin Lappenberg. Fleming has been called a man of "real poetic genius", "the only good poet in Germany during the Thirty Years' War", "possibly the greatest German lyric poet of the seventeenth century" and "the German Herrick". Günter Grass has called him "one of the major figures in German seventeenth-century literature". Fleming wrote the hymn in nine stanzas "In allen meinen Taten" on the melody of "O Welt, ich muss dich lassen" by Heinrich Isaac, contained in several hymnals. Johann Sebastian Bach used the final stanza to close both cantatas Meine Seufzer, meine Tränen and Sie werden euch in den Bann tun; the complete hymn is the base for Bach's chorale cantata In allen meinen Taten. In the 17th century another composer, David Pohle, had set twelve of Fleming's love-songs to music.
Rubella seu Suaviorum Liber Klagegedichte über das unschüldigste Leiden undt Tod unsers Erlösers Jesu Christi Prodromus Teutsche Poemata Geistliche und weltliche Gedichte was the title of editions of Teutsche PoemataSource: "Paul Fleming". Die Barockepoche im Spiegel der Lyrik. University of Konstanz. Retrieved October 3, 2018. Harry Mayne, Paul Fleming Herbert William Smith, The forms of praise in the German poetry of Paul Fleming Siegfried Scheer, Paul Fleming 1609 – 1640: seine literar-historischen Nachwirkungen in drei Jahrhunderten Marian R. Sperberg-McQueen, The German poetry of Paul Fleming: studies in genre and history Karen Brand, Diversität der deutschen Liebeslyrik von Paul Fleming Gerhard Dünnhaupt:'Paul Fleming', in Personalbibliographien zu den Drucken des Barock, vol. 2, pp. 1490–1513 Eva Dürrenfeld, Paul Fleming und Johann Christian Günther Heinz Entner, Paul Fleming – Ein deutscher Dichter im Dreißigjährigen Krieg (Leipzig: V
Wrocław is a city in western Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia. It lies on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Central Europe 350 kilometres from the Baltic Sea to the north and 40 kilometres from the Sudeten Mountains to the south; the population of Wrocław in 2018 was 639,258, making it the fourth-largest city in Poland and the main city of the Wrocław agglomeration. Wrocław is the historical capital of Lower Silesia. Today, it is the capital of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship; the history of the city dates back over a thousand years, its extensive heritage combines all religions and cultures of Europe. At various times, it has been part of the Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Hungary, Habsburg Monarchy and Germany. Wrocław became part of Poland again in 1945, as a result of the border changes after the Second World War, which included a nearly complete exchange of population. Wrocław is a university city with a student population of over 130,000, making it one of the most youthful cities in the country.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, the University of Wrocław Breslau University, produced 9 Nobel Prize laureates and is renowned for its high quality of teaching. Wrocław is classified as a Gamma-global city by GaWC, it was placed among the top 100 cities in the world for the quality of life by the consulting company Mercer and in the top 100 of the smartest cities in the world in the IESE Cities in Motion Index 2017 report. The city hosted the Eucharistic Congress in the Euro 2012 football championships. In 2016, the city was a European Capital of the World Book Capital. In this year, Wrocław hosted the Theatre Olympics, World Bridge Games and the European Film Awards. In 2017, the city was the host of the World Games; the city's name was first recorded as "Wrotizlava" in the chronicle of German chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg, which mentions it as a seat of a newly installed bishopric in the context of the Congress of Gniezno. The first municipal seal stated. A simplified name is given, as Wrezlaw, Prezla or Breslaw.
The Czech spelling was used in Latin documents as Vratislavia. At that time, Prezla was used in Middle High German. In the middle of the 14th century, the Early New High German form of the name, began to replace its earlier versions; the city is traditionally believed to be named after Wrocisław or Vratislav believed to be named after Duke Vratislaus I of Bohemia. It is possible that the city was named after the tribal duke of the Silesians or after an early ruler of the city called Vratislav; the city's name in various other languages is: Hungarian: Boroszló, Czech: Vratislav, German: Breslau, Hebrew: ורוצלב, Yiddish: ברעסלוי, Silesian German: Brassel, Latin: Vratislavia or Budorgis or Wratislavia. The city's name in other languages is available at the list of names of European cities. Persons born or living in the city are known as "Vratislavians". In ancient times at or near Wrocław was a place called Budorigum, it has been mapped to Claudius Ptolemy's map of AD 142–147. The city of Wrocław originated at the intersection of two trade routes, the Via Regia and the Amber Road.
