Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius was the third child of Walter Adolph Gropius and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber. In 1915 Gropius married Alma Mahler, widow of Gustav Mahler and Almas daughter, named Manon after Walters mother, was born in 1916. When Manon died of polio at age 18, in 1935, Gropius and Alma divorced in 1920. On 16 October 1923, Gropius married Ilse Frank, and they remained together until his death in 1969 and they adopted a daughter together, Beate Gropius, known as Ati. Ise Gropius died on 9 June 1983 in Lexington, Walter Gropius was drafted August 1914 and served as a sergeant and as a lieutenant in the signal corps in the First World War. He survived being buried under rubble and dead bodies, and shot out of the sky with a dead pilot. He was awarded the Iron Cross twice, Gropius then, like his father and his great-uncle Martin Gropius before him, became an architect. Gropius could not draw, and was dependent on collaborators and partner-interpreters throughout his career, in school he hired an assistant to complete his homework for him.
His fellow employees at this time included Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, in 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a practice in Berlin. Together they share credit for one of the seminal modernist buildings created during this period, the Faguswerk in Alfeld-an-der-Leine, the factory is now regarded as one of the crucial founding monuments of European modernism. Gropius was commissioned in 1913 to design a car for the Prussian Railroad Locomotive Works in Königsberg and this locomotive was unique and the first of its kind in Germany and perhaps in Europe. Other works of early period include the office and factory building for the Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne. In 1913, Gropius published an article about The Development of Industrial Buildings, Gropiuss career was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Called up immediately as a reservist, Gropius served as a sergeant major at the Western front during the war years and was wounded, Gropius was awarded an Iron Cross while fighting for four years for Germany on the Western Front.
Gropiuss career advanced in the postwar period, henry van de Velde, the master of the Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in Weimar was asked to step down in 1915 due to his Belgian nationality. His recommendation for Gropius to succeed him led eventually to Gropiuss appointment as master of the school in 1919, in principle, the Bauhaus represented an opportunity to extend beauty and quality to every home through well designed industrially produced objects. The Bauhaus program was experimental and the emphasis, was theoretical, one example product of the Bauhaus was the armchair F51, designed for the Bauhauss directors room in 1920 – nowadays a re-edition in the market, manufactured by the German company TECTA/Lauenfoerde. In 1919, Gropius was involved in the Glass Chain utopian expressionist correspondence under the pseudonym Mass
The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe is an American daily newspaper based in Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1872 by Charles H. Taylor, it was held until 1973. The company was acquired in 1993 by The New York Times Company, in 2011, a BostonGlobe. com subscription site was launched. In 2013, the newspaper and websites were purchased by John W. Henry, the Boston Globe has been awarded 26 Pulitzer Prizes since 1966, and its chief print rival is the Boston Herald. The Boston Globe was founded in 1872 by six Boston businessmen, including Charles H. Taylor and Eben Jordan, the first issue was published on March 4,1872, and cost four cents. Originally a morning daily, it began a Sunday edition in 1877, in 1878, The Boston Globe started an afternoon edition called The Boston Evening Globe, which ceased publication in 1979. By the 1890s, The Boston Globe had become a stronghold, in 1964, Tom Winship succeeded his father, Larry Winship, as editor. The younger Winship transformed The Globe from a local paper into a regional paper of national distinction.
He served as editor until 1984, during which time the paper won a dozen Pulitzer Prizes, the Boston Globe was a private company until 1973 when it went public under the name Affiliated Publications. It continued to be managed by the descendants of Charles H. Taylor, in 1993, The New York Times Company purchased Affiliated Publications for US$1.1 billion, making The Boston Globe a wholly owned subsidiary of The New York Times parent. The Jordan and Taylor families received substantial New York Times Company stock, Boston. com, the online edition of The Boston Globe, was launched on the World Wide Web in 1995. Consistently ranked among the top ten websites in America, it has won numerous national awards. Under the helm of editor Martin Baron and Brian McGrory, the Boston Globe is credited with allowing Peter Gammons to start his Notes section on baseball, which has become a mainstay in all major newspapers nationwide. In 2004, Gammons was selected as the 56th recipient of the J. G. Taylor Spink Award for outstanding baseball writing, given by the BBWAA, and was honored at the Baseball Hall of Fame on July 31,2005.
