Königsberg is the name for a former German city, now Kaliningrad, Russia. A Sambian or Old Prussian city, it belonged to the State of the Teutonic Order, the Duchy of Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany until 1945. After being destroyed in World War II by Allied bombing and Soviet forces and annexed by the Soviet Union thereafter, the city was renamed Kaliningrad. Few traces of the former Königsberg remain today; the literal meaning of Königsberg is'King’s Mountain'. In the local Low German dialect, spoken by many of its German former inhabitants, the name was Kenigsbarg. Further names included Russian: Кёнигсберг, Королевец, tr. Kyonigsberg, Old Prussian: Kunnegsgarbs, Lithuanian: Karaliaučius, Polish: Królewiec and Yiddish: קעניגסבערג Kenigsberg. Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement Twangste by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusades, was named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. A Baltic port city, it successively became the capital of their monastic state, the Duchy of Prussia and East Prussia.
Königsberg remained the coronation city of the Prussian monarchy, though the capital was moved to Berlin in 1701. A university city, home of the Albertina University, Königsberg developed into an important German intellectual and cultural centre, being the residence of Simon Dach, Immanuel Kant, Käthe Kollwitz, E. T. A. Hoffmann, David Hilbert, Agnes Miegel, Hannah Arendt, Michael Wieck and others. Between the thirteenth and the twentieth centuries, the inhabitants spoke predominantly German, but the multicultural city had a profound influence on the Lithuanian and Polish cultures; the city was a publishing centre of Lutheran literature, including the first Polish translation of the New Testament, printed in the city in 1551, the first book in the Lithuanian language and the first Lutheran catechism, both printed in Königsberg in 1547. Königsberg was the easternmost large city in Germany until World War II; the city was damaged by Allied bombing in 1944 and during the Battle of Königsberg in 1945.
Its German population was expelled, the city was repopulated with Russians and others from the Soviet Union. Russified as Kyonigsberg, it was renamed "Kaliningrad" in 1946 in honour of Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin, it is now the capital of Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast, an exclave bordered in the north by Lithuania and in the south by Poland. There has been some discussion of the territory's current legal status, although this is academic; the Potsdam Agreement placed it provisionally under Soviet administration, but did not mention an explicit right of annexation. In the Final Settlement treaty of 1990, Germany renounced all claim to it, but without transferring its former title to any other party. Königsberg was preceded by a Sambian, or Old Prussian, fort known as Twangste, meaning Oak Forest, as well as several Old Prussian settlements, including the fishing village and port Lipnick, the farming villages Sakkeim and Trakkeim. During the conquest of the Prussian Sambians by the Teutonic Knights in 1255, Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress known as Conigsberg.
This name meant "King’s Hill", honoring King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who paid for the erection of the first fortress there during the Prussian Crusade. Northwest of this new Königsberg Castle arose an initial settlement known as Steindamm 4.5 miles from the Vistula Lagoon. The Teutonic Order used Königsberg to fortify their conquests in Samland and as a base for campaigns against pagan Lithuania. Under siege during the Prussian uprisings in 1262–63, Königsberg Castle was relieved by the Master of the Livonian Order; because the initial northwestern settlement was destroyed by the Prussians during the rebellion, rebuilding occurred in the southern valley between the castle hill and the Pregel River. This new settlement, received Culm rights in 1286. Löbenicht, a new town directly east of Altstadt between the Pregel and the Schlossteich, received its own rights in 1300. Medieval Königsberg's third town was Kneiphof, which received town rights in 1327 and was located on an island of the same name in the Pregel south of Altstadt.
Within the state of the Teutonic Order, Königsberg was the residence of the marshal, one of the chief administrators of the military order. The city was the seat of the Bishopric of Samland, one of the four dioceses into which Prussia had been divided in 1243 by the papal legate, William of Modena. Adalbert of Prague became the main patron saint of Königsberg Cathedral, a landmark of the city located in Kneiphof. Königsberg joined the Hanseatic League in 1340 and developed into an important port for the south-eastern Baltic region, trading goods throughout Prussia, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the chronicler Peter of Dusburg wrote his Chronicon terrae Prussiae in Königsberg from 1324–1330. After the Teutonic Order's victory over pagan Lithuanians in the 1348 Battle of Strawen, Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode established a Cistercian nunnery in the city. Aspiring students were educated in Königsberg before continuing on to higher education elsewhere, such as Prague or Leipzig.
