Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the historiography of the United Kingdom, that of Canada, the British Empire, early Islam, China—and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature; the extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state—remains a debated question. The research interests of historians change over time, there has been a shift away from traditional diplomatic and political history toward newer approaches social and cultural studies. From 1975 to 1995 the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history increased from 31 to 41 percent, while the proportion of political historians decreased from 40 to 30 percent.
In 2007, of 5,723 faculty in the departments of history at British universities, 1,644 identified themselves with social history and 1,425 identified themselves with political history. In the early modern period, the term historiography meant "the writing of history", historiographer meant "historian". In that sense certain official historians were given the title "Historiographer Royal" in Sweden and Scotland; the Scottish post is still in existence. Historiography was more defined as "the study of the way history has been and is written – the history of historical writing", which means that, "When you study'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians." Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, the "telling of history" has emerged independently in civilizations around the world. What constitutes history is a philosophical question; the earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name.
By contrast, the term "historiography" is taken to refer to written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. In this limited sense, "ancient history" begins with the early historiography of Classical Antiquity, in about the 5th century BCE. One of the Confucian Five Classics, the Shang Shu 尚書, has conventionally been given the English title Classic of History; this terminology is misleading as the book is a collection of speeches and anecdotes about ancient worthies, which while arranged in rough chronological order lacks any attempt to integrate them into a coherent narrative or indicate how much time has passed between two incidents. The purpose of the book is more about imparting moral lessons; the first true history of China is therefore the Spring and Autumn Annals, the official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 to 481 BCE. It is among the earliest surviving historical texts to be arranged on annalistic principles in the world, was traditionally attributed to Confucius.
A "commentary" on the Spring and Autumn, the Zuo Zhuan attributed to Zuo Qiuming in the 5th century BCE, is considered the earliest work of narrative history in the world, covering the period from 722 to 468 BCE. It is many times longer and much more detailed and vivid than the laconic text it is purportedly commenting on, so that it is regarded as a work of history in its own right. Just as the Spring and Autumn annals has lent their name to the Spring and Autumn period they cover, the following Warring States period is named after the book Intrigues of the Warring States, compiled between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. Unlike the Annals, the Intrigues lack any chronological apparatus and is more of a return to the editorial style of the Classic of History; the purpose of the work is to teach the reader useful diplomatic and strategic skills rather than provide a coherent narrative of the period. The Han dynasty eunuch Sima Qian was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing.
His written work was a monumental lifelong achievement in literature. Its scope extends as far back as the 16th century BCE, it includes many treatises on specific subjects and individual biographies of prominent people, explores the lives and deeds of commoners, both contemporary and those of previous eras, his work pioneered the "Annals-biography" format, which would become the standard for prestige history writing in China. In this genre a history opens with a chronological outline of court affairs, continues with detailed biographies of prominent people who lived during the period in question. Whereas Sima's had been a universal history from the beginning of time down to the time of writing, his successor Ban Gu wrote an annals-biography history limiting its coverage to only the Western Han dynasty, the Book of Han; this established the notion of using dynastic boundaries as start- and end-points, most Chinese histories would focus on a single dynasty or group of dynasties. The Records of the Grand Historian and Book of Han were joined by the Book of the Later Han and the Records of the Three Kingdom
The Remonstrants are a historic community of Dutch Protestants who supported Jacobus Arminius, after his death, continue to maintain his original views. In 1610, they presented to the States of Holland and Friesland a remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of disagreement with Calvinism as adopted by the Dutch Reformed Church. There are 10,000 Remonstrants in the world. According to 2010 statistics, a 6,000-strong Remonstrant community still remains in the Netherlands. There is a single congregation in Friedrichstadt, Schleswig-Holstein in Germany; the remaining Remonstrants are dispersed internationally. As historic supporters of his theological cause, Remonstrants declined to be called "Arminians" and adopted a designation of their own choice. Despite following the pure version of Arminianism, they are not the only Protestants who can be considered Arminian or be called "Arminians", as the Arminian movement is a cross-denominational development which made inroads into the Church of England, General Baptists, the Holiness movement, the Charismatic movement, Pentecostalism and a number of other Protestant denominations.
