James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin
James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, was a British colonial administrator and diplomat. He served as Governor of Jamaica, Governor General of the Province of Canada, Viceroy of India. In 1857, he was appointed High Commissioner and Plenipotentiary in China and the Far East to assist in the process of opening up China and Japan to Western trade. In 1860, during the Second Opium War in China, in retaliation for the torture and execution of twenty European and Indian prisoners, he ordered the destruction of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, an architectural wonder with immeasurable collections of artworks and historic antiques, inflicting invaluable loss of cultural heritage. Subsequently, he submitted the Qing dynasty to the unequal treaty of the Convention of Peking, adding Kowloon Peninsula to the British crown colony of Hong Kong. Lord Elgin was the son of the 7th Earl of Elgin and 11th Earl of Kincardine and his second wife, Elizabeth Oswald, he shared his birthday 20 July with his father.
He had seven brothers and sisters and four half-sisters and one half-brother from his father's first marriage. Lord Elgin's father was impoverished by the purchase of the Elgin Marbles, his father had acquired them at great expense, but sold them to the British government for much less. James Bruce was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, graduating with a first in Classics in 1832. While at Oxford, he became friends with William Ewart Gladstone, he was elected at the 1841 general election as a Member of Parliament for Southampton, but the election was declared void on petition. He did not stand in the resulting by-election. James Bruce became Governor of Jamaica in 1842, in 1847 was appointed Governor General of Canada. Under Lord Elgin, the first real attempts began at establishing responsible government in Canada. Lord Elgin became the first Governor General to distance himself from the affairs of the legislature. Since the Governor-General has had a symbolic role with regards to the political affairs of the country.
As Governor-General, he wrestled with the costs of receiving high levels of immigration in the Canadas, a major issue in the constant debate about immigration during the 19th century. In 1849 the Baldwin-Lafontaine government passed the Rebellion Losses Bill, compensating French Canadians for losses suffered during the Rebellions of 1837. Lord Elgin granted royal assent to the bill despite heated Tory opposition and his own misgivings over how his action would be received in England; the decision sparked the Burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal by an English-speaking mob. Elgin was assaulted. Instead of calling in the military, he withdrew his family to their country residence and allowed civil authorities to restore order; the French-speaking minority in the Canadian legislature unsuccessfully tried to have him removed from his post. In 1849, the Stony Monday Riot took place in Bytown on Monday 17 September. Tories and Reformists clashed over the planned visit of Lord Elgin, one man was killed and many sustained injuries.
Two days the two political factions, armed with cannon and pistols faced off on the Sappers Bridge. Although the conflict was defused in time by the military, a general support for the Crown's representative, triumphed in Bytown. In 1854, Lord Elgin negotiated the Reciprocity Treaty with the United States in an attempt to stimulate the Canadian economy; that year, he granted royal assent to the law that abolished the seigneurial system in Quebec, resigned as Governor-General. In 1857, Lord Elgin was appointed High Commissioner and Plenipotentiary in China and the Far East to assist in the process of opening up China and Japan to Western trade. During the Second Opium War, he led the bombardment of Canton and oversaw the end of the war by signing the Treaty of Tientsin on 26 June 1858. In June 1860, Lord Elgin returned to China to assist with additional attacks, which were led by his brother. On 18 October 1860, not having received the Chinese surrender and wishing to spare the imperial capital of Peking, he ordered the complete destruction of the Old Summer Palace outside the city in retaliation for the torture and execution of twenty European and Indian prisoners, including two British envoys and The Times journalist Thomas Bowlby.
The Old Summer Palace was a complex of palaces and gardens eight kilometres northwest of the walls of Beijing. An alternative account says that Lord Elgin had considered the destruction of the Forbidden City. However, fearing that this act might interfere with the signing of the Convention of Peking, where it was being negotiated, he opted for the destruction of the Old Summer Palace in its stead; the Old Summer Palace was burnt for three days. Lord Elgin and his troops took them to Britain. Attacks on the nearby Summer Palace were made, but the extent of destruction was not as great as to the Old Summer Palace. On 24 October 1860, Lord Elgin signed the Convention of Peking, which stipulated that China was to cede part of Kowloon Peninsula and Hong Kong in perpetuity to Britain. In between Lord Elgin's two trips to China, he had visited Japan. In August 1858, he signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce whose negotiation was much eased by the recent Harris Treaty between Japan and the United States.