Although the knights suffered a crippling defeat in the Battle of Grunwald, Königsberg remained under the control of the Teutonic Knights throughout the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War. Livonian knights replaced the Prussian branch's garrison at Königsberg, allow
Timișoara is the capital city of Timiș County, the 3rd largest city in Romania and the main social and cultural centre in western Romania. The third most populous city in the country, with 319,279 inhabitants as of the 2011 census, Timișoara is the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat. In September 2016, Timișoara was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2021. All names of the city are derived from its Hungarian name Temesvár meaning "Castle on Temes river". Archaeological discoveries prove that the area where Timișoara is located today has been inhabited since ancient times; the first identifiable civilization in this area were the Dacians. From coin finds, it is known. While no record of the settlement is known from those times, it is agreed that the site was inhabited through the Middle Ages when the city was mentioned for the first time. Timișoara was first mentioned as a place in either 1212 or 1266 as the Roman fort of Castrum Temesiensis or Castrum regium Themes.
The territory known as Banat was conquered during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. The town was destroyed by the Tatars in the 13th century but Timișoara was rebuilt and grew during the reign of Charles I, upon his visit there in 1307, ordered the fortress to be fortified with stone walls and to build a royal palace. Timișoara's importance grew due to its strategic location, which facilitated control over the Banat plain. By the middle of the 14th century, Timișoara was at the forefront of Western Christendom's battle against the Muslim Ottoman Turks. French and Hungarian Crusaders met at the city before engaging in the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Beginning in 1443, John Hunyadi used Timișoara as a military stronghold against the Turks, having built a powerful fortress; the city was besieged by the Ottomans in 1462, 1476, 1491, 1522. In 1552, a 16,000-strong Ottoman army led by Kara Ahmed Pasha conquered the city and transformed it into a capital city in the region; the local military commander, István Losonczy, other Christians were massacred on 27 July 1552 while escaping the city through the Azapilor Gate.
Timișoara remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 160 years, controlled directly by the Sultan and enjoying a special status, similar to other cities in the region such as Budapest and Belgrade. During this period, Timișoara was home to a large Islamic community and produced famous historical figures such as Osman Aga of Temesvar, until Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it in 1716 during the Ottoman-Habsburg war. Subsequently, the city came under Habsburg rule, it remained so until the early 20th century as part of the Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, except for the Ottoman occupation between 1788–1789 during the 1787–91 Austro-Turkish War; the city was defortified starting in 1892 up until 1910, several major road arteries were built to connect the suburbs with the city centre, paving the way for further expansion of the city. It was the 1st mainland European city and 2nd in the world after New York to be lit by electric street lamps in 1884, it was the second European and the first city in what is now Romania with horse-drawn trams in 1869.
It is said that Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, drew the projects of one of Timișoara's footbridges over the Bega, the "Metal Bridge", however, it was planned by Róbert Tóth, the head of the Bridge Department, at the Reșița rail factory. On 31 October 1918, local military and political elites established the "Banat National Council", together with representatives of the region's main ethnic groups: Germans, Hungarians and Romanians. On 1 November they proclaimed the short-lived Banat Republic. In the aftermath of World War I, the Banat region was divided between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, Timișoara came under Romanian administration after Serbian occupation between 1918–1919; the city was ceded from Hungary to Romania by the Treaty of Trianon on 4 June 1920. In 1920, King Ferdinand I awarded Timișoara the status of a University Centre, the interwar years saw continuous economic and cultural development. A number of anti-fascist and anti-revisionist demonstrations took place during this time.
During World War II, Timișoara suffered damage from both Allied and Axis bombing raids during the second half of 1944. On 23 August 1944, which until was a member of the Axis, declared war on Nazi Germany and joined the Allies. Surprised, the local Wehrmacht garrison surrendered without a fight, German and Hungarian troops attempted to take the city by force throughout September, without success. After the war, the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed, Timișoara underwent Sovietization and Systematization; the city's population tripled between 1948 and 1992. In December 1989, Timișoara witnessed a series of mass street protests in what was to become the Romanian Revolution. On 20 December, three days after bloodshed began there, Timișoara was declared the first city free of Communism in Romania. Timișoara lies at an altitude of 90 metres on the southeast edge of the Banat plain, part of the Pannonian Plain near the divergence of the Timiș and Bega rivers; the waters of the two rivers form a swampy and flooded land.