Settlements in the area existed during the migration period. A Slavic tribe Ślężans erected on Ostrów Tumski a gord; the city was first recorded in the 10th century as Vratislavia, the Bohemian duke Vratislaus I founded here a Bohemian stronghold. Vratislavia was derived from the duke's name Vratislav. In 985, Duke Mieszko I of Poland conquered Silesia including Wrocław; the town was mentioned explicitly in the year 1000 AD in connection with a founding of a bishopric during the Congress of Gniezno. The medieval chronicle, Gesta principum Polonorum, written by Gallus Anonymus in 1112–1116, named Wrocław, along with Kraków and Sandomierz, as one of the three capitals of the Polish Kingdom. During Wrocław's early history, the control over it changed hands between Bohemia, the Kingdom of Poland, after the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Poland, the Piast-ruled duchy of Silesia. One of the most important events during this period was the foundation of the Diocese of Wrocław by the Polish Duke Bolesław the Brave in 1000.
Along with the Bishoprics of Kraków and Kołobrzeg, Wrocław was placed under the Archbishopric of Gniezno in Greater Poland, founded by Pope Sylvester II through the intercession of the Emperor Otto III in 1000, during the Congress of Gniezno. In the years 1034–1038 the city was affected by Pagan reaction in Poland; the city became a commercial centre and expanded to Wyspa Piasek, to the left bank of the River Oder. Around 1000, the town had about 1,000 inhabitants. In 1109 during the Polish-German war, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the German march into Poland. By 1139, a settlement belonging to Governor Piotr Włostowic was built, another was founded on the left bank of the River Oder, near the present seat of the University. While the city was Polish, there were communities of Bohemians, Jews and Germans. In the 13th century, Wrocław was the political centre of the divided Polish kingdom. In April 1241, during the First Mongol invasion of Poland the city was abandoned by the inhabitants and burned for strategic reason
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north and south Europe; the word "γυμνάσιον" was first used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men. The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in many European languages, whereas in English the meaning of a place for physical education was retained instead, more familiarly in the shortened form gym; the gymnasium is a secondary school. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13.
In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium study Latin and Ancient Greek. Some gymnasiums provide general education; the four traditional branches are: humanities education modern languages mathematical-scientific education economical and social-scientific education Curricula differ from school to school but include language, informatics, chemistry, geography, music, philosophy, civics/citizenship, social sciences, several foreign languages. Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory in non-denominational schools which are prevalent. For example, the German constitution guarantees the separation of church and state, so although religion or ethics classes are compulsory, students may choose to study a specific religion or none at all. Today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences.
In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Here, the prefix pro- is equivalent to pre-, indicating that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies. In the German-speaking, the Central-European, the Nordic, the Benelux and the Baltic countries, this meaning for "gymnasium", a secondary school preparing the student for higher education at a university, has been the same at least since the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century; the term was derived from the classical Greek word "gymnasion", applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to physical exercises and sports, thus the term became associated with and came to mean an institution of learning; this use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, from there passed into the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th century.
In 1538, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 1812, a Prussian regulation ordered that all schools which had the right to send their students to the university should bear the name of gymnasia. By the 20th century, this practice was followed in the entire Austrian-Hungarian and Russian Empires. In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of these three empires. In Albania a gymnasium education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Albanian: Matura Shtetërore; the final test is standardized at the state level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities. These can be either private; the subjects taught are mathematics, Albanian language, one to three foreign languages, geography, computer science, the natural sciences, history of art, philosophy, physical education and the social sciences. The gymnasium is viewed as a destination for the best performing students and as the type of school that serves to prepare students for university, while other students go to technical/vocational schools.
