Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Ericsson Globe known as Stockholm Globe Arena and referred to in Swedish as Globen, is an indoor arena located in Stockholm Globe City, Johanneshov district of Stockholm, Sweden. The Ericsson Globe is the largest hemispherical building on Earth and took two and a half years to build. Shaped like a large white ball, it has an inner height of 85 meters; the volume of the building is 605,000 cubic meters. It has a seating capacity of 16,000 spectators for shows and concerts, 13,850 for ice hockey, it represents the Sun in the Sweden Solar System, the world's largest scale model of the Solar System. Globen was inaugurated on 19 February 1989 after a construction period of less than three years; the first major sporting event was the 1989 World Ice Hockey Championships. On February 2, 2009, the naming rights to the Stockholm Globe Arena were acquired by Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson, it became known as the Ericsson Globe; the Globe is used for ice hockey, is the former home arena of AIK, Djurgårdens IF, Hammarby IF.
It opened in 1989 and seats 13,850 for ice hockey games, but is used for musical performances as well as other sports than ice hockey, for example futsal. It is owned by FCA fastigheter; the third team to play a home game in their league was Huddinge IK, followed by Hammarby IF and AC Camelen. The first international game played in Globen was between Hammarby IF and Jokerit a couple of weeks before the grand opening, although the players were only 12 years old at the time and it was a friendly game; the arena has been the home of the finals of Sveriges Television's yearly music competition Melodifestivalen since 2002. Ericsson Globe has hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2000 and Eurovision Song Contest 2016, it will host several matches of the 2023 World Men's Handball Championship with Sweden co-hosting alongside Poland. It could host men's ice hockey if Åre are awarded the 2026 Winter Olympics; the arena hosted NHL Challenge series, when teams from the NHL came to Sweden to play against Swedish teams: the Vancouver Canucks in 2000, the Colorado Avalanche in 2001 and the Toronto Maple Leafs in 2003.
The first two games of the 2008–09 season of the NHL, between the Ottawa Senators and the Pittsburgh Penguins were played in the Globen, although the rink was altered to NHL specifications. The first two games of the 2009-10 season of the NHL, a home-and-home series between the St. Louis Blues and Detroit Red Wings October 2–3; the first two games of the 2010-11 season of the NHL, a home-and-home series between the San Jose Sharks and Columbus Blue Jackets took place on October 8 and 9, 2010. The game on October 8 was won by San Jose Sharks 3-2; the second game, on October 9, was won 3-2 in overtime by Columbus Blue Jackets. The venue once again played host to two NHL Premiere games for the 2011–12 NHL season as the New York Rangers played the Los Angeles Kings on October 7 and Anaheim Ducks on October 8; the venue most hosted the Ottawa Senators and the Colorado Avalanche on 10 and 11 November 2017. Pope John Paul II held a mass in the arena in 1989 as the first pope to hold a mass in Sweden.
Other political leaders appearances at the arena have included Nelson Mandela. American rapper Eminem performed in 2001 with "The Anger Management Tour"; the first appearance in Sweden for the rapper Eminem owing to cancellation of the 2005 tour. He was back in the arena in 2018 with "Revival Tour". American singer Mariah Carey performed at the arena during her Charmbracelet World Tour on October 5, 2003. American singer Cher performed during her marathon Living Proof: The Farewell Tour on June 15, 2004. Justin Timberlake performed for 15,000 fans in 2007 with the show of his tour FutureSex/LoveShow. Nine years in the same arena, he was invited to an interval act of Eurovision Song Contest 2016. Canadian Young Money-rapper Drake performed a sold-out show for his Club Paradise Tour in April 2012. Lady Gaga performed here on 30 and 31 August 2012 as part of her Born This Way Ball Tour and on 30 September 2014 in her ArtRave: The Artpop Ball. Jennifer Lopez performed on the 5 November 2012 on her Dance Again World Tour.
