The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation, wherein he characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will. Proceeding from the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system, described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism, rejecting the contemporaneous post-Kantian philosophies of German idealism. Schopenhauer was among the first thinkers in Western philosophy to share and affirm significant tenets of Eastern philosophy, having arrived at similar conclusions as the result of his own philosophical work. Though his work failed to garner substantial attention during his life, Schopenhauer has had a posthumous impact across various disciplines, including philosophy and science, his writing on aesthetics and psychology influenced thinkers and artists throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges and Samuel Beckett.
Schopenhauer was born on 22 February 1788, in the city of Danzig on Heiligegeistgasse, the son of Johanna Schopenhauer and Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, both descendants of wealthy German-Dutch patrician families. Neither of them were religious,; when Danzig became part of Prussia in 1793, Heinrich moved to Hamburg—a free city with a republican constitution, protected by Britain and Holland against Prussian aggression—although his firm continued trading in Danzig where most of their extended families remained. Adele, Arthur's only sibling was born on 12 July 1797. In 1797 Arthur was sent to Le Havre to live for two years with the family of his father's business associate, Grégoire de Blésimaire, he seemed to enjoy his stay there, learned to speak French fluently and started a friendship with Jean Anthime Grégoire de Blésimaire, his peer, which lasted for a large part of their lives. As early as 1799, Arthur started playing the flute. In 1803 he joined his parents on their long tour of Holland, France, Switzerland and Prussia.
Heinrich gave his son a choice – he could stay at home and start preparations for university education, or he could travel with them and continue his merchant education. Arthur deeply regretted his choice because he found his merchant training tedious, he spent twelve weeks of the tour attending a school in Wimbledon where he was unhappy and appalled by strict but intellectually shallow Anglican religiosity, which he continued to criticize in life despite his general Anglophilia. He was under pressure from his father who became critical of his educational results. Heinrich became so fussy that his wife started to doubt his mental health. In 1805, Heinrich died by drowning in a canal by their home in Hamburg. Although it was possible that his death was accidental, his wife and son believed that it was suicide because he was prone to unsociable behavior and depression which became pronounced in his last months of life. Arthur showed similar moodiness since his youth and acknowledged that he inherited it from his father.
His mother Johanna was described as vivacious and sociable. Despite the hardships, Schopenhauer seemed to like his father and mentioned him always in a positive light. Heinrich Schopenhauer left the family with a significant inheritance, split in three among Johanna and the children. Arthur Schopenhauer was entitled to control of his part, he invested it conservatively in government bonds and earned annual interest, more than double the salary of a university professor. Arthur spent two years as a merchant in honor of his dead father, because of his own doubts about being too old to start a life of a scholar. Most of his prior education was practical merchant training and he had some trouble with learning Latin, a prerequisite for any academic career, his mother moved, with her daughter Adele, to Weimar—then the centre of German literature—to enjoy social life among writers and artists. Arthur and his mother were not on good terms. In one letter to him she wrote, "You are unbearable and burdensome, hard to live with.
Arthur left his mother, though she died 24 years they never met again. Some of negative opinions of the philosopher about women may be rooted in his troubled relationship with his mother. Arthur lived in Hamburg with his friend Jean Anthime, studying to become a merchant. After quitting his merchant apprenticeship, with some encouragement from his mother, he dedicated himself to studies at the Gotha gymnasium in Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, but he enjoyed social life among local nobility spending large amounts of money which caused concern to his frugal
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang Goethe was a German writer and statesman. His works include four novels. In addition, there are numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, nearly 3,000 drawings by him extant. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August, in 1782 after taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther, he was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe was a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena, he contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace. In 1998 both these sites together with nine others were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site under the name Classical Weimar. Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy.
In 1791, he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period, Goethe published Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, his conversations and various common undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, August and Friedrich Schlegel have come to be collectively termed Weimar Classicism. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels written, while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name. Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe. Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe, lived with his family in a large house in Frankfurt an Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire.
Though he had studied law in Leipzig and had been appointed Imperial Councillor, he was not involved in the city's official affairs. Johann Caspar married Goethe's mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, born in 1750, died at early ages, his father and private tutors gave Goethe lessons in all the common subjects of their time languages. Goethe received lessons in dancing and fencing. Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not. Although Goethe's great passion was drawing, he became interested in literature, he had a lively devotion to theater as well and was fascinated by puppet shows that were annually arranged in his home. He took great pleasure in reading works on history and religion, he writes about this period: I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, of the'Aeneid' and Ovid's'Metamorphoses'....
