Constitutional Union Party (United States)
The Constitutional Union Party was a political party in the United States created in 1860 which ran against the Republicans and Democrats as a fourth party in 1860. It was made up of conservative former Whigs; these former Whigs teamed up with former Know Nothings and a few Southern Democrats who were against secession to form the Constitutional Union Party. The party's name comes from its simple platform, which consists of the resolution "to recognize no political principle other than the Constitution of the country, the Union of the states, the Enforcement of the Laws"; the party hoped that by not taking a firm stand either for or against slavery or its expansion, the issue could be pushed aside. John J. Crittenden and other unionist Congressmen organized the 1860 Constitutional Union Convention, which met in May 1860; the convention nominated John Bell of Tennessee for President and Edward Everett of Massachusetts for Vice President. Crittenden, Sam Houston, William Alexander Graham and William Cabell Rives received support for the party's presidential nomination at the convention.
In the 1860 presidential election, Bell won three slave states. Most of Bell's support came from former Southern Whigs or Know Nothings. After the election and other Constitutional Unionists unsuccessfully sought to prevent a civil war with the Crittenden Compromise and the Peace Conference of 1861. After the onset of the American Civil War, many former party members, including Bell, supported the Confederacy whereas most border state Constitutional Unionists remained loyal to the Union. Constitutional Unionists helped organize the Wheeling Convention while many in Missouri joined the Unconditional Union Party. A predecessor of the Constitutional Union Party, the Unionist Party, was founded in 1850 by Georgia politicians Robert Toombs, Alexander Stephens and Howell Cobb to support the Compromise of 1850 and reject the notion of Southern secession; this party united Southern Whigs and Democrats under the Georgia Platform, which affirmed Georgia's acceptance of the Compromise as a final resolution to the issue of slavery.
However, the party never expanded outside of the Deep South states of Georgia and Alabama and dissolved by the end of 1851. The 1860 incarnation of the Constitutional Union Party united remnants of both the defunct Whig and Know Nothing parties who were unwilling to join either the Democrats or the Republicans. Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky, Henry Clay's successor in border-state Whiggery, set up a meeting among fifty conservative, pro-Compromise congressmen in December 1859, which led to a convention in Baltimore the week of May 9, 1860, one week before the Republican Party convention; the convention nominated John Bell of Tennessee for President and Edward Everett of Massachusetts for Vice President. In the 1860 election, the Constitutional Unionists received the great majority of their votes from former southern Whigs or Know Nothings. A few of their votes were cast by former Democrats. Although the party did not get 50% of the popular vote in any state, they won the electoral votes of three states, Virginia and Tennessee due to the split in Democratic votes between Stephen A. Douglas in the North and John C.
Breckinridge in the South. California and Everett's home state of Massachusetts were the only non-slave states in which the party received more than 5% of the popular vote; the party and its purpose disappeared after 1860 as the Southern states began to secede, though the party remained active in Congress until the end of the Civil War. Bell and many other Constitutional Unionists supported the Confederacy during the Civil War, but backers of the party from north of the Carolinas tended to remain supporters of the Union. Constitutional Unionists were influential in the Wheeling Convention, which led to the creation of the Union loyalist state of West Virginia, as well as in the declaration of the Kentucky General Assembly for the Union and winning Congressional elections in Kentucky and Maryland in June. In Missouri, many of the party joined the new Unconditional Union Party headed by Francis P. Blair, Jr. and remained active in that state's efforts to remain in the Union by overthrowing the elected government of Claiborne Jackson.