In 2007, Charlie Savage, whose reports on President Bushs use of signing statements made national news, the Boston Globe has consistently been ranked in the forefront of American journalism. The Boston Globe hosts 28 blogs covering a variety of topics including Boston sports, local politics, on April 2,2009, The New York Times Company threatened to close the paper if its unions did not agree to $20,000,000 of cost savings. Some of the cost savings include reducing union employees pay by 5%, ending pension contributions, the Boston Globe eliminated the equivalent of fifty full-time jobs, among buy-outs and layoffs, it swept out most of the part-time employees in the editorial sections. The papers other three major unions had agreed to concessions on May 3,2009, after The New York Times Company threatened to give the government 60-days notice that it intended to close the paper
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia
New Glasgow is a town in Pictou County, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is situated on the banks of the East River of Pictou, which flows into Pictou Harbour, the towns population was 9,075 in the 2016 census. New Glasgow is at the centre of the fourth largest urban area. The New Glasgow census agglomeration includes the adjacent towns of Stellarton, Westville. Sir Robert Kenney founded New Glasgow, Scottish immigrants, including those on the ship Hector in 1773, settled the area of the East River of Pictou during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Deacon Thomas Fraser first settled the area at the head of navigation on the East River of Pictou in 1784, the settlement was officially named New Glasgow, after Glasgow in Scotland, in 1809, the same year its first trading post was developed. The discovery of coal deposits in the East River valley during the early 19th century saw New Glasgow, at the head of navigation, quickly develop into a manufacturing. In 1829, a tramway was built using standard gauge rails from the settlement of Albion Mines to a wharf near New Glasgow.
This was the first use of standard gauge rails in what would become Canada. On September 19,1839, the Albion Railway was opened from Albion Mines to New Glasgow and this was the second steam-powered railway in what would become Canada and the first to use iron rails. The railway was extended north to a loading pier at Dunbars Point on May 14,1840. In 1840, George MacKenzie started the towns first shipbuilding company, in June 1867, the Nova Scotia Railway opened its Eastern Line from Truro through New Glasgow to its terminus at the passenger and cargo wharf in Pictou Landing. Economic development in New Glasgow was driven by the industry in neighbouring Trenton and shipping in Pictou and Pictou Landing. After World War I, the famous New York sculptor J. Massey Rhind was commissioned to make the Nova Scotia Highlander soldier cenotaph, in 1946, New Glasgow was the setting for an important civil rights case when Viola Desmond challenged racial segregation of New Glasgows Roseland Theatre. New Glasgow became a centre for the county during the late 20th century as shopping centres, retail.
In 2016, Moneysense ranked New Glasgow last out of 219 cities as Canadas worst place to live, talk of amalgamating the 6 municipal units in Pictou County has increased in recent years. Among the reasons for this, small towns adjacent to New Glasgow are having a hard time coping financially on their own due to the declining economy, Pictou County has the most politicians per capita in Canada. The two most often suggested scenarios involve amalgamating the entire county into a regional municipality, or amalgamating the upper East River towns into a single larger town
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
Washington Grays Monument
Washington Grays Monument is a bronze statue by John A. Wilson. The monument represents the Washington Grays who served in the 17th, 21st, joseph Wilson built the base of the monument which was unveiled on April 19,1872. The sculpture is positioned adjacent to the sculpture 1st Regiment Infantry National Guard of Philadelphia, on October 21,1871, a communication was received by the Trustees from Mr. Edwin N. The monument was removed from the place of its dedication to the centre of Washington Square. Wilson and had been uncovered without ceremony in the presence of the few surviving members of the old Guard at 7 oclock on the morning of Saturday, the inscription reads, J. Wilson Bureau Bros. This statue was dedicated at this site on June 14,1991 By the Union League of Philadelphia, the First Regiment Infantry of Pennsylvania & Fairmount Park Commission through the efforts of a combined committee of those organizations. The Union League of Philadelphia Robert M. Flood Jr, president Stanley W. Root Jr.
Esq. Architect Raymond K. Denworth, Esquire First Regiment Infantry of Pennsylvania Colonel Jack C, major William M. Barnes, Secy Fairmount Park Commission F Eugene Dixon, Jr. Chairman signed Founders mark appears
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fourth largest museum in the United States. It contains more than 450,000 works of art, making it one of the most comprehensive collections in the Americas, with more than one million visitors a year, it is the 55th most-visited art museum in the world as of 2014. Founded in 1870, the moved to its current location in 1909. The museum is affiliated with the Tufts School of the Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Fine Arts was founded in 1870 and opened in 1876, with most of its initial collection taken from the Boston Athenæum Art Gallery. Francis Davis Millet, a local artist, was instrumental in starting the Art School affiliated with the museum and it was built almost entirely of red brick and terracotta with a small amount of stone in its base. The brick was produced by the Peerless Brick Company of Philadelphia, in 1907, plans were laid to build a new home for the museum on Huntington Avenue in Bostons Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood near the renowned Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum.