Lord Elgin was ambivalent about the British policy on forcing opium on the people in
Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings
Francis Edward Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings, KG, PC, styled The Honourable Francis Rawdon from birth until 1762, as The Lord Rawdon between 1762 and 1783, known as The Earl of Moira between 1793 and 1816, was an Anglo-Irish British politician and military officer who served as Governor-General of India from 1813 to 1823. He had served with British forces for years during the American Revolutionary War and in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, he took the additional surname'Hastings' in 1790 in compliance with the will of his maternal uncle, Francis Hastings, 10th Earl of Huntingdon. Hastings was born at Moira, County Down, the son of John Rawdon, 1st Earl of Moira and Elizabeth Hastings, 13th Baroness Hastings, he grew up there and in Ireland. He joined the British Army on 7 August 1771 as an ensign in the 15th Foot, he was at Harrow School and matriculated at University College, but dropped out. He became friends there with Banastre Tarleton. With his uncle Lord Huntington, he went on the Grand Tour.
On 20 October 1773, he was promoted to lieutenant in the 5th Foot. He returned to England to join his regiment, sailed for America on 7 May 1774. Rawdon was posted at Boston as a lieutenant in the 5th Regiment of Foot's Grenadier company, under the command of Captain Francis Marsden, he first saw action at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Serving with the grenadiers, he participated in the second assault against Breed's Hill, the third assault against the redoubt; as his superior, a Captain George Harris, was wounded beside him, he took command of his company, for the successful assault. John Burgoyne noted in dispatches: "Lord Rawdon has this day stamped his fame for life." He was wounded during the assault. He was promoted captain, given a company in the 63rd Foot. After having recognized him, it is said that it was Lieutenant Lord Rawdon killed the American general Joseph Warren. Lord Rawdon is depicted in John Trumbull's famous painting, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Rawdon is in the far background holding the British ensign.
During the Boston winter quarters, Rawdon made his stage debut, delivering a prologue for Aaron Hill's tragedy, written by John Burgoyne. He was appointed Aide-de-camp to General Sir Henry Clinton, sailed with him on the expedition to Brunswick Town, North Carolina, on the Cape Fear River, to the repulse at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, he returned with him to New York. On 4 August, he dined with General Clinton, Admiral Lord Howe, Lord Cornwallis, General Vaughan, others. During the Battle of Long Island, he was at headquarters with Clinton. On 15 September, Rawdon led his men at an amphibious landing on Manhattan island; the next day, he led his troops in support of the Light Infantry that attacked Harlem Heights until the Americans withdrew. He participated at the landings at Pell's Point; the British pressed the Americans to White Plains, where on 1 November the Americans withdrew from their entrenchments. On 8 December Rawdon landed with Clinton at Rhode Island. On 13 January 1777, with Clinton, he departed for London.
During a ball at Lord George Germain's, he met Lafayette, visiting London. Returning to America in July, while Howe went to his Philadelphia campaign, Rawdon went with Clinton to the New York headquarters, he participated in the battles of the New York Highlands, where on 7 October, Fort Constitution was captured. However, this was too late to link up with General Burgoyne at Albany. Rawdon was sent to Philadelphia with dispatches and returned to New York for the winter, where he raised a regiment, called the Volunteers of Ireland, recruited from deserters and Irish Loyalists. Promoted colonel in command of this regiment, Rawdon went with Clinton to Philadelphia. Starting out on 18 June 1778, he went with Clinton during the withdrawal from Philadelphia to New York, saw action at the Battle of Monmouth, he was appointed adjutant general. Rawdon was sent to learn news of the Battle of Rhode Island. At New York, on 3 September 1779, he quarreled with Clinton, resigned his position as adjutant general.
He served with the Volunteers of Ireland during the raid on Staten Island by Lord Stirling on 15 January 1780. He went south to the Siege of Charleston with reinforcements. After the city fell to the British, Lord Cornwallis posted him at Camden as the British sought to occupy South Carolina. Rawdon commanded the British left wing at the Battle of Camden; when Cornwallis went into Virginia, he left Rawdon in effective command in the South. His most noted achievement was the victory in 1781 at the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill, in which, in command of only a small force, he defeated by superior military skill and determination, a much larger body of Americans. Thinking that General Nathanael Greene had moved his artillery away, Rawdon attacked Greene's left wing, forcing the Americans to retire. However, Rawdon was forced to begin a gradual retreat to Charleston, he relieved the Siege of Ninety-Six, evacuating its small garrison and conducting a limited pursuit of American troops. He withdrew his forces to Charleston.