Timișoara developed on one of few places wher
Franconian Switzerland is an upland in Upper Franconia, Germany, a popular tourist retreat. Located between the River Pegnitz in the east and the south, the River Regnitz in the west and the River Main in the north, its relief, which reaches 600 metres in height, forms the northern part of the Franconian Jura; as several other mountainous landscapes in the German speaking lands, e.g. Holstein Switzerland, Märkische Schweiz, or Pommersche Schweiz, Franconian Switzerland was given its name by Romantic artists and poets in the 19th century who compared the landscape to Switzerland; the Franconian Switzerland is famous for its high density of traditional breweries. The region was once called Muggendorfer Gebürg; the first tourists arrived during the age of Romanticism. Two law students of Erlangen University, Ludwig Tieck and Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder have been credited as "discoverers" of the region; the episode "Eine Reise in die Fränkische Schweiz" in their joint production Franz Sternbalds Wanderungen enthralled many contemporaries.
The 1820 book Die kleine Schweiz, written by Jakob Reiselsberger of Waischenfeld, gave the region its name. In 1829, a book by German salesman and local historian Joseph Heller, Muggendorf und seine Umgebung oder die Fränkische Schweiz was published; the description Switzerland was common during the 19th century for landscapes with mountains and most rocks, e.g. Saxon Switzerland, Marcher Switzerland, Mecklenburg Switzerland and Holstein Switzerland. Franconian Switzerland is the northern part of the Franconian Jura, it is loosely defined as the region bounded by the rivers Main to the north, Regnitz to the west and Pegnitz to the east or by the motorways of the A 70 to the north, A 9 to the east and A 73 to the west. However, the actual region of Franconian Switzerland is only the catchment area of the River Wiesent; the region covers parts of the counties of Bamberg and Forchheim. Its best known settlements include Pottenstein, Gößweinstein, Ebermannstadt, Streitberg and Waischenfeld, its boundaries are Obermainland, Bayreuth and Bamberg.
Information about Franconian Switzerland may be found inter alia in the Franconian Switzerland Museum in Tüchersfeld with its comprehensive regional collections. It is housed in the so-called Jew's Court below two steep rock pinnacles; the following 18 municipalities across 2 counties belong to the Franconian Switzerland Trade Association: County of Bayreuth: Ahorntal Betzenstein Creußen Gesees Haag Hummeltal Pegnitz Plech Pottenstein Prebitz Schnabelwaid County of Forchheim: Egloffstein Gößweinstein Gräfenberg Hiltpoltstein Igensdorf Obertrubach Weißenohe In the White Jurassic period, about 161 million to 150 million years ago, a shallow sea lay across the whole of southern Germany. During this period, thick rock sequences were deposited on the seabed as the earth's crust sank; the landscape of Franconian Switzerland is influenced by the resulting limestone and dolomite rocks of the White Jurassic. It is a typical karst landscape with incised river valleys and dry, arid plateaus. Many fossils ammonites, may be found in the limestone strata.
In the late Jurassic period, uplifting of the European continental plate caused the sea to recede and larger areas of land formed at the beginning of the subsequent Cretaceous period. During this time there was a tropical climate and there was intense weathering of limestone and dolomite rocks. During the Cretaceous a sea again advanced into the region of the Franconian Switzerland. In the Tertiary period, the sea receded again due to local uplifting and exposed the Jurassic landscape; the most prominent peak is known as "Walberla", a table hill east of Forchheim. Its official name is the Ehrenbürg; the Ehrenbürg consists of the Rodenstein and the Walberla. On the hilltop is its namesake, the small Walburgis Chapel, first mentioned in a 1360 manuscript. There is an annual festival on the hilltop on 30 April, the birthday of Saint Walburga, which attracts thousands of people. Other popular high points are as follows: Leienfels, 590 m Spiegelfels along with the Pfarrfelsen near Affalterthal, Markt Egloffstein, 468 m Wichsenstein, 587 m Signalstein, 582 m Little Kulm, 623 m Hohenmirsberger Plateau, 614 m Neubürg, 587 m Tannenberg, 599 m Graubühl, 569 m The rocks of Franconian Switzerland's mountains and hills are popular for rock climbing.
