Dillingen an der Donau
Dillingen, or Dillingen an der Donau is a town in Swabia, Germany. It is the administrative center of the district of Dillingen. Besides the town of Dillingen proper, the municipality encompasses the villages of Donaualtheim, Hausen, Kicklingen and Steinheim. Schretzheim is notable for its 6th to 7th century Alemannic cemetery, 630 row graves in an area of 100 by 140 metres; the counts of Dillingen ruled from the 10th to the 13th century. After the Reformation, the prince-bishops of Augsburg moved to the Catholic city of Dillingen and made it one of the centers of the Counter-Reformation. In 1800, during the War of the Second Coalition, the armies of the French First Republic, under command of Jean Victor Moreau, fought Habsburg regulars and Württemberg contingents, under the general command of Pál Kray. Kray had taken refuge in the fortress at Ulm. At this battle, the culmination of the Danube Campaign of 1800, Moreau forced Kray to abandon Ulm and withdraw into eastern Bavaria. A university was established in 1549, but was closed by Napoleon in 1804.
The philosophical and theological faculties still existed in the 20th century. In 1971, however, it became a part of the Bavarian Center for the Education and Training of Teachers and Personnel Management. One of the largest employers in the city is Bosch and Siemens Household Appliances, producer of household applicances; the elections in March 2014 showed the following results: Leonhard Wiedemann, abbot in Ottobeuren Heinrich Vogtherr, painter Walpurga Hausmännin, victim of Dillingen witchcraft process Johann Alois Jehle, country Defension colonel and commander of Braunau during Bavarian National Uprising in 1705. On 18 December In 1705 he called for 21 December, the Braunau Parliamenta Sebastian Franz von Braunn Bavarian Lieutenant General Clemens von Raglovich for Rosenhof, Bavarian General and Reichsrat Georg Wilhelm Ritter von Manz, Lieutenant General, Bavarian Minister of War Sister Theresia Haselmayr, Generaloberin, co-founder of Regens Wagner Stiftungen Wilhelm Bauer, the inventor of the submarine Max Joseph Oertel, university professor and pioneer of medical science Friedrich Rittelmeyer Protestant theologian and co-founder of the Christian Community Georg Philipp Wörlen and graphic artist Josef Becker-Dillingen and horticultural scientist Ingeborg Geisendörfer, German politician Matthias Klostermayr, leader of a gang of robbers, convicted in Dillingen and strangled smashed and quartered.
Johann Michael Sailer, a Catholic theologian, professor of ethics and pastoral theology in Dillingen 1821 Domkapitular and 1822 auxiliary bishop with right of succession, in 1829 Bishop of Regensburg Christoph von Schmid, Catholic theologian Sebastian Kneipp, Catholic priest and hydrotherapeut, began in 1848 his studies of theology in Dillingen. Heinz Piontek, writer Basilica of Sts. Peter and Paul, Dillingen Oberliezheim Bondeno, Italy Brand-Erbisdorf, Germany Naas, Ireland The town's official website Photos of works of art in Dillingen, in the Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
A canon is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule. A canon was a cleric living with others in a clergy house or in one of the houses within the precinct of or close to a cathedral and conducting his life according to the orders or rules of the church; this way of life grew common in the eighth century. In the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth; those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, whilst those who did not were known as secular canons. In the Roman Catholic Church, the members of the chapter of a cathedral or of a collegiate church are canons. Depending on the title of the church, several languages use specific titles, e.g. in German Domherr or Domkapitular in a Dom, Stiftsherr in a prelature that has the status of a Stift. One of the functions of the cathedral chapter in the Roman Catholic Church was to elect a vicar capitular to serve during a sede vacante period of the diocese.
Since the 1983 revision of the Code of Canon Law, this responsibility belongs to the college of consultors, unless the national bishops conference decides that the functions that canon law ascribes to the college of consultors, including this one, are to be entrusted to the cathedral chapter. All canons of the Church of England have been secular since the Reformation, although an individual canon may be a member of a religious order. However, they are ordained, that is, priests or other clergy. Today, the system of canons is retained exclusively in connection with cathedral churches. A canon is a member of the chapter of priests, headed by a dean, responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other churches that are styled collegiate churches; the dean and chapter are the formal body which has legal responsibility for the cathedral and for electing the bishop. The title of Canon is not a permanent title and when no longer in a position entitling preferment, it is dropped from a cleric's title nomenclature.