Therefore, gymnasiums base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or some combination of the two. In Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, from 15 to 18, concluding with Matura. Three types existed; the Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Latin. The Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on spoken languages; the usual combination is English and Latin. The Realgymnasium puts its focus on science. In the last couple of decades more autonomy was granted to schools and various types were developed, focusing on sports, music or economics, for example. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, gymnázium is a typ
Gottfried von Strassburg
Gottfried von Strassburg is the author of the Middle High German courtly romance Tristan, an adaptation of the 12th-century Tristan and Iseult legend. Gottfried's work is regarded, alongside the Nibelungenlied and Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival, as one of the great narrative masterpieces of the German Middle Ages, he is also the composer of a small number of surviving lyrics. His work became a source of inspiration for Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde. Other than an origin in or close association with Strasbourg, nothing is known of his life, it would seem, that he was a man of good birth and position, who filled an important municipal office in his native city of Strasbourg, but since he is always referred to in German as Meister and not Herr, it seems safe to assume he was not a knight, a conclusion supported by the rather dismissive attitude toward knightly exploits shown in Tristan. Tristan ends abruptly, according to the testimony of Ulrich von Türheim and Heinrich von Freiberg, two people who provided endings for Tristan, Gottfried died before finishing the work.
References in the work suggest it was written during the first decade of the 13th century, 1210 is taken, conventionally, as the date of Gottfried's death. His thorough familiarity with Latin literature and rhetorical theory suggest someone who had enjoyed a high level of monastic education, he shows detailed technical knowledge of music and hunting, far beyond anything found in the works of his contemporaries. Gottfried draws more on the learned tradition of medieval humanism than on the chivalric ethos shared by his major literary contemporaries, he appears to have been influenced by the writings of contemporary Christian mystics, in particular Bernard of Clairvaux. Although he was educated, it is certain that he was not a priest. Of this his occasional sneers at the clergy are a better proof than the morality of much of his work; that his home was in Strasbourg is supported by the fact that the earliest manuscripts of Tristan, dating from the first half of the 13th century, show features of Alemannic and Alsatian dialect.
Gottfried's rhetorical style is distinct among his contemporaries. It is complex, marked by the extensive use of symmetrical structure in his organization of Tristan as a whole, as well as in the structure of individual passages. Gottfried uses detailed word and sound patterns, playing with such things as rhyme and assonance. See Batts for a detailed analysis. One of the greatest hallmarks of Gottfried's style is his skillful use of irony, to both humorous and tragic effects, he may have relied on irony to disguise his criticisms of contemporary society in order to avoid censure. Gottfried states that the Tristan of Thomas of Britain, an Anglo-French work of around 1160, was the source of his work, he explains that he bases himself on Thomas because he "told the tale correctly", distancing himself from the less courtly versions of the story represented by Béroul in Old French and Eilhart von Oberge in Middle High German. Thomas's work, too, is fragmentary and there is little overlap with Gottfried's poem, making it difficult to evaluate Gottfried's originality directly.
However, Thomas's Tristan was the source of a number of other versions, which makes it possible to get some idea of style and content. It is clear that while Gottfried's statement of his reliance on and debt to Thomas is correct, he both expanded on his source and refined the story psychologically; the discovery in 1995 of the Carlise Fragment of Thomas's Tristan, which includes material from one of the central parts of the story, the Love Grotto episode, promises a better understanding of Gottfried's use of his source. Thomas's source, in turn, is a now lost Old French Tristan story, reconstructed by Joseph Bédier, which derives from Celtic legend; the text of Tristan is 19,548 lines long, is written, like all courtly romances, in rhyming couplets. The first section of the prologue is written in quatrains and is referred to as the "strophic prologue", while pairs of quatrains, of sententious content, mark the main divisions of the story; the initial letters of the quatrains, indicated by large initials in some manuscripts, form an acrostic with the names Gotefrid-Tristan-Isolde, which runs throughout the poem.