If an busy imagination, of which that tale may bear witness, led me hither and thither, if the medley of fable and history and religion, threatened to bewilder me, I fled to those oriental regions, plunged into the first books of Moses, there, amid the scattered shepherd tribes, found myself at once in the greatest solitude and the greatest society. Goethe became acquainted with Frankfurt actors. Among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit, he adored Caritas Meixner, a wealthy Worms trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would marry the merchant G. F. Schuler. Goethe studied law at Leipzig University from 1765 to 1768, he detested learning age-old judicial rules by heart, preferring instead to attend the poetry lessons of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Anna Katharina Schönkopf and wrote cheerful verses about her in the Rococo genre.
In 1770, he anonymously released his first collection of poems. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Christoph Martin Wieland. At this time, Goethe wrote a good deal, but he threw away nearly all of these works, except for the comedy Die Mitschuldigen; the restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Goethe became ill in Frankfurt. Durin
Kaiserslautern is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland of Rhineland-Palatinate at the edge of the Palatinate Forest. The historic centre dates to the 9th century, it is 459 kilometres from Paris, 117 km from Frankfurt am Main, 159 km from Luxembourg. Kaiserslautern is home to 100,569 people. Additionally 45,000 NATO military personnel inhabit the city and its surrounding district, contribute US$1 billion annually to the local economy; the city is home to football club 1. FC Kaiserslautern that has won the German championship four times. Prehistoric settlement in the area of what is now Kaiserslautern has been traced to at least 800 BC; some 2,500-year-old Celtic tombs were uncovered at Miesau, a town about 29 kilometres west of Kaiserslautern. The recovered relics are now in the Museum for Palatinate History at Speyer. Kaiserslautern received its name from the favorite hunting retreat of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa who ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1155 until 1190.
The small river Lauter made the old section of Kaiserslautern an island in medieval times. Ruins of Frederick's original castle, built 1152–1160, can still be seen in front of the Rathaus. A second castle, Nanstein Castle, was built at Landstuhl to guard the western approach to the city. Barbarossa's influence on Kaiserslautern remains today, both in its nickname as a "Barbarossa city" and the open-mouthed pike on the city's coat of arms his favorite dish; the Stiftkirche, Kaiserslautern's oldest church, was constructed in 1250–1350. As the population of Kaiserslautern grew, King Rudolf von Habsburg chartered the town in 1276. St. Martin's Kirche was built from 1300–1350 for an order of monks. Today a section of the original city wall still stands in the courtyard of the church. In 1375, the city of Kaiserslautern was pledged to Electoral Palatinate and therefore became subsequently part of the Wittelsbach inheritance. In 1519, Franz von Sickingen became the owner of Nanstein Castle, he became a Protestant, in 1522 Nanstein was a stronghold for local nobles favouring the Reformation.
Sickingen and the local nobles began their battle against the Archbishop of Trier. Nanstein was besieged by cannon-armed German Catholic princes. Sickingen died after the castle surrendered, the Protestant nobility of the Electoral Palatinate were subdued by the Catholic princes. Count of the Electoral Palatinate Johann Casimir, came to Kaiserslautern during the Thirty Years' War. Spanish occupation in 1621–1632 ended when Protestant Swedish armies liberated the area. In 1635, Croatian troops of the Austrian emperor's army entered Kaiserslautern and killed 3,000 of the 3,200 residents in three days' plundering. Landstuhl was saved from a similar fate by surrendering without a fight, it took Kaiserslautern about 160 years to repopulate itself. Conflict did not end with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the Elector of the Pfalz had difficulty with many of his subjects and ordered all castles, including Nanstein, destroyed. The French invaded and occupied the area, residing in Kaiserslautern in 1686–1697.
After the treaty of Utrecht it was restored to be part of the Palatinate. During the unquiet episodes in the 18th century, the Palatinate was the scene of fighting between French and German troops of different states. In 1713, the French destroyed the city's wall towers. From 1793 until Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo in 1815, the area was under French administration; as French power declined after 1815, Kaiserslautern and the Palatinate became a Bavarian province and remained so until 1918. After World War I, French troops again occupied the Palatinate for several years. In World War II, Allied bombing destroyed more than 85% of Kaiserslautern; the railway and several main roads were primary targets, with the heaviest attacks occurring on 7 January, 11 August, 28 September 1944. On 20 March 1945, as the last of the 1st Army crossed the Rhine at Remagen, the U. S. 80th Division, 319th Infantry, part of the 3rd US Army, seized Kaiserslautern without resistance. Little reconstruction took place until the currency reform of 1948.
