Johann Jakob Scheuchzer
Johann Jakob Scheuchzer was a Swiss scholar born at Zürich. The son of the town physician of Zürich, he received his education in that place. Early in 1694, he took his degree of doctor in medicine at the University of Utrecht and he went back to Zürich in 1696 and was made junior town physician with the promise of the professorship of mathematics which he duly obtained in 1710. He was promoted to the chair of physics, with the office of town physician, in January 1733. His published works were estimated at thirty-four in number and his historical writings are mostly still in manuscript. The more important of his published writings relate either to his scientific observations or to his journeys, in the course of which he collected materials for these scientific works. The first of the three parts of the work deals with the Swiss mountains, the second with the Swiss rivers and mineral baths. Scheuchzers works, as issued in 1746 and in 1752, formed one of the sources for Schillers drama Wilhelm Tell.
In 1704, Scheuchzer was elected FRS and he published many scientific notes and papers in the Philosophical Transactions for 1706–07,1709 and 1727–28. These journeys led Scheuchzer to almost every part of Switzerland, particularly its central, at the end of his 1723 book he gives a full list of his writings from 1694 to 1721. Scheuchzer is known for his paleontological work, in his Lithographia Helvetica, he described fossils as plays of nature or alternately as leftovers from the biblical Flood. Most famously, he claimed that a skeleton found in a Baden quarry was the remains of a human who had perished in the deluge. In November 1703, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and Scheuchzerjoch in the Bernese Alps are named after Johann Jakob Scheuchzer. Scheuchzeriaceae and Scheuchzeria palustris are named in his honor and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Scheuchzer, Johann Jakob. Hochgebirges, a little pamphlet, conveniently summarizing Scheuchzers scientific views.
Pictures and texts of Ouresiphoites Helveticus, sive itinera per Helvetiae alpinas regiones by Johann Jakob Scheuchzer can be found in the database VIATIMAGES, herbarium diluvianum - full digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library. - full digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library, homo diluvii testis - full digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library. Piscium querelae et vindiciae - full digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
First War of Kappel
The First War of Kappel was an armed conflict in 1529 between the Protestant and the Catholic cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy during the Reformation in Switzerland. It ended, without any battle having been fought, with the first peace of Kappel, the Catholic cantons in response had formed an alliance with Ferdinand of Austria. Several mediation attempts failed, such as the disputation of Baden in 1526, the last straw was the installation of a Catholic vogt at Baden. Zürich declared war on 8 June, occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall, by mediation at the Federal Tagsatzung, open war was barely avoided. While the armies were on the field and negotiations were ongoing, johannes Salat of Lucerne, who was an eye-witness, records how the men from both camps fraternised and talking together. This became a symbol of reconciliation and compromise between confederates. The peace agreement was not exactly favourable for the Catholic party, the tensions remained essentially unresolved, and would flare again in the Second War of Kappel two years later.
Second War of Kappel First War of Villmergen Toggenburg War of Second War of Villmergen Sonderbund War
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
Battle of Morat
The result was a crushing defeat for the Burgundians at the hands of the Swiss. Stung by his defeat by the Swiss Confederation at Grandson in March 1476, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, reorganised his tangled and his first objective was the strategic lakeside town of Morat, set on the eastern shore of Lake Morat. On 11 June 1476, the Burgundians commenced the siege of the well-prepared town, an initial assault was repulsed by a heavy barrage of fire from light guns mounted on the walls, but two great bombards used by the Burgundians were slowly reducing the walls to rubble. By 19 June the Confederate muster was near complete at their camp behind the Sarine River, only a contingent of some 4,000 men from Zürich had yet to arrive and these were not expected until 22 June. Charles in the meantime had been reasonably well informed of the approach of the Confederate army. The terrain around the town is hilly and he had chosen to rest his left flank artillery on a steeply sloped gorge cut by the Burggraben stream.
In the centre, behind a ditch and palisade entrenchment known as the Grunhag. On 21 June 1476, Charles expected the Confederation forces to attack and he arranged his army and prepared for the coming assault. However, the Swiss commanders decided to wait a day for the troops from Zürich. After about six hours of waiting Charles ordered his troops to stand down, on 22 June 1476, around mid-morning, Charles ordered his treasurer to pay the entire army, expecting the Confederate troops to continue delaying. The orderly lines of the Burgundian army dissolved into chaos as soldiers scattered throughout the camp collecting their pay, eating their midday meal and seeking shelter from the rain. The skeleton force remained at the Grunhag were surprised when the Swiss army, in battle order. The Confederate vanguard of some 6,000 skirmishers and all the 1,200 cavalry present erupted out of Birchenwald Woods to the west of Morat, behind the vanguard came the main body of pike, the gewalthut. This was some 10,000 to 12,000 strong and was formed in a wedge with the cantonial standards in the centre, flanked by halberdiers.