The five articles include:. Their adversaries, inspired by Franciscus Gomarus, became known as Gomarists or Counter-Remonstrants. Although the States-General issued an edict tolerating both parties and forbidding further dispute, the conflict continued and became linked to political conflicts in the Dutch Republic; the Remonstrants were assailed both by personal enemies and by the political weapons of Maurice of Orange. Their foremost ally, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, was executed, other leaders were imprisoned. In 1618–19 the Synod of Dordrecht, after expelling the thirteen Arminian pastors headed by Simon Episcopius, established the victory of the Calvinist school, it drew up ninety-three canonical rules, confirmed the authority of the Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism. The judgement of the synod was enforced through the deposition and in some cases banishment of Remonstrant ministers. An exile community was founded in Antwerp in 1619. In 1621 they were allowed to settle in Schleswig.
The doctrine of the Remonstrants was embodied in 1621 in a confessio written by Episcopius, their major theologian, while Jan Uytenbogaert gave them a catechism and regulated their church order. Their seminary in Amsterdam had distinguished pupils, including Curcellaeus, Wetstein, Le Clerc, their school of theology, which grew more liberal and rationalistic, forcefully debated the official Dutch Reformed state church and other Christian denominations. After the death of Maurice of Orange in 1625 some exiles returned; the government became convinced that they posed no danger to the state, in 1630 they were formally allowed to reside again in all parts of the Republic. They were not, however allowed to build churches until the establishment of the Batavian Republic in 1795; until they held their services in so-called Schuilkerken. The Remonstrant Brotherhood continues as a church in the Netherlands, it has its origins in the theology of Arminius and the signing of the "Five articles of Remonstrance" against a stricter form of Calvinism by 44 ministers.
The Remonstrants proclaimed the responsibility of man, pre-ordination through foreknowledge of faith, that Christ's death was sufficient for all. In line with the progressive views on religion, Remonstrants have been blessing same-sex partnerships on an equal footing as different sex weddings from 1986 onwards. In this the Remonstrants were the first Christian church in the world to bless same-sex relationships similar to other relations; the Remonstrants first received official recognition in 1795. Their chief congregation has been in Rotterdam. Today, the Remonstrant Brotherhood has some 5,780 members and "friends", in 46 congregations in the Netherlands, one congregation in Friedrichstadt, in northern Germany, it keeps fellowship with the European Liberal Protestant Network. Remonstrants place big emphasis on personal faith and are not in agreement with one another on questions of faith and social issues, they consider that the message of the Gospel can not be separated from true choices in the struggle to live together, on the road to a world with peace and justice.
What binds them is the Statement of Principle: The Remonstrant Church is a community of faith which, rooted in the gospel of Jesus Christ,and true to its principle of freedom and tolerance,seeks to worship and serve God. In addition to Statement of Principle, most contemporary Remonstrants write their own declaration or profession of faith when they become a member of the community; the brotherhood did express at three times in their history the faith they share in a confessional statement, in 1621, 1940 and 2006. Remonstrants however, being a non-creedal denomination, consider no confession to have indisputable authority. Arminianism Calvinism Five Articles of Remonstrance Five points of Calvinism Methodism Predestination Aken, Lucie J N K van, 1947. De Remonstrantse Broederschap in Verleden en Heden. Historische Schets, Arnhem: Van Loghum Slaterus Brouwers, J F e.a. 2005. Wat We Nog Weten. Amsterd
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Nicolas Chorier was a French lawyer and historian. He is known for his historical works on Dauphiné, as well as his erotic dialogue called The School of Women, or The Seven Flirtatious Encounters of Aloisia, he was born in present-day Isère. He practised as a lawyer in Grenoble and as a prosecutor for King Louis XIV, his works on Dauphiné remain an important source for historians to this day. He died at Grenoble in his eightieth year; the School of Women first appeared as a work in Latin entitled Aloisiae Sigaeae, Satyra sotadica de arcanis Amoris et Veneris. This manuscript claimed that it was written in Spanish by Luisa Sigea de Velasco, an erudite poet and maid of honor at the court of Lisbon and was translated into Latin by Jean or Johannes Meursius, a humanist professor teaching history in Leiden, Holland since 1610; the attribution to Sigea was a lie and Meursius' involvement was a complete fabrication. The manuscript circulated through the libertine community at the beginning of the eighteenth century and was known in Latin under many different titles.