Soundgarden performed in September 1995. Gary Moore was the first rock act to appear The Globe on 8 April 1989, as part of his After The War world tour. A small cottage in aluminum with a 12-square-metre base was placed upon the Globe on May 26, 2009; the artist's intention with the arrangement is to illustrate two important symbols for Sweden: the high-technology Globe building and the traditional, simple small countryside cottage in Falu red with house corners painted in white. The house was positioned some distance from the exact top position of the Globe; the artist hopes he will manage to place a similar cottage on the Moon. The cottage remained on the Globe until October 2009. Skyview is an exterior inclined elevator which transports visitors to the top of the arena for a unobstructed view of Stockholm, it has two spherical gondolas, each able to accommodate up to 16 passengers, which travel along parallel tracks on the exterior of the south side of the globe. Skyview carried 160,000 people during its first year of operation.
Swedish national road 73, Nynäsvägen, is a Swedish national road in Sweden between Stockholm and Nynäshamn. The length is 57 km. National road 73 begins at the Johanneshov junction at Gullmarsplan in Stockholm with connections from the bridges Johanneshovsbron and Skanstullsbron and county road 226, passing above Södra länken and continues southwards. At Gubbängen junction goes beneath county road 229, continues past Farsta, passing the municipal border of Huddinge where county road 271 joins. Continues past Trångsund and Skogås. In Handen it goes above the end point of county road 260, continues past Jordbro, Västerhaninge, Landfjärden and Ösmo to Nynäshamn, where national road 73 comes to an end at the railway station and the Gotland quay; the road is a motorway between Västerhaninge. The stretch between Västerhaninge and Nynäshamn is being built to a motorway as well. Construction began on September 1, 2005 and is expected to be finished in 2009; the bridges for road 73 between Fors and Nynäshamn were designed by Erik Andersson.
Vägverket – Väg 73, Nynäsvägen — Swedish Road Administration page regarding the rebuilding of the southern part of the road
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Djurgårdens Idrottsförening known as Djurgårdens IF, Djurgården, Djurgår'n, Dif or DIF – is a Swedish sports club with several departments, located in Stockholm. The club is named after the island Djurgården, a royal hunting park. A direct translation of Djurgården would be “deer garden” or “animal garden”; the word djur means "animal" but has the same etymology as the word “deer”. The club was founded in 1891 by a group of young athletes living on the island Djurgården in central Stockholm. Most of the founders were from the working class, Djurgården maintained that profile for most of its early history, in sharp contrast with middle class rivals AIK. With an original focus on winter sports and athletics, the club branched into other sports, becoming one of Sweden's most successful sports clubs of the 20th and 21st century; the club started playing association football in 1899 and soon started a derby rivalry with neighbouring club AIK, the so-called tvillingderbyt. Today the most popular sections are ice hockey and football, with 16 and 11 Swedish national championship titles respectively.
Other popular sections are bandy and floorball. The club has won 441 Swedish championships through 2017, with this Djurgården is the most successful sports club in Sweden, it's more championship titles than the two main rivals AIK and Hammarby have together; the first logo of the club was a four pointed silver star in saltire, which had a shield on it with the letters DIF. This star pre-dates the similar star which Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna adopted and is using to this day; the present logo in the form of a shield in yellow and blue with the text D. I. F. was adopted in 1896. According to an quoted poem by Johan af Klercker from 1908, blue and yellow stand for Sweden and red stands for love. Blue and yellow are the colours of Stockholm. Yellow and blue are the club colours; the logo is registered as a trademark and the colours are set to Pantone, CMYK and web colour values. In many sports – among them football and handball – the home jersey of the team is vertically striped in light and dark blue.
Because of this, blue is seen as the most important of the three colours. The ice hockey team uses jerseys in one blue shade with red details. Djurgårdens IF has a number of member departments, all of which are their own clubs with their own financial and sporting responsibilities but share the common name and values and support each other. Djurgårdens IF Fotboll – football. Djurgårdens IF Hockey – ice hockey. Djurgårdens IF Alpint – alpine skiing Djurgårdens IF Amerikansk fotboll – American football Djurgårdens IF Bandy – bandy Djurgårdens IF Bordtennisförening – table tennis Djurgårdens IF Boule – boule Djurgårdens IF Bowling – bowling Djurgårdens IF Boxningsförening – boxing Djurgårdens IF Brottningsförening – wrestling Djurgårdens IF Dam – women's football Djurgårdens IF Friidrott – athletics Djurgårdens IF Fäktförening – fencing Djurgårdens IF Golfförening – golf Djurgårdens IF Handboll – handball Djurgårdens IF Handikappfotboll – handicap football Djurgårdens IF Innebandy – floorball Djurgårdens IF Konståkningsförening – figure skating Djurgårdens IF Orienteringsförening – orienteering Djurgårdens IF Basket – basketball Djurgårdens IF Futsal – futsal Previously, Djurgårdens IF had departments in other sports.