With more than 6,500 routes it is one of the best developed climbing areas in the world. Important climbing areas are as follows: Trubach Valley Walberla Wiesent Valley Leinleiter Valley Püttlach Valley Aufsess Valley There are countless caves in Franconian Switzerland, of which the Devil's Cave near Pottenstein is the most famous; the region is a typical example for a Karst topography. Accessible caves are as follows: Binghöhle Teufelshöhle Sophienhöhle Oswaldhöhle Rosenmüllershöhle Quackenschloss, cave ruin Zoolithenhöhle Esperhöhle Förstershöhle Schönsteinhöhle Klauskirche Riesenburg Hasenlochhöhle, known for having housed people during the Stone Age. Franconian Switzerland is located along the so-called
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary and Croatia and Archduke of Austria in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain following the death of his relative, Charles II, In 1708 He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, the last Habsburg sovereign, Maria Anna, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands. Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, faced with his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713; the Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I. Charles sought the other European powers' approval, they exacted harsh terms: Britain demanded that Austria abolish its overseas trading company. In total, Great Britain, Saxony-Poland, the Dutch Republic, Venice, States of the Church, Russia, Savoy-Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction.
France, Saxony-Poland and Prussia reneged. Charles died in 1740, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession, which plagued his successor, Maria Theresa, for eight years. Archduke Charles, the second son of the Emperor Leopold I and of his third wife, Princess Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, was born on 1 October 1685, his tutor was Anton Prince of Liechtenstein. Following the death of Charles II of Spain, in 1700, without any direct heir, Charles declared himself King of Spain—both were members of the House of Habsburg; the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession, which pitted France's candidate, Duke of Anjou, Louis XIV of France's grandson, against Austria's Charles, lasted for 14 years. The Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of England, Scotland and the majority of the Holy Roman Empire endorsed Charles's candidature. Charles III, as he was known, disembarked in his kingdom in 1705, stayed there for six years, only being able to exercise his rule in Catalonia, until the death of his brother, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Not wanting to see Austria and Spain in personal union again, the new Kingdom of Great Britain withdrew its support from the Austrian coalition, the war culminated with the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt three years later. The former, ratified in 1713, recognised Philip as King of Spain. To prevent a union of Spain and France, Philip was forced to renounce his right to succeed his grandfather's throne. Charles was discontented at the loss of Spain, as a result, he mimicked the staid Spanish Habsburg court ceremonial, adopting the dress of a Spanish monarch, according to British historian Edward Crankshaw, consisted of "a black doublet and hose, black shoes and scarlet stockings". Charles's father and his advisors went about arranging a marriage for him, their eyes fell upon Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the eldest child of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was held to be strikingly beautiful by her contemporaries. On 1 August 1708, in Barcelona, Charles married her by proxy.
She gave him two daughters that survived to Maria Theresa and Maria Anna. When Charles succeeded his brother in 1711, he was the last male Habsburg heir in the direct line. Since Habsburg possessions were subject to Salic law, barring women from inheriting in their own right, his own lack of a male heir meant they would be divided on his death; the Pragmatic Sanction of 19 April 1713 abolished male-only succession in all Habsburg realms and declared their lands indivisible, although Hungary only approved it in 1723. Charles had Maria Theresa, Maria Anna and Maria Amalia but no surviving sons; when Maria Theresa was born, he disinherited his nieces and the daughters of his elder brother Joseph, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia. It was this act that undermined the chances of a smooth succession and obliged Charles to spend the rest of his reign seeking to ensure enforcement of the Sanction from other European powers, they exacted harsh terms. However, by 1735 he had secured approvals from key states, most the Imperial Diet, which in theory bound all its members including Prussia and Bavaria.
Other signatories included Britain, the Dutch Republic, Russia and Savoy-Sardinia but subsequent events underlined Eugene of Savoy's comment that the best guarantee was a powerful army and full Treasury. His nieces were married to the rulers of Saxony and Bavaria, both of whom refused to be bound by the decision of the Imperial Diet and despite publicly agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction in 1735, France signed a secret treaty with Bavaria in 1738 promising to back the'just claims' of Charles Albert of Bavaria. In the first part of his reign, Austrian continued to expand; this extended Austrian rule to the lower Danube. The War of the Quadruple Alliance followed, it too ended in an A
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.