However, it is still given in many dioceses to senior parish priests as a honorary title. It is awarded in recognition of long and dedicated service to the diocese. Honorary canons are members of the chapter in name but are non-residential and receive no emoluments, they are entitled to call themselves canon and may have a role in the administration of the cathedral. Speaking, canons in the Anglican Communion are of this sort, thus are equivalent to a monsignor in the Roman Catholic Church wearing the violet or violet-trimmed cassock, associated with that rank. In some Church of England dioceses, the title Prebendary is used instead of canon when the cleric is involved administratively with a cathedral. Honorary canons within the Roman Catholic Church may still be nominated after the Second Vatican Council. Priests of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre are, in fact, titular or honorary canons of these respective Orders and have the right to the honorific title of "Canon" and "Monsignor" in addition to the choir dress of a canon, which includes the mozetta (black with purple piping for Malta and white with a red Jerusalem cross for Holy Sepulchre.
Since the reign of King Henry IV, the heads of state of France have been granted by the pope the title of sole honorary canon of Saint John Lateran and Saint Peter's. On the demise of the Kingdom of France this honour became transferred to the Presidents of the Republic, hence is held by Emmanuel Macron; this applies when the French President is not a Catholic or is an atheist. The proto-canon of the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major is the King of Spain Felipe VI. Before the Reformation, the King of England was a canon of the basilica of Saint Paul outside the Walls. In addition to canons who are clerics in holy orders, cathedrals in the Anglican Communion may appoint lay persons as canons; the rank of "lay canon" is conferred upon diocesan chancellors. It has traditionally been said that the King of England is a canon or prebendary of St David's Cathedral, Wales. However, this is based on a misconception; the canonry of St Mary’s College, St David's became the property of the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries.
The Sovereign was never a canon of St David’s as a layman, though he or she may occupy the first prebendal stall, assigned for the monarch's use. A canon professor is a canon at an Anglican cathedral who holds a university professorship. There are four canon professorships in the University of Oxford in conjunction with Christ Church Cathedral and two in Durham University in conjunction with Durham Cathedral, although academics titled "canon professor" may be found at other universities where the appointments as canon and professor have been made independently. Section 2 of the Church of England Measure 1995 was passed for the express purpose of enabling Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, to appoint not more than two
Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg
The Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg was one of the prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire, belonged to the Swabian Circle. It should not be confused with the larger diocese of Augsburg, over which the prince-bishop exercised only spiritual authority; the city of Augsburg proper, after it gained free imperial status, was a separate entity and constitutionally and politically independent of the prince-bishopric of the same name. The prince-bishopric covered some 2365 km2 and had 100,000 inhabitants at the time it was annexed to Bavaria in the course of the German mediatization; the present city of Augsburg appears in Strabo as a stronghold of the Licatii. Though the beginnings of Christianity within the limits of the present diocese are shrouded in obscurity, its teachings were brought there by soldiers or merchants. According to the acts of the martyrdom of St. Afra, who with her handmaids suffered at the stake for Christ, there existed in Augsburg early in the fourth century a Christian community under Bishop Narcissus.
St. Dionysius, uncle of St. Afra, is mentioned as his Successor. Nothing authentic is known about the history of the Augsburg Church during the centuries succeeding, but it survived the collapse of Roman power in Germany and the turbulence of the great migrations, it is true that two catalogues of the Bishops of Augsburg, dating from the eleventh and twelfth centuries, mention several bishops of this primitive period, but the first whose record has received indubitable historical corroboration is Saint Wikterp, bishop about 739 or 768. He took part in several synods convened by Saint Boniface in Germany. Under either Saint Wikterp or his successor, about whom little is known, many monasteries were established, e.g. the abbeys of Wessobrunn, Ellwangen and Ottobeuren. At this time the see, hitherto suffragan to the Patriarchate of Aquileia, was placed among the suffragan sees of the newly founded Archdiocese of Mainz. Saint Simpert, hitherto abbot of Murbach, a relative of Charlemagne, renovated many churches and monasteries laid waste in the wars of the Franks and Bavarians, during the incursions of the Avari.
His jurisdiction extended at that time from the Iller eastward over the Lech, north of the Danube to the Alb, south to the spurs of the Alps. Moreover, various estates and villages in the valley of the Danube, in Tyrol, belonged to the diocese. Among the bishops of the following period, a certain number are prominent, either on account of the offices they filled in the Empire, or for their personal qualifications; the See of Augsburg reached the period of its greatest splendor under Saint Ulrich. During the incursion of the Hungarians and the siege of Augsburg, he sustained the courage of the citizens, compelled the Hungarians to withdraw, contributed much to the decisive victory on the Lechfeld, he built churches in honor of Saint Afra and Saint John, founded the monastery of Saint Stephen for Benedictine nuns, undertook three pilgrimages to Rome. The diocese suffered much during the episcopate of his successor, Henry I, for he sided with the foes of Emperor Otto II, remained for several months in prison.