The rearguard of 6,000 to 8,000 more closely packed pike, as the Swiss charged downhill into the Burgundian position the artillery managed to fire a few salvoes, killing or maiming several hundred of the overeager Lorrainers. The Swiss formed up quickly beyond it and advanced towards Murten, in the Burgundian camp, there was confusion after the Swiss were sighted, as men rushed to re-form ranks and prepare for battle. In the ducal tent on top of the Bois Du Domingue, but as fast as any unit was formed and moved forward against the Swiss, it was swept aside as various uncoordinated attacks were made against the still compact Confederate battle formations. Charles managed to muster enough English archers to form a last line of defence before the camp, the Duke of Somerset is identified as the commander of the English archers
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany in the region of Alsace. In 2014, the city proper had 276,170 inhabitants, Strasbourgs metropolitan area had a population of 773,347 in 2013, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est regions inhabitants. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014, Strasbourg is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. The city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, Strasbourgs historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. The largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque, was inaugurated by French Interior Minister Manuel Valls on 27 September 2012.
Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg, Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, after the 5h century, the city became known by a completely different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means Town of roads, Strasbourg is situated on the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the River Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city. The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the River Ill, which flows parallel to, and roughly 4 kilometres from. The natural courses of the two eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city. This section of the Rhine valley is an axis of north-south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself.
The city is some 400 kilometres east of Paris, in spite of its position far inland, Strasbourgs climate is classified as Oceanic, with warm, relatively sunny summers and cold, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, on average, snow falls 30 days per year. The highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003. The lowest temperature recorded was −23.4 °C in December 1938. Nonetheless, the disappearance of heavy industry on both banks of the Rhine, as well as effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have reduced air pollution
Unterstammheim is a municipality in the district of Andelfingen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Unterstammheim has an area of 7.3 km2, of this area,52. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 36. 2% is forested. Of the rest of the land,10. 6% is settled, Unterstammheim has a population of 923. As of 2007,7. 0% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -0. 3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common, in the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 35. 7% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CSP, the FDP and the Green Party, the age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 30. 4% of the population, while adults make up 55. 7% and seniors make up 13. 8%. In Unterstammheim about 84. 3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Unterstammheim has an unemployment rate of 1. 54%.
As of 2005, there were 116 people employed in the economic sector. 83 people are employed in the sector and there are 11 businesses in this sector. 234 people are employed in the sector, with 37 businesses in this sector. Stammheim railway station, situated in Unterstammheim, is served by Zurich S-Bahn line S29, which links Winterthur and Stein am Rhein
W. A. B. Coolidge
William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge was an American historian and mountaineer. Coolidge was born in New York City as the son of Frederic William Skinner Coolidge, a Boston merchant and he studied history and law at St. Pauls School in Concord, New Hampshire, at Elizabeth College, and at Exeter College, Oxford. In 1875 he became a Fellow of Magdalen College, from 1880 to 1881 he was professor of British history at Saint Davids College in Lampeter and in 1883 he became a priest of the Anglican church. In 1870 at the age of twenty he was made a member of the Alpine Club, on many of these climbs he was accompanied by his aunt, Meta Brevoort, and a pet dog, given to him by one of his guides, Christian Almer. In 1885 he moved to Grindelwald, where he died in 1926, scherbadung,1886 Chüebodenhorn,1892 Swiss travel and Swiss guide-books. The central Alps of the Dauphiny and excursions in the valley of Grindelwald. The Alps in nature and history, ronald W. Clark, An Eccentric in the Alps, The story of W. A. B.
Museum Press, London 1959 Works by or about W. A. B. Coolidge at Internet Archive Works by or about W. A. B. Coolidge in libraries
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture, the librarys main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař, the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers, as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague, the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years, the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new building on Letna plain. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, in 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Later in 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water. Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building, there was a fire at the library in December 2012, but nobody was injured in the event. List of national and state libraries Official website