Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language. It was published by the Historical Commission of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences between 1875 and 1912 in 56 volumes, printed in Leipzig by Duncker & Humblot; the ADB contains biographies of about 26,500 people who died before 1900 and lived in the German language Sprachraum of their time, including people from the Netherlands before 1648. Its successor, the Neue Deutsche Biographie, was started in 1953 and is planned to be ready in 2019. Reinert, Schrott, Ebneth, Rehbein, Team Deutsche Biographie et al. From Biographies to Data Curation - The Making of www.deutsche-biographie.de, in: BD2015. Biographical Data in a Digital World. Proceedings of the First Conference on Biographical Data in a Digital World 2015. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 9, 2015, ed. by. Serge ter Braake, Antske Fokkens, Ronald Sluijter, Thierry Declerck, Eveline Wandl-Vogt, CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol-1399.
P. 13-19. Ebneth, Neue Deutsche Biographie, Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie - full-text articles at German Wikisource. German Biography - complete full-text articles and further information
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name, accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species, native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages; the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy.
The cultivar Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon; the usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were considered to be several related families; some botanical names refer to groups that are stable while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used. Depending on rank, botanical names may be in two parts or three parts; the names of cultivated plants are not similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae Marchantiophyta Magnoliopsida Liliidae Pinophyta Fagaceae Betula in two parts Acacia subg.
Phyllodineae lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii a species name, i.e. a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetin three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. Americana, a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetin four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts. A botanical name in three parts, i.e. an infraspecific name needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies.
In botany there are many ranks below that of species. A name of a "subdivision of a genus" needs a connecting term; the connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. Brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." But this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch.. Generic and infraspecific botanical names are printed in italics; the example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, non-botanical scientific publications do not, in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial.
For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part. A binary name consists of the name of an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved. In t
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the royal academies of Sweden. It is an independent, non-governmental scientific organisation which takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines, its purpose is to. Nobel Prizes in Physics and in Chemistry Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel Crafoord Prizes in astronomy and mathematics, geosciences and polyarthritis Sjöberg Prize Rolf Schock Prizes in logic and philosophy Gregori Aminoff Prize in crystallography Tobias Prize Göran Gustafsson Prize for research in mathematics, the natural sciences and medicine Söderberg Prize in economics or jurisprudence Ingvar Lindqvist Prizes for teachers in the fields of physics, chemistry and mathematics. Etc; the academy has elected about 1,700 Swedish and 1,200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Today the academy has about 470 Swedish and 175 foreign members which are divided into ten "classes", representing ten various scientific disciplines: Mathematics Astronomy and space science Physics Chemistry Geosciences Biosciences Medical sciences Engineering sciences Social sciences Humanities and for outstanding services to science The following persons have served as permanent secretaries of the academy: Anders Johan von Höpken, 1739–1740, 1740–1741 Augustin Ehrensvärd, April – June 1740 Jacob Faggot, 1741–1744 Pehr Elvius, 1744–1749 Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, 1749–1783 Johan Carl Wilcke and Henrik Nicander, 1784–1796 Daniel Melanderhjelm and Henrik Nicander, 1796–1803 Jöns Svanberg and Carl Gustaf Sjöstén 1803–1808.
In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone: Öfversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar Vetenskapsakademiens årsbok The academy started publishing annual reports in physics and chemistry, technology and zoology; these lasted into the 1860s. Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections, which in 1903 became independent scientific journals of their own, titled "Arkiv för...", among them Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik. Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. Current publicationsAmbio Acta Mathematica Arkiv för matematik Acta Zoologica Levnadsteckningar över Vetenskapsakademiens ledamöter, biographies of deceased members Porträttmatrikel, portraits of current members Zoologica Scripta, jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters The academy was founded on 2 June 1739 by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, mercantilist Jonas Alströmer, mechanical engineer Mårten Triewald, civil servants Sten Carl Bielke and Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm, statesman/author Anders Johan von Höpken.
The purpose of the academy was to focus on useful knowledge, to publish in Swedish in order to disseminate the academy's findings. The academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, founded in 1719 and published in Latin; the location close to the commercial activities in Sweden's capital was intentional. The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, which some of the founding members were familiar with. Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Official website Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences video site
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience. The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the central offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors, 2500 historians and 100 translators; the encyclopedia is being edited in three national languages of Switzerland: German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002; the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in: Biographies Articles on families and genealogy Articles on places Subject articles The on-line edition has been available since 1998, it makes accessible, for free, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered. Lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh.
It includes articles not available in the other languages. The first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, Schwabe AG, Basel, ISBN 3-7965-1900-8 Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive, ISBN 2-88256-133-4 Dizionario storico della Svizzera, Armando Dadò editore, Locarno, ISBN 88-8281-100-X Lexicon Istoric Retic, Kommissionsverlag Desertina, Chur, ISBN 978-3-85637-390-0, ISBN 978-3-85637-391-7 Media related to Historical Dictionary of Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons DHS/HLS/DSS online edition in German and Italian Lexicon Istoric Retic online edition in Romansh