Museum trustees decided to hire architect Guy Lowell to create a design for a museum so that could be built in stages as funding was obtained for each phase, two years later, the first section of Lowell’s neoclassical design was completed. It featured a 500-foot façade of granite and a grand rotunda, the museum moved to its new location that year, the Copley Square Hotel eventually would replace the old building. The second phase of construction built a wing along the The Fens to house paintings galleries and it was funded entirely by Maria Antoinette Evans Hunt, the wife of wealthy business magnate Robert Dawson Evans, and opened in 1915. From 1916 through 1925, the noted artist John Singer Sargent painted the frescoes that adorn the rotunda, numerous additions enlarged the building throughout the years, including the Decorative Arts wing in 1928 and the Norma Jean Calderwood Garden Court and Terrace in 1997. The West Wing, designed by I. M. Pei, opened in 1981 and this wing now houses the museums cafe and gift shop as well as a special exhibition space.
In the mid-2000s, the museum launched an effort to renovate. In 2011, Moodys Investors Service calculated that the museum had over $180 million in outstanding debt, the agency cited growing attendance, a large endowment, and positive cash flow as reasons to believe that the museums finances would become stable in the near future. The renovation included a new Art of the Americas Wing to feature artwork from North, South, in 2006, the groundbreaking ceremonies took place. The landscape architecture firm Gustafson Guthrie Nichol redesigned the Huntington Avenue and Fenway entrances, access roads, the wing opened on November 20,2010 with free admission to the public. Mayor Thomas Menino declared it Museum of Fine Arts Day, the 12, 000-square-foot glass-enclosed courtyard features a 42. 5-foot high glass sculpture, titled the Lime Green Icicle Tower, by Dale Chihuly. In 2014, the Art of the Americas Wing was recognized for its architectural achievement by being awarded the Harleston Parker Medal.
In 2015, the museum renovated its Japanese garden, Tenshin-en, the garden, which originally opened in 1988, was designed by Japanese professor Kinsaku Nakane
Harvard Graduate School of Design
The Harvard Graduate School of Design is a professional graduate school at Harvard University, located at Gund Hall, Massachusetts. The GSD offers masters and doctoral programs in architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, urban design, real estate, design engineering, the GSD has over 13,000 alumni and has graduated many famous architects, urban planners, and landscape architects. The school is considered an academic leader in the design fields. The GSD has the worlds oldest landscape architecture program, and North Americas oldest urban planning program, Architecture courses were first taught at Harvard University in 1874. The Graduate School of Design was officially established in 1936, combining the three fields of architecture, urban planning, and landscape architecture under one graduate school, the market value of the schools endowment for the fiscal year 2013 was approximately $396 million. Charles Eliot Norton brought the first architecture classes to Harvard University in 1874, in 1900, the first urban planning courses were taught at Harvard University, and by 1909, urban planning was added into Harvards design curriculum.
In 1923, North Americas first urban planning degree was established at Harvard, in 1980, the program was temporarily moved to the Harvard Kennedy School of Government until it returned to the GSD in 1984. In 1893, the nations first professional course in architecture was offered at Harvard University. In 1900, the worlds first landscape architecture program was established by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. the School of Landscape Architecture was established in 1913. The three major design professions were officially united in 1936 to form the Harvard Graduate School of Design, in 1937, Walter Gropius joined the GSD faculty as chair of the Department of Architecture and brought modern designers, including Marcel Breuer to help revamp the curriculum. In 1960, Josep Lluís Sert established the nations first Urban Design program, george Gund Hall, which is the present iconic home GSD, opened in 1972 and was designed by Australian architect and GSD graduate John Andrews. More recent research include the Design Robotics Group, a unit that investigates new material systems and fabrication technologies in the context of architectural design.
Executive Education operates within GSD providing continuing education classes, they are located at 7 Sumner Rd, advanced Management Development Program in Real Estate is a six-week executive development course. The program is open to established professionals with 15+ years of experience in real estate, upon graduating from AMDP, participants are full-fledged Harvard University Alumni. As of 2013, AMDP is in its 13th year, the other large program organized by Executive Education is summer Open Enrollment. In 2013, Executive Education held 18 classes throughout the month of July, Open Enrollment classes are open to everyone, though basic knowledge of the subject is recommended. As of 2012-2013, there were 878 students enrolled, approximately, 65% of students were Americans. The average student is 27 years old, in addition to its degree programs, the GSD administers the Loeb Fellowship, and numerous research initiatives such as the Zofnass Program for Sustainable Infrastructure
Silent Sam is a statue of a Confederate soldier by John Wilson on the campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It is located on McCorkle Place, the upper quad. The statue was funded by the University Alumni and the United Daughters of the Confederacy and it was erected in 1913 as a memorial to the 321 alumni who lost their lives in the American Civil War and all students who joined the Confederate States Army. The University remained open through the entire war and this was due to President Swains policy of dependency on men unfit for combat. A bronze image on the front of the memorial depicts a young student dropping his books as he looks up to answer a call to duty. Under the student, a woman meant to signify North Carolina is depicted advising students to fight for an important cause even if it means leaving their studies, the statue was made to commemorate 50 years since the beginning of the war. The United Daughters of the Confederacy spent four years fundraising and hired Canadian sculptor John Wilson to create the statue, the statue cost the Daughters of the Confederacy $7,500.