Everett supported the Union and in 1863 gave a speech at Gettysburg before Lincoln's famous Gettysburg Address. National Union Party Southern Unionist United States presidential election, 1860 Blum, John M.. Vann Woodward; the National Experience: A History of the United States. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Pp. 344–345. ISBN 0155656643. Newly Formed Party Party Platform of 1860 OurCampaigns overview of Constitutional Union Convention 1860
Chauncey Fitch Cleveland
Chauncey Fitch Cleveland was an American politician, a United States Representative and the 31st Governor of Connecticut. Born in Canterbury, Cleveland attended the common schools and taught school from the age of fifteen to twenty, he was admitted to the bar in 1819 and commenced practice in Hampton. He was married, December 1821, to Diantha Hovey. Cleveland was a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives from 1826 to 1829, 1832, 1835, 1836, 1838, 1847, 1848, served as its speaker in 1836 and 1838, he was State's attorney in 1832 and State bank commissioner in 1838. In 1841 he moved to Connecticut. Elected Governor of the state by the Democratic party in 1842, again in 1843, Cleveland was Governor of Connecticut from May 4, 1842 to May 1, 1844, he resumed the practice of law in Hampton. Elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-first and Thirty-second Congresses, Cleveland held office from March 4, 1849 to March 3, 1853. Previous to the breaking out of the Civil War, Cleveland had become affiliated with the Republican Party upon its organization.
He was a strong supporter of the government during the war, for several years thereafter he acted with that party. He was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions of 1856 and 1860, was a Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket in 1860. In 1861, he was a member of the Peace Congress held in Washington, D. C. in an effort to devise means to prevent the impending war. Cleveland was again a member of the State house of representatives in 1863 and 1866, serving as speaker in the former year, he engaged in agricultural pursuits and the practice of law. Cleveland died in Hampton in 1887, he is interred at South Cemetery, Connecticut. United States Congress. "Chauncey Fitch Cleveland". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Chauncey Fitch Cleveland at Find a Grave
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office, it emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had some links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s, it formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. It became a formal party within his second term, receded influence after 1854. In particular terms, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing, it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal.
Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide: The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana in 1848, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey in 1852 and the last nominee, former President Millard Fillmore from New York in 1856. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig President; the party fell apart because of internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories.
With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General Scott. Most Whig Party leaders quit politics or changed parties; the Northern voter base gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had become defunct having endorsed Millard Fillmore's candidacy; some former Whigs became Democrats. The Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades, played a major role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction; the name "Whig" repeated the term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution.
It indicated hostility to the king. Despite the identical name it did not directly derive from the British Whig Party; the American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback"—like a king—with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social and moral modernization. The Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise, balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, the American people preferred partisan opposition to popular political agreement; as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back.
In 1831, Henry Clay started planning a new party. He defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands in the public domain among the states was intended to serve the nation by providing the states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan. Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and hard money; the Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign imports gave an advantage to the North. Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833, which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on imports to a maximum of twenty percent.
Controlling the Senate for a while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National Republican against J
Norwich, known as'The Rose of New England,' is a city in New London County, United States. The population was 40,493 at the 2010 United States Census. Three rivers, the Yantic, the Shetucket, the Quinebaug, flow into the city and form its harbor, from which the Thames River flows south to Long Island Sound. Norwichtown was founded in 1659, by settlers from Old Saybrook led by Major John Mason and Reverend James Fitch, they purchased the land "nine miles square" that would become Norwich from the local Native Mohegan Sachem Uncas. One of the co-founders of Norwich was Thomas Leffingwell, who had rescued Chief Uncas when surrounded by his Narragansett enemies, whose son founded the Leffingwell Inn. In 1668, a wharf was established at Yantic Cove. Settlement was in the three-mile area around the Norwichtown Green; the 69 founding families soon divided up the land in the Norwichtown vicinity for farms and businesses. By 1694, the public landing built at the head of the Thames River allowed ships to offload goods at the harbor.
The distance between the port and Norwichtown was serviced by the East and West Roads, which became Washington Street and Broadway. The original center of the town was a neighborhood now called Norwichtown, an inland location chosen to be the center of a agricultural farming community. By the latter 18th century, shipping at the harbor began to become far more important than farming when industrial mills began manufacturing on the three smaller rivers. By the early 19th century, the center of Norwich had moved to the Chelsea neighborhood; the official buildings of the city were located in the harbor area, such as the City Hall and post office, all the large 19th-century urban blocks. The former center is now called Norwichtown to distinguish it from the current city. Norwich merchants were shipping goods directly from England, but the Stamp Act of 1764 forced Norwich to become more self-sufficient. Soon large mills and factories sprang up at the falls on the rivers; the ship captains of Norwich and New London who were skillful at avoiding Imperial taxation during peacetime were just as successful eluding warships during war.