In addition, the initial letters of the quatrains in the prologue give the name Dieterich, assumed to have been the name of Gottfried's patron. If Gottfried had completed Tristan it would have been around 24,000 lines long; the story starts with the courtship of Tristan's parents. Riwalin, King of Parmenie, travels to the court of King Marke in Cornwall, where he and Marke's sister, fall in love. Blanschfleur becomes pregnant and the couple steal back to Parmenie, but Riwalin is killed in battle; when she hears the news, Blanschfleur dies. He is named Tristan because of the sorrowful circumstances of his birth. Tristan grows up in Parmenie, passed off as the son of Riwalin's marshal Rual li Fointeant, becoming the perfect courtier. While on board a merchant ship which has docked in Parmenie, Tristan is abducted by the Norwegian crew. Once at sea, the ship is struck by a tempest, the crew conclude that they are being punished by God for abducting Tristan, so they set him ashore in a country that turns out to be Cornwall.
Tristan encounters a hunting party, whom he astonishes with his skill, he accompanies them to Marke's court, where his many accomplishments make him popular with Marke. After years of searching, Rual comes to Cornwall and finds Tristan, now revealed as Marke's nephew. Tristan is knighted. Cornwa
History of Germany
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul, which he had conquered. The victory of the Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest prevented annexation by the Roman Empire, although the Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior were established along the Rhine. Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conquered the other West Germanic tribes; when the Frankish Empire was divided among Charles the Great's heirs in 843, the eastern part became East Francia. In 962, Otto I became the first Holy Roman Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the medieval German state. In the Late Middle Ages, the regional dukes and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church after 1517, as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic.
The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War, ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts. The Thirty Years' War brought tremendous destruction to Germany. 1648 marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the modern nation-state system, with Germany divided into numerous independent states, such as Prussia, Saxony and other states, which controlled land outside of the area considered as "Germany". After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars from 1803–1815, feudalism fell away and liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction; the German revolutions of 1848–49 failed. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and to the emergence of the socialist movement in Germany. Prussia, with its capital Berlin, grew in power. German universities became world-class centers for science and humanities, while music and art flourished; the unification of Germany was achieved under the leadership of the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck with the formation of the German Empire in 1871 which solved the Kleindeutsche Lösung, the small Germany solution, or Großdeutsche Lösung, the greater Germany solution, the former prevailing.
The new Reichstag, an elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in the Pacific. By 1900, Germany was the dominant power on the European continent and its expanding industry had surpassed Britain's, while provoking it in a naval arms race. Germany led the Central Powers in World War I against France, Great Britain and the United States. Defeated and occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as of home territory to be ceded to Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Poland; the German Revolution of 1918–19 put an end to the federal constitutional monarchy, which resulted in the establishment of the Weimar Republic, an unstable parliamentary democracy. In the early 1930s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government. In January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany.
The Nazi Party began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hitler established a totalitarian regime. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met. First came the remilitarization of the Rhineland in 1936, the annexing of Austria in the Anschluss and parts of Czechoslovakia with the Munich Agreement in 1938. On 1 September 1939, Germany initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland. After forming a pact with the Soviet Union in 1939, Hitler and Stalin divided Eastern Europe. After a "Phoney War" in spring 1940, the Germans swept Denmark and Norway, the Low Countries and France, giving Germany control of nearly all of Western Europe. Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the Nazi regime. In Germany, but predominantly in the German-occupied areas, the systematic genocide program known as The Holocaust killed 11 million including Jews, German dissidents, disabled people, Romanies and others.
In 1942, the German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, after the United States had entered the war, Britain became the base for massive Anglo-American bombings of German cities. Germany fought the war on multiple fronts through 1942–1944, however following the Allied invasion of Normandy, the German Army was pushed back on all fronts until the final collapse in May 1945. Under occupation by the Allies, German territories were split up, Austria was again made a separate country, denazification took place, the Cold War resulted in the division of the country into democratic West Germany and communist East Germany. Millions of ethnic Germans were deported or fled from Communist areas into West Germany, which experienced rapid economic expansion, became the dominant economy in Western Europe. West Germany was rearmed in the 1950s under the auspices of NATO, but without access to nuclear weapons; the Franco-German friendship became the basis for the political integration of Western Europe in the European Union.