One of these was ski jumping and DIF was one of the best clubs in Sweden in this sport for fifty years. Djurgården is one of the most supported clubs in Sweden, with most of its supporters living in Stockholm and the neighbouring suburbs. While other Stockholm clubs have profiled themselves as belonging to a certain borough of Stockholm, Djurgården is seen as more of a pan-Stockholm club. No reliable research exists about the spread of Djurgården supporters, but a 2015 T-shirt campaign suggests that supporters are spread evenly throughout the Stockholm area. In 1981 the main supporter club "Blue Saints" was formed, but due to its notorious fans and their bad reputation, the supporter club changed its name to Järnkaminerna "The Iron Furnices". Since 2005, Fabriken is Djurgården's TIFO group. Djurgården is one of a few clubs in the world, represented both in space and in the Himalayas. Through the years, many types of souvenirs and memorabilia has been made for the club. Stuffed toys in the form of a rabbit called Järnkanin are sold, the name a pun on the word Järnkamin.
A couple of beers have been created over the years. At present, Alberget 4A is sold for Djurgårdens IF, it is named for the address of the café. The beer was launched in 2013 and is sold through Djurgårdshjälpen, a supporter initiative to raise money for the sports club; the beer was called Alltid oavsett, a slogan used by supporters of Djurgårdens IF. The beer is a pale lager of 5.0% abv made by Grebbestad Bryggeri on behalf of Djurgårdshjälpen and is not part of Grebbestad Bryggeri's own range of beers. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden Fredrik Reinfeldt, former Prime Minister of Sweden Olof Palme, former Prime Minister of Sweden Lars Ohly, former party leader of Vänsterpartiet Joakim Thåström, musician Stefan Persson, former CEO of H&M Carl-Henric Svanberg, business leader Loa Falkman, opera singer Christer Fuglesang, first Scandinavian in space Martin Soneby, Swedish comedian The following non-profit organisations are independent but has a close official cooperation with Djurgårdens IF: DIF
Hammarby Fotboll, more known as Hammarby IF or Hammarby, is a Swedish football club based at Tele2 Arena in Johanneshov but founded in the neighbouring Södermalm district of Stockholm City Centre, an area the club considers its heartland. Competing in Sweden's first tier, Hammarby are placed twelfth in the all-time Allsvenskan table, has won the league once, in 2001; the club's colours are green and white, reflected in its crest and kit. Between 1918 and 1978, the club played in black-and-yellow striped home shirts, which since form the club's away colors, it is known for its vociferous fans and for having the highest average attendance in the Nordic countries. Drawing inspiration from England, Hammarby fans introduced football chants to the Swedish terraces in 1970. Hammarby is one of largest football clubs in Europe in terms of the number of active players of all ages – with some 3,000 players in its organisation. Hammarby Fotboll is affiliated with the Stockholms Fotbollförbund. In 1889, Hammarby Roddförening was established in Södermalm, with engineer Axel Robert Schönthal, the first chairman, being credited as the founder.
By 1897, it had diversified into different sports, was renamed Hammarby Idrottsförening, or Hammarby IF for short. In 1915, the sporting ground. Due to a lack of football pitches in Stockholm, several other clubs proposed to merge with Hammarby IF to get access to the stadium. An offer from Klara SK was accepted and Hammarby established a football department on 13 August 1915; the club played its first competitive game two days and won 5–0 against Västerås SK in the "Östsvenska serien", a local league. In 1916, Hammarby competed in Svenska Mästerskapet, a cup by held to decide the Swedish Champions, for the first time. In 1918, Hammarby merged with Johanneshofs IF, a club from the neighbouring district Johanneshov. In 1920, Hammarby first competed in the Svenska Serien, by the highest league in Swedish football. During the upcoming years, Hammarby had a strong showing where they went to the finals of Svenska Mästerskapet in 1922, losing 1–3 to GAIS. Hammarby qualified to compete in Allsvenskan's inaugural season in 1924.