It was translated into French many times, including one translation by Jean Terrasson in 1750, was translated into English. The book is written in the form of a series of dialogues with Tullia, a twenty-six-year-old Italian woman, the wife of Callias, charged with the sexual initiation of her young cousin, Ottavia, to whom she declares, "Your mother asked me to reveal to you the most mysterious secrets of the bridal bed and to teach you what you must be with your husband, which your husband will be, touching these small things which so inflame men's passion; this night, so that I can teach you above all in a freer language, we will sleep together in my bed, which I would like to be able to say will have been the softest of Venus's lace." 1660: Aloisiae Sigeae Toletanae Satyra sotadica de arcanis Amoris et Veneris. Gratianopoli 1678: Aloisiae Sigaeae Toletanae Satyra sotadica de arcanis Amoris & Veneris... accessit colloquium ante hac non editum, Fescennini, ex m.s. recens reperto. Editio nova, emendatior & auctior.
Amstelodami 1757: Joannis Meursii Elegantiae Latini sermonis seu Aloisia Sigæa Toletana de arcanis Amoris et Veneris. Lugduni Batavorum: Ex typis Elzevirianis 1969: Des secrets de l'amour et de Vénus, satire sotadique de Luisa Sigea, de Tolède, par Nicolas Chorier, préface d'André Berry. Éditions l'Or du Temps 1999: L'Académie des dames ou la Philosophie dans le boudoir du Grand Siècle. Arles: Éditions Philippe Picquier The Research of Sire Chorier on the history of the city of Vienne, metropolis of Allobroges. Genealogical History of the House of Sassenage, related of Forests. A General History of Dauphiné. Reprinted in 1971; the Political State of the Province of Dauphiné, supplement to the Political State of the Country of Dauphiné. History of Dauphiné, abridged for His Royal Highness the Dauphin The Nobility of the Province of Dauphiné Life of Artus Prunier of Saint-André, Adviser to the King in his Council of State and Private, First President of the Parliaments of Provence and Dauphiné, based on a Manuscript by Nicolas Chorier, published with an Introduction, Notes and the unedited Correspondence of Saint-André by Alfred Vellot Memoirs of Nicolas Chorier on his life and affairs, translated from three books in Latin inserted into the fourth volume of the "Bulletin of the Statistical Society of the Department of Isère" by Félix Crozet "French translation of The School of Women by Alicde Bonneau".
"Private Rooms and back Doors in abundance: the illusion of privacy in pornography in seventeenth-century England". Works by Nicolas Chorier at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Nicolas Chorier at Internet Archive
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Zealand, at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper. Zealand has a population of 2,302,074, it is the 13th-largest island in the 4th most populous. It is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by several bridges. Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located on the eastern shore of Zealand and on the island of Amager. Other cities on Zealand include Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør. Despite their identical names, the island is not connected to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, named after the Dutch province of Zeeland; the exact origin of the Danish name "Sjælland" is controversial. Sjæl in Danish today means "soul". A derivation derived from siô / sæ corresponding to the English name is today rejected– but it may be that the English name predated Danish research on its origin, compared with the current understanding.
The prevailing view today is: The Old Danish form "Siâland" comes from a composition of the word *selha- with the ending *wundia-. The latter means "indicates, resembles"; the word *selha- can have two different meanings: it can mean on the one hand "seal" and on the other hand mean "deep bay, fjord". Since the main settlement on Zealand was Roskilde, only accessible by sea through the narrow Roskilde Fjord, it is assumed that the sailors named the island after this. In Norse mythology as told in the Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi, the king of Sweden, she transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area became Mälaren. However, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun. Zealand is the most populous Danish island, it is irregularly shaped, is north of the islands of Lolland, Møn. The small island of Amager lies east. Copenhagen is on Zealand but extends across northern Amager.
A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, connected to Scania in Sweden by the Øresund Bridge via the artificial island of Peberholm. Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, Funen is connected by bridges to the country's mainland, Jutland. On June 5, 2007, the regional subsidiary of national broadcaster DR reported that Kobanke in the southeast near the town Rønnede in Faxe Municipality, with a height of 122.9 metres, was the highest natural point on Zealand. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, but, due to a man-made hill from the 17th century and its highest natural point is only 121.3 metres. Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10,000+ inhabitants: North Zealand New Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t