In 1989, the Berlin Wall was destroye
History of Liechtenstein
Political identity came to the territory now occupied by the Principality of Liechtenstein in 814, with the formation of the subcountry of Lower Rhætia. Liechtenstein's borders have remained unchanged since 1434, when the Rhine established the border between the Holy Roman Empire and the Swiss cantons. A Roman road crossed the region from south to north, traversing the Alps by the Splügen Pass and following the right bank of the Rhine at the edge of the floodplain, for long uninhabited because of periodic flooding. Roman villas have been excavated in Nendeln; the late Roman influx of the Alemanni from the north is memorialized by the remains of a Roman fort at Schaan. The area, part of Raetia, was incorporated into the Carolingian empire, divided into countships, which became subdivided over the generations; because the Duchy of Swabia lost its duke in 1268 and was never restored, all vassals of the duchy became immediate vassals of the Imperial Throne. Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German gained ground, in 1300 an Alemannic population called the Walsers entered the region.
In the 21st century, the mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect. The medieval county of Vaduz was formed in 1342 as a small subdivision of the Werdenberg county of the dynasty of Montfort of Vorarlberg; the 15th century brought some devastation. The Principality takes its name from the Liechtenstein family, rather than vice versa, the family in turn takes its name from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria, which it owned from at least 1140 until the 13th century and from 1807 onwards. Over the centuries, the family acquired huge landed estates in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria. All of these rich territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords under various lines of the Habsburg family, to which many Liechtensteins were close advisors. Thus, without holding any land directly under the Holy Roman Emperors, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet the primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial Diet, although its head was elevated to princely rank in the late 17th century.
The area, to become Liechtenstein was invaded by both Austrian and Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War of 1618–1648. During the 17th century the country was afflicted by a plague and by a witch hunt, in which more than 100 persons were persecuted and executed. Prince Johann Adam Andreas of Liechtenstein bought the domain of Schellenberg in 1699 and the county of Vaduz in 1712; this Prince of Liechtenstein had wide landholdings in Austria and Moravia, but none of his lands were held directly from the Emperor. Thus, the prince was barred from entry to the Council of Princes and the prestige and influence that would entail. By acquiring the Lordships of Schellenberg and Vaduz, modest areas of mountain villages each of, directly subordinate to the Emperor because there no longer being a Duke of Swabia, the Prince of Liechtenstein achieved his goal; the territory took the name of the family. On January 23, 1719, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that the counties of Vaduz and Schellenberg be promoted to a principality with the name Liechtenstein for his servant Anton Florian of Liechtenstein whereby he and his successors became Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
After having narrowly escaped mediatization to Bavaria in 1806, Liechtenstein became a sovereign state that year when it joined Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The French under Napoleon occupied the country for a few years, but Liechtenstein retained its independence in 1815. Soon afterward, Liechtenstein joined the German Confederation. In 1818, Johann I granted a constitution, although it was limited in its nature. 1818 saw the first visit of a member of the house of Liechtenstein, Prince Alois. However, the first visit by a sovereign prince would not occur until 1842. In 1862, a new Constitution was promulgated. During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Prince Johann II placed his soldiers at the disposal of the Confederation but only to “defend the German territory of Tyrol”; the Prince refused to have his men fight against other Germans. The Liechtenstein contingent took up position on the Stilfse Joch in the south of Liechtenstein to defend the Liechtenstein/Austrian border against attacks by the Italians under Garibaldi.
A reserve of 20 men remained in Liechtenstein. When the war ended on July 22, the army of Liechtenstein marched home to a ceremonial welcome in Vaduz. Popular legend claims that 80 men went to war but 81 came back. An Austrian liaison officer joined up with the contingent on the way back. In 1868, after the German Confederation dissolved, Liechtenstein disbanded its army of 80 men and declared its permanent neutrality, respected during both World Wars. Liechtenstein did not participate in World War I. However, until the end of the war, Liechtenstein was tied to Austria. In response, the Allied Powers imposed an economic embargo on the principality; the economic devastation forced the country to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. In 1919 Liechtenstein and Switzerland signed a treaty under which Switzerland assumes the representation of Liechtenstein interests at the diplomatic and consular level in countries where it maintains a representation and Liechtenstein