On 3 August said year, Rikard Larsson became Hammarby's first goalscorer in Allsvenskan, the first goalscorer in the league's history, in a 1–5 loss against Örgryte IS. The club would finish last in the 1924–25 Allsvenskan, were relegated to Division 2, the second highest league in Sweden. During the upcoming years, Hammarby failed to produce any sort of challenge in Swedish football. Several star players emigrated to the United States, transferred to other clubs or opted to instead play ice hockey for Hammarby. In 1936–37 and 1937–38, the club won the second division, but lost the playoff matches that would have promoted them to Allsvenskan. Instead, Hammarby got promoted in 1938–39, where they knocked out IFK Norrköping following outstanding performances from goalkeeper and star player Sven "Svenne Berka" Bergqvist. Hammarby would, suffer from another relegation, finishing last in Allsvenskan in 1939–40. Back in Division 2, the club finished in the top four for the next six years. In the 1946–47 season, the club finished at the foot of the table, because of a restructuring of the league system, the club got relegated to Division 4.
Hammarby did not return to the second highest league until the 1950–51 season. In the 1954–55 season, the club returned to Allsvenskan, but this time it finished sixth and managed to stay for another season. However, the club underwent yo-yoing, having been promoted and relegated between Allsvenskan and Division 2 seven times until 1970. Nacka Skoglund, one of the league's top players who played for Hammarby from 1944–49, returned to Hammarby to play from 1964–67. In his return debut, he landed. In the 1970 Allsvenskan season, Hammarby had acquired only 3 points in the spring portion of the season, but during the autumn, showed a dramatic improvement. With star players Kenneth Ohlsson and Ronnie Hellström, with a crowd that tried out supporter songs for the first time, the club went through the autumn half undefeated and finished in fifth place, its best showing in Allsvenskan; the club would stay in Allsvenskan through the rest of the 1970s, attracting large crowds, despite not returning above fifth place.
In 1978, the club changed from black/yellow to green/white colours. In the 1982 season, Swedish football introduced a playoff system for the top 8 teams in Allsvenskan to decide a champion; the playoffs consisted of two matches in which the aggregate score would determine who would advance. The club had not lost a home game. After defeating Örgryte in the quarter-finals, coming back from a 1–3 deficit to beat Elfsborg 4–3 in the semi-finals, Hammarby was in the final against IFK Göteborg. Hammarby won its lost 1 -- 3 in its home match. In the following year, Hammarby lost to AIK in the play-offs. In the Svenska Cupen tournament, Hammarby reached the finals but lost against IFK. However, since IFK qualified for the UEFA Cup that year, Hammarby qualified for the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, its first major international competition, where the club lost to Finland's FC Haka in the second round; the Hammarby squads finished in the top six in the league every year through 1987. In 1988, Hammarby finished last in the standings and were rele
Södra länken, designated as national road 75, is a motorway in Sweden connecting Essingeleden, Stockholm with Värmdöleden, Nacka. Södra länken is 6 km in length; this makes it the third longest urban motorway tunnel in Europe after Madrid M30 orbital motorway and Blanka tunnel complex in Prague at 5.5 km. The tunnel is 4 lanes wide each way at its widest point; the construction of Södra länken began in 1997, it was inaugurated on October 24, 2004. The total cost was about 7.9 billion SEK. The link was built to decrease traffic in the centre of Stockholm. Given the high construction costs and the possibility that overall traffic volumes might increase, it was one of the greatest subjects of debate during the 1990s and early 2000s in the Swedish capital, it was financed with governmental money and is not a toll road. The reason for building it in a tunnel all the way is a law from the 1990s which more or less forbids construction of a new motorway near residential areas inside cities, for noise and pollution reasons.
Södra länken is the southern section of the planned Stockholm Ring Road. Stockholm congestion tax Media related to Södra länken at Wikimedia Commons Flying under Stockholm — A YouTube user called'henke2' flew an electric model aircraft through the tunnel