After his liberation he renounced his former views and bequeathed to his church his possessions at Geisenhausen. The diocese attained great splendor under Bishop Bruno, brother of Emperor Henry II. Under Bishop Henry II, the guardian of Henry IV, the diocese secured the right of coinage and was enriched by many donations. During the last years of his episcopate, the quarrel of Emperor Henry IV with the papacy in which Embrico took the imperial side and only temporarily yielded to the papal legate; the struggle continued under his successors. Hermann, Count of Vohburg supported with treachery and cunning his claim to the see he had purchased, violently persecuted the Abbot of St. Afra, expelled him from the city. Only after the conclusion of the Concordat of Worms did Hermann obtain the confirmation of the pope and relief from excommunication; the political disturbances resulting from the dissensions between the popes and the German emperors reacted on the Church of A
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service religious. The word consecration means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, the term is used in various ways by different groups; the origin of the word comes from the Latin word consecrat, which means dedicated and sacred. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify. Images of the Buddha and bodhisattvas are ceremonially consecrated in a broad range of Buddhist rituals that vary depending on the Buddhist traditions. Buddhābhiseka is a Sanskrit term referring to these consecration rituals. "Consecration" is used in the Catholic Church as the setting apart for the service of God of both persons and objects. The ordination of a new bishop is called a consecration. While the term "episcopal ordination" is now more common, "consecration" was the preferred term from the Middle Ages through the period including the Second Vatican Council; the Vatican II document Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy n. 76 states, Both the ceremonies and texts of the ordination rites are to be revised.
The address given by the bishop at the beginning of each ordination or consecration may be in the mother tongue. When a bishop is consecrated, the laying of hands may be done by all the bishops present; the English text of Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition, 1997, under the heading "Episcopal ordination—fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders", uses "episcopal consecration" as a synonymous term, using "episcopal ordination" and "episcopal consecration" interchangeably. The Code of Canon Law Latin-English Edition, under "Title VI—Orders" uses the term sacrae ordinationis minister "minister of sacred ordination" and the term consecratione episcopali "episcopal consecration"; the life of those who enter religious institutes, secular institutes or societies of apostolic Life are described as Consecrated life. The rite of consecration of virgins can be traced back at least to the fourth century. By the time of the Second Vatican Council, the bestowal of the consecration was limited to cloistered nuns only.
The Council directed. Two similar versions were prepared, one for women living in monastic orders, another for consecrated virgins living in the world. An English translation of the rite for those living in the world is available on the web site of the United States Association of Consecrated Virgins. Chrism, an anointing oil, is olive oil consecrated by a bishop. Objects such as patens and chalices, used for the Sacrament of the Eucharist, are consecrated by a bishop, using chrism; the day before a new priest is ordained, there is a vigil and a service or Mass at which the ordaining Bishop consecrates the paten and chalice of the ordinands. A more solemn rite exists for what used to be called the "consecration of an altar", either of the altar alone or as the central part of the rite for a church; the rite is now called the dedication. Since it would be contradictory to dedicate to the service of God a mortgage-burdened building, the rite of dedication of a church is carried out only if the building is debt-free.
Otherwise, it is only blessed. A special act of consecration is that of the bread and wine used in the Eucharist, which according to Catholic belief involves their change into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change referred to as transubstantiation. To consecrate the bread and wine, the priest speaks the Words of Institution. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the term "consecration" can refer to either the Sacred Mystery of Cheirotonea of a bishop, or the sanctification and solemn dedication of a church building, it can be used to describe the change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ at the Divine Liturgy. The Chrism used at Chrismation and the Antimension placed on the Holy Table are said to be consecrated. Church buildings and altars are consecrated to the purpose of religious worship, baptismal fonts and vessels are consecrated for the purpose of containing the Eucharistic elements, the bread and wine/the body and blood of Christ. A person may be consecrated for a specific role within a religious hierarchy, or a person may consecrate his or her life in an act of devotion.