In July 1781, in poor health, he gave up his command. On his return to Great Britain, he was captured at sea by François Joseph Paul de Grasse, but was exchanged. After Rawdon's departure, the British evacuated Charleston as the war drew to a close, they took thousands of Loyalists and freed slaves with them, having promised freedom to slaves of rebels who joined their lines, resettling these g
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC, styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official. In the United States and the United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence, his surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America. He served as a civil and military governor in Ireland and India. Born into an aristocratic family and educated at Eton and Cambridge, Cornwallis joined the army in 1757, seeing action in the Seven Years' War. Upon his father's death in 1762 he entered the House of Lords. From 1766 until 1805 he was Colonel of the 33rd Regiment of Foot, he next saw military action in 1776 in the American War of Independence. Active in the advance forces of many campaigns, in 1780 he inflicted an embarrassing defeat on the American army at the Battle of Camden.
He commanded British forces in the March 1781 Pyrrhic victory at Guilford Court House. Cornwallis surrendered his army at Yorktown in October 1781 after an extended campaign through the Southern states, marked by disagreements between him and his superior, General Sir Henry Clinton. Despite this defeat, Cornwallis retained the confidence of successive British governments and continued to enjoy an active career. Knighted in 1786, he was in that year appointed to be Governor-General and commander-in-chief in India. There he enacted numerous significant reforms within the East India Company and its territories, including the Cornwallis Code, part of which implemented important land taxation reforms known as the Permanent Settlement. From 1789 to 1792 he led British and Company forces in the Third Anglo-Mysore War to defeat the Mysorean ruler Tipu Sultan. Returning to Britain in 1794, Cornwallis was given the post of Master-General of the Ordnance. In 1798 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant and Commander-in-chief of Ireland, where he oversaw the response to the 1798 Irish Rebellion, including a French invasion of Ireland, was instrumental in bringing about the Union of Great Britain and Ireland.
Following his Irish service, Cornwallis was the chief British signatory to the 1802 Treaty of Amiens and was reappointed to India in 1805. He died in India not long after his arrival. Cornwallis was born in Grosvenor Square in London, he was the eldest son of 5th Baron Cornwallis. His mother, was the daughter of Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, niece of Sir Robert Walpole, his uncle, was Archbishop of Canterbury. Frederick's twin brother, was a military officer, colonial governor, founder of Halifax, Nova Scotia, his brother William became an Admiral in the Royal Navy. His other brother, James inherited the earldom from Cornwallis's son, Charles; the family was established at Brome Hall, near Eye, Suffolk, in the 14th century, its members would represent the county in the House of Commons over the next three hundred years. Frederick Cornwallis, created a Baronet in 1627, fought for King Charles I, followed King Charles II into exile, he was made Baron Cornwallis, of Eye in the County of Suffolk, in 1661, by judicious marriages his descendants increased the importance of his family.
Cornwallis was educated at Clare College, Cambridge. While at Eton, he received an injury to his eye by an accidental blow while playing hockey, from Shute Barrington Bishop of Durham, he obtained his first commission as Ensign in the 1st Foot Guards, on 8 December 1757. He sought and gained permission to engage in military studies abroad. After travelling on the continent with a Prussian officer, Captain de Roguin, he studied at the military academy of Turin. Upon completion of his studies in Turin in 1758, he traveled to Geneva, where he learned that British troops were to be sent to the Continent in the Seven Years' War. Although he tried to reach his regiment before it sailed from the Isle of Wight, he learnt upon reaching Cologne that it had sailed, he managed instead to secure an appointment as a staff officer to Lord Granby. A year he participated at the Battle of Minden, a major battle that prevented a French invasion of Hanover. After the battle, he purchased a captaincy in the 85th Regiment of Foot.