The pace of the economy remained slow until 1952, when construction for newly established garrisons of American troops brought economic growth to the area. Unexploded ordnance from WWII continues to be discovered around Kaiserslautern. In May 2012 an unexploded 250-pound Allied bomb was found and covered by water pipe, during a construction project in the downtown area of the city. On 5 September 2013, another WWII bomb was found during construction near the train station in Enkenbach-Alsenborn. Kaiserslautern has a moderate climate with adequate rainfall year-round, it is classified as a "Cfb" by the Köppen Climate Classification system. Today, Kaiserslautern is a modern centre of information and communications technology and home to a well-known university, a technical college and many international research institutes located throughout the city; the Palatine Gallery dates from 1874 featuring exhibits of painting and sculpture from the 19th century to the present day. Town Hall Kaiserslautern is located in the city centre.
The bar and coffee shop on the top floor provides a panoramic view of the city and surrounding countryside. The tallest building in the centre of Kaiserslautern is St. Mary's, a Roman Catholic church, whilst the highest structure in all Kaiserslautern is the television
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
University of Marburg
The Philipps University of Marburg was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, which makes it one of Germany's oldest universities and the oldest Protestant university in the world. It is now a public university of the state of Hesse, without religious affiliation; the University of Marburg has about 25,000 students and 7,500 employees and is located in Marburg, a town of 72,000 inhabitants, with university buildings dotted in or around the town centre. About 12 % of the students are the highest percentage in Hesse, it offers an International summer university programme and offers student exchanges through the Erasmus programme. Marburg is home to one of Germany's most traditional medical faculties; the German physicians' union is called Marburger Bund. In 1609, the University of Marburg established the world's first professorship in chemistry. In 2012 it opened the first German interactive chemistry museum, called Chemicum, its experimental course programme is aimed at encouraging young people to pursue careers in science.
20 professors were expelled in 1933, among them Wilhelm Röpke who emigrated and Hermann Jacobsohn who committed suicide. The university is most famous for its life sciences research, but is home to one of the few centers that conduct research on the middle east, the CNMS; the departments of psychology and geography enjoy an outstanding reputation and reached Excellence Group status in the Europe-wide CHE Excellence Ranking 2009. The strong research is illustrated by its participation in several SFBs; these collaborative research centres are financed by the German Science Foundation DFG. They encourage researchers to cross the boundaries of disciplines, institutes and faculties within the participating university; the current SFB at Philipps-University Marburg are: SFB/TR17 – Ras-dependent Pathways in Human Cancer SFB/TR22 – Allergic response of the lung SFB/TR81 - Chromatin Changes in Differentiation and Malignancies SFB-TRR 84 - Innate Immunity of the Lung SFB 593 – Mechanisms of cellular compartmentalisation and the relevance for disease SFB 987 - Microbial Diversity in Environmental Signal Response SFB 1083 - Structure and Dynamics of Internal Interfaces SFB 1021 - RNA viruses: RNA metabolism, host response and pathogenesis Alter Botanischer Garten Marburg, the university's old botanical garden Botanischer Garten Marburg, the university's current botanical garden Forschungsinstitut Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden bis 1250 Bildarchiv Foto Marburg Religionskundliche Sammlung Deutscher Sprachatlas Mineralogisches Museum Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Natural scientists who studied or taught at the University of Marburg: Marburg was always known as a humanities-focused university.
It retained that strength in Philosophy and Theology for a long time after World War II. Theologians include: Rudolf Bultmann Karl Barth Christoph Andreas Leonard Creuzer Friedrich Heiler Wilhelm Herrmann Aegidius Hunnius Andreas Hyperius Otto Kaiser Helmut Koester Jacob Lorhard Rudolf Otto Kurt Rudolph Annemarie Schimmel Paul Tillich August Friedrich Christian VilmarPhilosophers include: Wolfgang Abendroth Hannah Arendt Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer Ernst Cassirer Hermann Cohen Hans-Georg Gadamer Nicolai Hartmann Martin Heidegger Hans Heinz Holz Hans Jonas Friedrich Albert Lange Karl Löwith Paul Natorp José Ortega y Gasset Isaac Rülf Leo Strauss Christian Wolff Eduard ZellerOther notable students and faculty include: List of early modern universities in Europe List of universities in Germany University hospital Giessen und Marburg Philipps-Universität Marburg
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012