In particular, the ordination of a bishop is called a consecration. In churches that follow the doctrine of apostolic succession, the bishops who consecrate a new bishop are known as the consecrators and form an unbroken line of succession back to the Apostles; those who take the vows of religious life are said to be living a consecrated life. The Methodist Book of Worship for Church and Home contains a liturgies for "The Order for the Consecration of Bishops", "An Office for the Consecration of Deaconesses", "An Office for the Consecration of Directors of Christian Education and Directors of Music", as well as "An Office for the Opening or Consecrating of a Church Building" among others. Among some religious groups there is a service of "deconsecration", to return a consecrated place to secular purpose. In the Church of England, an order closing a church may remove the legal effects of consecration. In most South Indian Hindu temples around the world, Kumbhabhishekam, or the temple's consecration ceremony, is done once every 12 years.
It is done to purify the temple after a renovation or done to renew the purity of th
A catechism is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts. Catechisms are doctrinal manuals – in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorised – a format, used in non-religious or secular contexts as well; the term catechumen refers to the designated recipient of the catechetical instruction. In the Catholic Church, catechumens are those. Traditionally, they would be placed separately during Holy Mass from those, baptized, would be dismissed from the liturgical assembly before the Profession of Faith and General Intercessions. Catecheticals are characteristic of Western Christianity but are present in Eastern Orthodox Christianity. In 1973, The Common Catechism, the first joint catechism of Catholics and Protestants, was published by theologians of the major Western Christian traditions, as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue. Before the Protestant Reformation, Christian catechesis took the form of instruction in and memorization of the Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, basic knowledge of the sacraments.
The word "catechism" for a manual for this instruction appeared in the Late Middle Ages. The use of a question and answer format was popularized by Martin Luther in his 1529 Small Catechism, he wanted the catechumen to understand what he was learning, so the Decalogue, Lord's Prayer, Apostles' Creed were broken up into small sections, with the question "What does this mean" following each portion. The format calls upon a master and a student, or a parent and a child; the Westminster Shorter Catechism is an example: Q. What is the chief end of man? A. To glorify God and enjoy Him forever! Q. What rule hath God given to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy Him? A; the word of God, contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him. The catechism's question-and-answer format, with a view toward the instruction of children, was a form adopted by the various Protestant confessions from the beginning of the Reformation. Among the first projects of the Reformation was the production of catechisms self-consciously modelled after the older traditions of Cyril of Jerusalem and Augustine.
These catechisms showed special admiration for Chrysostom's view of the family as a "little church", placed strong responsibility on every father to teach his children, in order to prevent them from coming to baptism or the Lord's table ignorant of the doctrine under which they are expected to live as Christians. Luther's Large Catechism typifies the emphasis which the churches of the Augsburg Confession placed on the importance of knowledge and understanding of the articles of the Christian faith. Intended as instruction to teachers to parents, the catechism consists of a series of exhortations on the importance of each topic of the catechism, it is meant for those who have the capacity to understand, is meant to be memorized and repeatedly reviewed so that the Small Catechism could be taught with understanding. For example, the author stipulates in the preface: Therefore it is the duty of every father of a family to question and examine his children and servants at least once a week and to ascertain what they know of it, or are learning and, if they do not know it, to keep them faithfully at it.
The catechism, Luther wrote, should consist of instruction in the rule of conduct, which always accuses us because we fail to keep it, the rule of faith, the rule of prayer, the sacraments. Luther adds: However, it is not enough for them to comprehend and recite these parts according to the words only, but the young people should be made to attend the preaching during the time, devoted to the catechism, that they may hear it explained and may learn to understand what every part contains, so as to be able to recite it as they have heard it, when asked, may give a correct answer, so that the preaching may not be without profit and fruit. Luther's Small Catechism, in contrast, is written to accommodate the understanding of a child or an uneducated person, it begins: The First CommandmentYou shall have no other gods. Q. What does this mean? A. We should fear and trust in God above all things. Calvin's 1545 preface to the Genevan catechism begins with an acknowledgement that the several traditions and cultures which were joined in the Reformed movement would produce their own form of instruction in each place.
While Calvin argues that no effort should be expended on preventing this, he adds: We are all directed to one Christ, in whose truth being united together, we may grow up into one body and one spirit, with the same mouth proclaim whatever belongs to the sum of faith. Catechists not intent on this end, besides fatally injuring the Church, by sowing the materials of dissension in religion introduce an impious profanation of baptism. For where can any longer be the utility of baptism unless this remain as its foundation — that we all agree in one faith? Wherefore, those who publish Catechisms ought to be the more on their guard, by producing anything rashly, they may not for the present only, but in regard to posterity do grievous harm to piety, inflict a deadly wound on the Church; the scandal of diverse instruction is that it produces diverse baptisms and diverse communions, diverse faith. However, forms may v
Gemmingen is a town in the district of Heilbronn in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany
Fugger is a German family, a prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, venture capitalists. Alongside the Welser family, the Fugger family controlled much of the European economy in the sixteenth century and accumulated enormous wealth; the Fuggers held a near monopoly on the European copper market. This banking family replaced the de' Medici family, who influenced all of Europe during the Renaissance; the Fuggers took over their political power and influence. They were affiliated with the House of Habsburg whose rise to world power they financed. Unlike the citizenry of their hometown, they never converted to Lutheranism as presented in the Augsburg Confession but rather remained with the Roman Catholic Church. Jakob Fugger "the Rich" was elevated to the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire in May 1511 and assumed the title Imperial Count of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn in 1514. Today he is considered to be one of the wealthiest people to have lived.