In 1761, he was promoted to Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel. He led his regiment in the Battle of Villinghausen on 15–16 July 1761, was noted for his gallantry. In 1762 his regiment was involved in heavy fighting during the Battle of Wilhelmsthal. A few weeks they defeated Saxon troops at the Battle of Lutterberg and ended the year by participating in the Siege of Cassel. In January 1760 Cornwallis became a Member of Parliament, entering the House of Commons for the village of Eye in Suffolk, he succeeded his father as 2nd Earl Cornwallis in 1762, which resulted in his elevation to the House of Lords. He became a protege of the leading Whig magnate, future Prime Minister, Lord Rockingham, he was one of five peers. In the following years, he maintained a strong degree of support for the colonists during the tensions and crisis that led to the War of Independence. On 14 July 1768 he married daughter of a regimental colonel; the union was, by all accounts, happy. They settled in Culford, where their children and Charles were born.
For the Irish cricketer of the same name, see John Crawfurd Dr John Crawfurd was a Scottish physician, colonial administrator and diplomat, author. He is now best known for his work on Asian languages, his History of the Indian Archipelago, his role in founding Singapore as the last British Resident of Singapore, he was born on Islay, in Argyll, the son of Samuel Crawfurd, a physician, Margaret Campbell. He followed his father's footsteps in the study of medicine and completed his medical course at the University of Edinburgh in 1803, at the age of 20. Crawfurd joined the East India Company, as a Company surgeon, was posted to India's Northwestern Provinces, working in the area around Delhi and Agra from 1803–1808, he saw service in the campaigns of Baron Lake. Crawfurd was sent in 1808 to Penang, where he applied himself to the study of the Malay language and culture. In Penang he met Stamford Raffles for the first time. In 1811, Crawfurd accompanied Raffles on Lord Minto's Java Invasion. Raffles was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Java by Minto during the 45-day operation, Crawfurd was appointed the post of Resident Governor at the Court of Yogyakarta in November 1811.
There he took a firm line against Sultan Hamengkubuwana II. The Sultan was encouraged by Pakubuwono IV of Surakarta to assume he had support in resisting the British; the Sultan's palace, the Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, was besieged and taken by British-led forces in June 1812. As Resident, Crawfurd pursued the study of the Javanese language, cultivated personal relationships with Javanese aristocrats and literati, he was impressed by Javanese music. Crawfurd was sent on diplomatic missions to Bali and the Celebes, his knowledge of the local culture supported Raffles's government in Java. Raffles, wanted to introduce land reform in the Cheribon residency. Crawfurd, with his experience of India and the zamindari, was a supporter of the "village system" of revenue collection, he opposed Raffles's attempts to introduce individual settlement into Java. Java was returned to the Dutch in 1816, Crawfurd went back to England that year, shortly becoming a Fellow of the Royal Society, turning to writing.
Within a few years he was recalled as a diplomat. In 1821, the Governor-General of India, Lord Hastings, sent Crawfurd to the courts of Siam and Cochinchina Lord Hastings was interested in learning more about Siamese policy with regard to the northern Malay states, Cochinchina's policy with regard to French efforts to establish a presence in Asia. Crawfurd travelled with notes from Horace Hayman Wilson on Buddhism, as it was understood at the time. Captain Dangerfield of the Indian army, a skilful astronomer and geologist, served as assistant. Mrs. Crawfurd accompanied the Mission. 21 November 1821, the mission embarked on the John Adam for the complicated and difficult navigation of the Hoogly river, taking seven days to sail the 140 miles from Calcutta to open water. Crawfurd writes that, with the assistance of a steam-boat, ships might be towed down in two days without difficulty; the John Adam proceeded on what would be the first official visit to Siam since the resurgence of Siam following the Burmese–Siamese War of 1765–1767.
Crawfurd soon found the court of King Rama II still embroiled in the aftermath of the Burmese–Siamese War of 1809–1812. On 8 December 1821, near Papra Strait Crawfurd finds fishermen "in a state of perpetual distrust and insecurity" due to territorial disputes between hostile Burmans and Siamese. 11 December, after entering the Straits of Malacca and arrival at Penang Island, he finds the settlements of Penang and Queda in a state of alarm. Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah II, the Rajah of Quedah had fled the Rajah of Ligor to claim right of asylum at Prince of Wales's Island British claim to the island was based upon payment of a quit-rent accordant with European feudal law, which Crawfurd feared the Siamese would challenge. Crawfurd's journal entry for 1 April 1822, notes that the Siamese, for their part, were interested in the acquisition of arms. Pointedly questioned in this regard in a urgent private meeting with the Prah-klang, the reply was, "that if the Siamese were at peace with the friends and neighbours of the British nation, they would be permitted to purchase fire-arms and ammunition at our ports, but not otherwise."