During the American Revolution Norwich supported the cause for independence by supplying soldiers and munitions. Norwich was a center for activity for the Sons of Liberty. Colonial era less noteworthies include Christopher Leffingwell, Daniel Lathrop; the Oxford English Dictionary attests the first recorded use of the term "Hello" to The Norwich Courier on 18 October 1826. Regular steamship service between New York and Boston helped Norwich to prosper as a shipping center through the early part of the 19th century. During the Civil War, Norwich once again rallied and saw the growth of its textile and specialty item manufacturing; this was spurred by the building of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad in 1832–1837 bringing goods and people both in and out of Norwich. By the 1870s the Springfield and New London Railroad was running trains through Norwich. In 1892, the city's first electric trolleys started service to local areas, plus to some cities including Westerly, New London and Putnam. In 1952 the town and city of Norwich were consolidated into one.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.5 square miles, of which 28.3 sq mi is land and 1.2 sq mi is water. Several Norwich neighborhoods maintain independent identities and are recognized by official signs marking their boundaries. Neighborhoods of Norwich are Norwichtown, Bean Hill, Taftville, Occum, East Great Plains, Laurel Hill and Chelsea As of the census of 2000, there were 36,117 people, 15,091 households, 9,069 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,274.7 people per square mile. There were 16,600 housing units at an average density of 585.9 per square mile. Twenty-nine percent of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families. Thirty-two percent of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 24.1% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. In 2012, the population had risen to 40,502 and the racial makeup of the city was 70% White, 13% Hispanic or Latino, 10% Black or African American, 8% Asian, 1% Native American. A significant influx of Chinese Americans has settled in Norwich since 2010; the 2012 median income for a household in the city was $51,300. Fifteen percent of the population were below the poverty line; the AA Eastern League Connecticut Defenders the Norwich Navigators, were a farm team of the San Francisco Giants and they played at Senator Thomas J. Dodd Memorial Stadium from both's inception in 1995 until the team announced its move to Richmond, Virginia for the 2010 season, where they are now known as the Richmond Flying Squirrels.
However, starting in 2010, Dodd Stadium became the home to the Connecticut Tigers in the Class-A short-season New York–Penn League. The ESPN mini-series; this forested area is Norwich's la
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Connecticut's 3rd congressional district
Connecticut's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Connecticut. Located in the central part of the state, the district includes the city of New Haven and its surrounding suburbs. Principal cities include: Middletown, New Haven, Stratford; the district is represented by Democrat Rosa DeLauro. The 3rd congressional district has existed since 1837, having been organized from the At-Large Congressional District, it is centered on its suburbs. The district comprises four-fifths of New Haven County, a small portion of Middlesex County, including most of Middletown and most of Stratford and a small section of Shelton in Fairfield County. New Haven and its surrounding suburbs are Democratic, making the district Democratic in local and federal elections. Among districts statewide, only the 1st Congressional District is considered more Democratic. Four Democratic strongholds, New Haven, Hamden and West Haven, comprise 40% of the total district population. Since 2000, Democratic presidential candidates have carried the district by a margin of 26 points.
John Kerry, being the exception, still defeated George W. Bush by a comfortable 14 points. On the state level, moderate Republicans John G. Rowland and M. Jodi Rell have carried the district. Since 1933, Democrats have held the district for all but six terms. Between 1972-1988, every Republican nominee for President carried the district, along with the state itself. In his sole run for a House seat, Joe Lieberman, lost the district to a Republican in 1980. Fairfield County - Shelton and Stratford. New Haven County - Ansonia, Beacon Falls, Branford, East Haven, Hamden, Naugatuck, New Haven, North Branford, North Haven, Prospect, Wallingford, West Haven, Woodbridge. Middlesex County - Durham and Middletown; as of August 2018, there is one former member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Connecticut's 3rd congressional district, living at this time. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating