|Born||6 February 1958|
|This Austrian biographical article relating to ice hockey is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
|Born||6 February 1958|
|This Austrian biographical article relating to ice hockey is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
The 1984 Winter Olympics known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which took place from 8–19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia, in present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other candidate cities were Japan, it was the first Winter Olympic Games held in a socialist state. It was the second Olympics overall, as well as the second consecutive Olympics, to be held in a socialist country after the 1980 Summer Olympics were held in Moscow, Soviet Union; the only other games that have since been held in a socialist state are the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing and 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing, the 2022 Winter Olympics which will be held in Beijing. All of these have been in China; the Sarajevo games have been the only Olympics so far to be hosted by a Muslim-majority city. During the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, numerous newspapers drew attention to the Games' neglected venues as it was the 30th anniversary of the 1984 Winter Olympics; the host city for the XIV Winter Olympics was announced on 18 May 1978 during an 80th session of the International Olympic Committee in Athens, Greece.
Sarajevo was selected over Japan by a margin of three votes. Gothenburg was the first city in Sweden to lose a Winter Olympics bid, as other Swedish cities such as Falun and Östersund would lose their consecutive bids to Calgary, Lillehammer and Salt Lake City respectively. Sarajevo, capital of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, was part of the united Yugoslavia at the time; the torch relay for the 1984 Winter Olympics started in Olympia and proceeded by airplane to Dubrovnik. The total distance of the torch relay through Yugoslavia was 5,289 kilometres. There were the other in the east; the final torchbearer, from a total of 1600, was figure skater Sanda Dubravčić, who received the torch from skier runner Ivo Čarman. Today one of the two original torches is in Slovenia in a private collection in Slovenia. 20 more torches are in Greece owned by individual athletes, who were the torchbearers from Ancient Olympia to the nearby military airport and from Athens Domestic Airport to the Panathinaikon Stadium where the Ceremony of handing over the Olympic Flame to the Sarajevo Olympic Games Committee occurred.
The Olympic flag was raised upside down during the opening ceremony by mistake. First Games under the presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch; the 20 kilometre race was added to women's Nordic skiing. Skier Jure Franko won Yugoslavia's first Winter Olympic medal. Marja-Liisa Hämäläinen won all three individual cross-country races for women. Gaétan Boucher and Karin Enke each won two gold medals in speed skating, while East German women won all but three out of the twelve medals in the sport. Austria a formidable winter sports nation, won only one bronze medal. Biathlete Eirik Kvalfoss earned a complete set of medals. Twin brothers Phil and Steve Mahre took second place in the slalom. Torvill and Dean of Great Britain earned across-the-board perfect scores for artistic impression in the free dance ice dancing competition, a feat, never matched; the gold medals for Figure Skating were split among four nations. While Torvill and Dean won the Ice Dancing Competition for the UK, Elena Valova and Oleg Vasiliev of the Soviet Union won the Pairs Competition, Scott Hamilton scored Men's gold for the United States, Katarina Witt won the first of two consecutive gold medals for East Germany in Ladies Figure Skating.
Disabled skiing was a demonstration sport for the first time. Bill Johnson became the first American to win an Olympic downhill event. Lamine Guèye of Senegal was the first Black African skier to compete in the Winter Olympics; the closing ceremony was held indoors in the figure skating venue. The next time the closing ceremony for the Winter Games was held indoors was the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Readers of Yugoslav newspapers were asked to choose the mascot for the 1984 Winter Olympics from a list of six finalists; the winner was the little wolf, designed by Slovenian designer and illustrator Jože Trobec. The other finalists were a chipmunk, a lamb, a mountain goat, a porcupine, a snowball; the Vučko is a long-time symbol of Sarajevo. Koševo Stadium – Opening ceremony Zetra Ice Hall – figure skating, ice hockey, closing ceremonies Zetra Ice Rink – speed skatingSkenderija Complex Mirza Delibašić Hall – ice hockey and main press center Bjelašnica – alpine skiing Jahorina – alpine skiing Igman, Veliko Polje – cross-country skiing, Nordic combined, biathlon Igman Olympic Jumps – Nordic combined, ski jumping Sarajevo Olympic Bobsleigh and Luge Track at Mt. Trebević – bobsleigh, luge City Olympic Village, Mojmilo Press Village, Dobrinja Hotels: Igman, Smuk, Bistrica There were 39 events contested in 6 sports.
Disabled skiing All dates are in Central European Time These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1984 Winter Games. A record of 49 National Olympic Committees entered athletes at the 1984 Winter Olympic Games. Egypt, Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands participated in their 1st Winter Olympic Games; the People's Republic of China e
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Klagenfurt am Wörthersee is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia in Austria. With a population of 100,772, it is the sixth-largest city in the country; the city is the bishop's seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gurk-Klagenfurt and home to the University of Klagenfurt. The city of Klagenfurt is in southern Austria, midway across the nation, near the international border, it is in the middle as far from Innsbruck, to the west, as from Vienna, to the northeast. Klagenfurt covers an area of 120.03 square kilometres. It is on the Glan River; the city is surrounded by several forest-covered hills and mountains with heights of up to 1,000 m, for example, Ulrichsberg. To the south is the Karawanken mountain range, which separates Carinthia from Slovenia and Italy. Klagenfurt is a statutory city of Carinthia, the administrative seat of the district of Klagenfurt-Land, but it doesn't belong to it. In fact, their licence plates are different. Klagenfurt is divided itself into 16 districts: It is further divided into 25 Katastralgemeinden.
They are: Klagenfurt, Ehrenthal, Großbuch, Großponfeld, Gurlitsch I, Hallegg, Hörtendorf, Lendorf, Nagra, Neudorf, St. Martin bei Klagenfurt, St. Peter am Karlsberg, St. Peter bei Ebenthal, Sankt Peter am Bichl, St. Ruprecht bei Klagenfurt, Tentschach, Waidmannsdorf and Welzenegg. Klagenfurt has a typical continental climate, with a fair amount of fog throughout the autumn and winter; the rather cold winters are, broken by occasional warmer periods due to foehn wind from the Karawanken mountains to the south. The average temperature from 1961 and 1990 is 7.1 °C, while the average temperature in 2005 was 9.3 °C. Carinthia's eminent linguists Primus Lessiak and Eberhard Kranzmayer assumed that the city's name, which translates as "ford of lament" or "ford of complaints", had something to do with the superstitious thought that fateful fairies or demons tend to live around treacherous waters or swamps. In Old Slovene, cviljovec is a place haunted by such cvilya, thus they assumed that Klagenfurt's name was a translation made by the German settlers of the original Slovene name of the neighbouring wetland.
However, the earliest Slovene mention of Klagenfurt in the form of "v Zelouzi" dating from 1615 is 400 years more recent and thus could be a translation from German. The latest interpretation, on the other hand, is that the Old Slovene cviljovec itself goes back to an Italic l'aquiliu meaning a place at or in the water, which would make the wailing-hag theory obsolete. Scholars had at various times attempted to explain the city's peculiar name: In the 14th century, the abbot and historiographer John of Viktring translated Klagenfurt's name in his Liber certarum historiarum as Queremoniae Vadus, i.e. "ford of complaint", Hieronymus Megiser, Master of the university college of the Carinthian Estates in Klagenfurt and editor of the earliest printed history of the duchy in 1612, believed to have found the origin of the name in a "ford across the River Glan", however, is impossible for linguistic reasons. The common people sought an explanation: A baker's apprentice was accused of theft and executed, but when a few days afterwards the alleged theft turned out to be a mistake and the lad was proved to be innocent, the citizens' "lament went forth and forth".
This story was reported by Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, who became Pope Pius II. In 2007, the city changed its official name to "Klagenfurt am Wörthersee". However, since there are no other settlements by the name of Klagenfurt anywhere, the previous shorter name remains unambiguous. Legend has it that Klagenfurt was founded after a couple of brave men had slain the abominable "Lindwurm", a winged dragon in the moors adjoining the lake, the staple diet of, said to have been virgins, but which did not spurn the fat bull on a chain that the men had mounted on a strong tower; the feat is commemorated by a grandiose 9-ton Renaissance monument in the city centre. The place was founded by the Spanheim Duke Herman as a stronghold sited across the commercial routes in the area, its first mention dates from the late 12th century in a document in which Duke Ulric II. Exempted St. Paul's Abbey from the toll charge "in foro Chlagenvurth"; that settlement occupied an area, subject to frequent flooding, so in 1246 Duke Herman's son, Duke Bernhard von Spanheim, moved it to a safer position and is thus considered to be the actual founder of the market place, which in 1252 received a city charter.
In the following centuries, Klagenfurt suffered fires, invasions of locusts, attacks from Islamic Ottomans, was ravaged by the Peasants' Wars. In 1514, a fire completely destroyed the city, in 1518 Emperor Maximilian I, unable to rebuild it, despite the loud protests of the burgers, ceded Klagenfurt to the Estates, the nobility of the Duchy. Never before had such a thing happened; the new owners, brought about an economic renaissance and the political and cultural ascendancy of Klagenfurt. A canal was dug to connect the city to the lake as a supply route for timber to rebuild the city and to feed the city's new moats.