On 19 May, a Chief of Lao met with Crawfurd, a first diplomatic contact for the UK. This visit was despite the isolation. A Vietnamese embassy had arrived not long before, tensions were high. Since Crawford's brief opposed the interests of court figures including the Raja of Ligor and Nangklao, there was little prospect of success. By October relations were at a low ebb. Crawfurd moved on to Saigon. Crawfurd was appointed British Resident of Singapore in March 1823, he was under orders to
Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge
Field Marshal Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge, was a British Army officer and politician. After serving in the Peninsula War and the Waterloo Campaign he became Secretary at War in Wellington's ministry. After a tour as Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1830 he became Secretary at War again in Sir Robert Peel's cabinet, he went on to be Governor-General of India at the time of the First Anglo-Sikh War and Commander-in-Chief of the Forces during the Crimean War. Born the son of the Reverend Henry Hardinge, Rector of Stanhope, Frances Hardinge and educated at Durham School, Hardinge entered the British Army on 23 July 1799 as an ensign in the Queen's Rangers, a corps stationed in Upper Canada, he was promoted to lieutenant by purchase in the 4th Regiment of Foot on 27 March 1802 and transferred to the 1st Regiment of Foot on 11 July 1803 before becoming a captain of a company by purchase in the 57th Regiment of Foot on 21 April 1804. In February 1806 he was sent to the newly formed Staff College at High Wycombe.
He saw action at the Battle of Roliça on 17 August 1808, at the Battle of Vimeiro on 21 August 1808, where he was wounded, at Corunna on 16 January 1809 where he was by the side of Sir John Moore when the latter was killed. He was promoted to major on 13 April 1809 and appointed deputy-quartermaster-general in the Portuguese army and was present at many of the battles of the Peninsular War. Promoted to lieutenant-colonel in 1811, he saved the day for the British at Battle of Albuera on 16 May 1811 by taking responsibility at a critical moment and urging General Cole's division to advance, he took part in the Battle of Vitoria on 21 June 1813, where he was wounded again, was present at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813 and the Battle of Nivelle on 10 November 1813. He commanded the Portuguese brigade at the Battle of Orthez on 27 February 1814 and the Battle of Toulouse on 10 April 1814, he was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in January 1815. When war broke out again in 1815 after Napoleon's escape from Elba, Hardinge returned to active service as a brigadier.
Attached to the staff of the allied Prussian Army under Marshal Blucher, he was present at the Battle of Ligny on 16 June 1815, where he lost his left hand by a shot, thus was not present at Waterloo two days later. Wellington presented him with a sword. Hardinge remained attached to the Prussian army of occupation in France until 1818, he was promoted to brevet colonel on 19 July 1821 and to major-general on 22 July 1830. In 1820 Hardinge was returned to parliament as member for Durham. On 4 April 1823 he was appointed Clerk of the Ordnance and on 9 June 1828 he accepted the office of Secretary at War in Wellington's ministry. Returned as Member of Parliament for St Germans in 1830, for Newport in 1831 and for Launceston in 1832, he served as Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1830 and 1834 to 1835, he was Secretary at War once again in Sir Robert Peel's cabinet from 1841 to 1844. He was promoted to lieutenant-general in 1841. In May 1844 he succeeded Lord Ellenborough as Governor-General of India.
He was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 1 July 1844. Following the death of Maharajah Ranjit Singh tribal war broke out and the first Sikh War ensued in 1845. Hardinge, waiving his right to the supreme command, offered to serve as second in command under Sir Hugh Gough. At the Battle of Mudki on 18 December 1845 Gough commanded the right flank and Hardinge commanded the left flank. After further British successes at the Battle of Sobraon on 10 February 1846, the Battle of Ferozeshah on 21 December 1845 and the Battle of Aliwal on 28 January 1846, Hardinge concluded the campaign with the Treaty of Lahore with Maharajah Duleep Singh on 9 March 1846 and the Treaty of Amritsar with Maharajah Gulab Singh on 16 March 1846, he was created Viscount Hardinge of Lahore and of King's Newton in Derbyshire on 7 April 1846. Recognising an annuity of £5000 being paid by the East India Company, Parliament provided that Viscount Hardinge should continue to receive his full salary as Governor General.