The company was dissolved in 1657, however the Fuggers remained wealthy landowners and ruled the County of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn. The Babenhausen branch became Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1803, the Glött branch princes in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1914; the founder of the family was Johann Fugger, a weaver at Graben, near the Swabian Free City of Augsburg. His son called Johann, settled in Augsburg, the first reference to the Fugger family there is his arrival, recorded in the tax register of 1367, he became an Augsburg citizen. After Klara's death, he married Elizabeth Gattermann, he joined the weaver's guild, by 1396 he was ranked high in the list of taxpayers. He added the business of a merchant to that of a weaver, his eldest son, Andreas Fugger, was a merchant in the weaving trade, was nicknamed "Fugger the Rich" after buying land and other properties. The Fugger family itemized and inventoried a large number of Asian rugs, an unusual undertaking at the time. Andreas's son, Lukas Fugger, was granted arms by the Emperor Frederick III, a golden deer on a blue background, he was soon nicknamed "the Fugger of the Deer".
He was too ambitious and went bankrupt. His descendants served their cousins of the famous younger branch and went to Silesia. Contemporary members of the Fugger of the Deer are descendants of Matthäus Fugger; the current patriarch is Markus Fugger von dem Rech. Hans Fugger's younger son, Jakob the Elder, founded another branch of the family; this branch progressed more and they became known as the "Fuggers of the Lily" after their chosen arms of a flowering lily on a gold and blue background. Jakob was a master weaver, a merchant, an alderman, he married the daughter of a goldsmith. His fortune progressed, by 1461, he was the twelfth richest man in Augsburg, he died in 1469. Jakob's eldest son, took over the business on his father's death, in 1473 he provided new suits of clothes to Frederick, his son Maximilian I, his suite on their journey to Trier to meet Charles the Bold of Burgundy and the betrothal of the young prince to Charles's daughter Maria, thus began a profitable relationship between the Fugger family and the Habsburgs.
With the help of their brother in Rome, Markus and his brother George handled remittances to the papal court of monies for the sale of indulgences and the procuring of church benefices. From 1508 to 1515 they leased the Roman mint. Ulrich died in 1510; when the Fuggers made their first loan to the Archduke Sigismund in 1487, they took as security an interest in silver and copper mines in the Tirol. This was the beginning of an extensive family involvement in mining and precious metals; the Fuggers participated in mining operations in Silesia, owned copper mines in Hungary. Their trade in spices and silk extended to all parts of Europe. Ulrich's youngest brother Jakob Fugger, born in 1459, was to become the most famous member of the dynasty. In 1498 he married Sibylla Artzt, Grand Burgheress to Augsburg, the daughter of an eminent Grand Burgher of Augsburg, they had no children, but this marriage gave Jakob the opportunity to elevate to Grand Burgher of Augsburg and allowed him to pursue a seat on the city council of Augsburg.
He was elevated to the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire in May 1511, made Imperial Count in 1514, in 1519 led a consortium of German and Italian businessmen that loaned Charles V 850,000 florins to procure his election as Holy Roman Emperor over Francis I of France. The Fuggers' contribution was 543,000 florins. In 1494, the Fuggers established their first public company. Jakob's aim was to establish a copper monopoly by opening foundries in Hohenkirchen and Fuggerau and by expanding the sales organization in Europe the Antwerp agency. Jakob leased the copper mines in Neusohl in 1495 making them the greatest mining centre of the time. At the height of his power Jakob Fugger was criticized by his contemporaries by Ulrich von Hutten and Martin Luther, for selling indulgences and benefices and urging the Pope to rescind or amend the prohibition on the levying of interest; the imperial fiscal and governmental authorities in Nuremberg brought action against him and other merchants in an attempt to halt their monopolistic practices.
In 1511, Jakob deposited 15,000 florins as an endowment for some almshouses. In 1514, he bought up par