Like the Daniel A. Bean sculpture, Wilson used a northerner--Harold Langlois, Wilson created a series of similar statues called the Silent Sentinels. All were created in the North and displayed in the South, like these other statues, Silent Sam is positioned to face north towards the Union, rather than towards the Confederacy. Like its neighbor, the Unsung Founders Memorial, the Silent Sam statue has frequently been a source of controversy and it is seen by some as symbol of historical remembrance, while others view it as a sign of racial oppression. The monument has been a subject of controversy and a site of protest since the 1960s, in March 1965, a discussion about the monuments meaning and history occurred in the letters to the editor of the UNC student newspaper, the Daily Tar Heel. In May 1967, poet John Beecher debated Silent Sam, reading to the statue from his book of poetry To Live, following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in April 1968, the monument was vandalized. In the early 1970s, the monument was the site of demonstrations by the Black Student Movement.
Students gathered by the statue to speak out after Los Angeles police officers were not guilty in the 1992 Rodney King trial. In 1997, a Martin Luther King, Jr. Day march focused on issues facing UNC housekeepers ended at the monument, in July 2015, the statue was vandalized. The statue has been the focus of protests and many have called for its removal
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical, or cultural, for most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Elements of Aboriginal, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, Canada has been strongly influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour, the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew gradually over the course of years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. World War I and World War II in particular gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Canadas nationality law closely mirrored that of the United Kingdom, legislation since the mid 20th century represents Canadians commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development. As of 2010, Canadians make up 0. 5% of the total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth.
Approximately 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, and 20 percent of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent. Aboriginal peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4. 3% of the countrys 33,476,688 population. The French originally settled New France, in present-day Quebec and Ontario, approximately 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. This arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, after the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Ruperts Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America and these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia.
Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries are often referred to as old stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island, the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 eventually placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has consistently risen, doubling approximately every 40 years, from the mid- to late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted Home Children from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Poles
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II. The revolution in materials came first, with the use of cast iron, plate glass, the cast plate glass process was invented in 1848, allowing the manufacture of very large windows. The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an example of iron and plate glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass. These developments together led to the first steel-framed skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, the iron frame construction of the Eiffel Tower, the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition. French industrialist François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete, in 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four story house in the suburbs of Paris.
Another important technology for the new architecture was electric light, which reduced the inherent danger of fires caused by gas in the 19th century. This break with the past was particularly urged by the architectural theorist, for each function its material, for each material its form and its ornament. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, at the end of the 19th century, a few architects began to challenge the traditional Beaux Arts and Neoclassical styles that dominated architecture in Europe and the United States. The Glasgow School of Art 1896-99) designed by Charles Rennie MacIntosh, had a facade dominated by large bays of windows. The Art Nouveau style was launched in the 1890s by Victor Horta in Belgium and Hector Guimard in France, it introduced new styles of decoration, based on vegetal and floral forms. In 1903-1904 in Paris Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage began to use reinforced concrete, previously used for industrial structures.
Between 1910 and 1913, Auguste Perret built the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, because of the concrete construction, no columns blocked the spectators view of the stage. Otto Wagner, in Vienna, was another pioneer of the new style, in his book Moderne Arkchtekture he had called for a more rationalist style of architecture, based on modern life. Wagner declared his intention to express the function of the building in its exterior, the reinforced concrete exterior was covered with plaques of marble attached with bolts of polished aluminum. The interior was purely functional and spare, an open space of steel, glass. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos began removing any ornament from his buildings and his Steiner House, in Vienna, was an example of what he called rationalist architecture, it had a simple stucco rectangual facade with square windows and no ornament. The fame of the new movement, which known as the Vienna Secession spread beyond Austria. Josef Hoffmann, a student of Wagner, constructed a landmark of early modernist architecture and this residence, built of brick covered with Norwegian marble, was composed of geometric blocks, wings and a tower