See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.
Litoměřice is a town at the junction of the rivers Elbe and Ohře in the northern part of the Czech Republic 64 km northwest of Prague. The area within the Ústí nad Labem Region is sometimes called The Garden of Bohemia due to the mild weather conditions important for growing fruits and grapes. During the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, many pensioners chose it over more southern areas of the Empire; the town is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Litoměřice, the 4th oldest – and 3rd still existing – Catholic diocese on present Czech territory. The settlement of Litoměřice has a deep history of Paleolithic cultures as well as large Celtic settlements of the so-called La Tène culture, which did not survive the incoming Germanic attacks; the area was settled by Germanic tribes, when Litoměřice first appear on Ptolemaios Map in the 2nd Century under the name of Nomisterium. The Germanic tribes migrated west and those remaining mingled with the incoming Slavs. One of the oldest Czech towns, Litoměřice was established in the 10th century on the site of an early medieval Přemyslid Dynasty fort.
The area was settled by the Czech tribe of Litoměřici. In the High Middle Ages a small group of German settlers was invited in by Slavic rulers. A royal-town statute was granted in 1219 by the Czech king. From the 12th to the 17th century it was a significant trading center in the Holy Roman Empire; the population suffered during the 15th century Hussite Wars. After the Protestant tensions with the Catholics that triggered the Thirty Years' War and the Protestants' defeat in the Battle of White Mountain, the surviving population of the city was forced to accept Catholicism or face property confiscation and the obligation to leave the kingdom. In this way, the town became a Catholic bishop's residency in 1655; as a result, the Czech Protestant population shrank and the town became Germanized. In 1918, Bohemia and Czech Silesia became constituent parts of newly created Czechoslovakia, along with large border area, inhabited predominantly by the Germans. Local Germans tried to join German Austria.
Known under informal name Sudetenland, the region became the subject of political controversy in the following years. Slavs remained a minority. In 1938, after the Munich Agreement, German troops occupied the Sudetenland. Czech population, which had grown to about 5,000 people, had to leave again. In the final stages of World War II, German troops retreated to escape the advancing Red Army. Czech resistance took control of the castle on 27 April 1945, after a few days they started negotiations with the German commander about the terms of his surrender; the Wehrmacht capitulated in the night after 8 May, but German troops fled on 9 May, just before Soviet troops entered the town on 10 May 1945. Most of the German population of the town was expelled by the so-called Beneš decrees in August 1945, along with about 2.5 million other former Czechoslovak citizens of German ethnicity. The Holocaust in Leitmeritz. "In Early April 1945: The SS evacuates thousands of Jews – on foot – as Allied and Soviet forces press in from the east and west.
Evacuees are taken to camps at Germany. The operation is rife with murders as well as deaths from starvation and typhus. Thirteen hundred Jews are evacuated on foot from Vienna. There are several main sights visible when approaching Litoměřice; the Baroque St. Stephen's Cathedral at the Cathedral Square was built in place of an older Romanasque basilica in the years 1664–1668; the interior is completely authentic with main and six side altars and a lot of original paintings. Right next to the dome is a bishop's residence built in 1683–1701 by Giulio Broggio. On the main square there is All-Saints Church and within distance there is an Annunciation Church, another masterpiece built by the son of Giulio Broggio, Octavio; the old town hall and Black Eagle House on the main square are worthy a look. The symbol of the city is a chalice. There are numerous cellars connected by an extensive web of underground ways under the town. In some places, the cellars were built in three floors; the ways are about three kilometers long and they belong to the longest of their kind in the Czech Republic.
Only 336 metres of these underground ways are open to the public. You can notice the ancient town wall; the original town wall was built in the Gothic style. Northern Bohemian Gallery of Creative Arts is based close the main square. Extensive collection spans from 13th century to contemporary art with numerous other exhibitions during the year. 1 December 1930: 18,498 17 May 1939: 17,267 22 May 1947: 14,402 2 June 2004: 25,517 31 December 2012: 24,316 1 January 2015: 24,101 Rudolf Buchbinder, Austrian classical pianist Ferdinand Blumentritt, historian and close friend of the Philippine national hero José Rizal and taught here 1877–1913. Vincent Bochdalek and pathologist Josef Emanuel Hilscher, Austrian soldier and transl