Under a subsequent Act, in recognition of his "great and brilliant services", Parliament settled an annuity of £3000 on Lord Harding and the next two heirs male of his body, although this was not to be paid if the East India Company paid an annuity. Hardinge returned to England in 1848, became Master-General of the Ordnance on 5 March 1852. While in this position he had responsibility for the direction of the Crimean War, which he endeavoured to conduct on Wellington's principles — a system not altogether suited to the changed mode of warfare, he was promoted to brevet general on 20 June 1854 and field marshal on 2 October 1855. A commission was set up to investigate the failings of the British military during the Crimean campaign; as Hardinge was delivering the report of the commission to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, he collapsed with a stroke. Albert helped him to a sofa, where despite being paralysed on one side, he continued to deliver his report, apologizing for the interruption, he was colonel of the 97th Regiment of Foot from 4 March 1833 and of the 57th Regiment of Foot from 31 May 1843.
Hardinge resigned his office of commander-in-chief in July 1856, owing to failing health, died on 24 September 1856 at South Park near Tunbridge Wells. There is a memorial to him at St John the Baptist, Penshurst, he is buried in the churchyard at Fordcombe. In 1821 he married seventh daughter of Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry, his elder son, Charles Stewart, his private secretary in India, was the 2nd Viscount Hardinge
John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence
John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, known as Sir John Lawrence, Bt. between 1858 and 1869, was an English-born Ulsterman who became a prominent British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Lawrence was born in Richmond, North Yorkshire, he was the youngest son born into an Ulster-Scots family, his mother being from County Donegal while his father was from Coleraine. Lawrence spent his early years in Derry, a city in the Province of Ulster in the northern part of Ireland, was educated at Foyle College and Wraxhall School in Bath, his father had served in India as a soldier in the British Army and his elder brothers included George Lawrence and Henry Lawrence. At the age of sixteen, despite wishing for a military career like his brothers, his father enrolled him at the East India Company College, believing a career as a civil servant offered better prospects, he attended Haileybury for two years, where by his own admission he was neither idle nor industrious, yet he won prizes in history, political economy and Bengali.
Lawrence entered the Bengal Civil Service and in September 1829 he set sail for India with his brother Henry. On arrival he settled at Fort William where he was expected to pass examinations in local vernacular. Having mastered Persian and Urdu, Lawrence's first job was as a magistrate and tax collector in Delhi. After four years in Delhi he was transferred to Panipat and two years hence was placed in charge of Gurgaon district. In 1837, Lawrence was made a settlement officer at Etawah. Whilst doing the role he was close to death, he spent three months in Calcutta to convalesce but having failed to recover he returned to England in 1840. The following year, whilst in County Donegal he met and married his wife Harriette in August 1841; the couple spent six months travelling Europe until news from the First Anglo-Afghan War led to them returning to England, back to India in the autumn of 1842. On his return to India, Lawrence was appointed a Civil and Sessions Judge in Delhi, given responsibility over Karnal.
During the First Anglo-Sikh War between 1845-46, Sir Henry Hardinge sent orders for Lawrence to assist the armed forces. He played a key role ahead of the Battle of Sobraon, ensuring supplies and guns were collected and transferred to the battle; the East India Company's victory at Sobraon brought the war to an end, his brother Henry was made the Resident at Lahore. Sir Henry Hardinge appointed Lawrence to govern the newly-annexed Jullundur district and Hill-States regions of the Punjab. In that role he was known for his administrative reforms, for subduing the hill tribes, for his attempts to end the custom of suttee, he attempted to tackle the issue of female infanticide threatening the Bedi's with confiscation of their lands if they didn't give up the practice. His assistant Robert Cust described Lawrence's interviews with native land-holders as follows: "John Lawrence was full of energy - his coat off, his sleeves turned up above his elbows and impressing upon his subjects his principles of a just state demand...thou shall not burn thy widow, thou shall not kill thy daughters.
Another assistant, Lewin Bowring, described how he had a rough tongue with the local chiefs, who had a wholesome dread of him. He was described as far abler than his brother at details, but was not held in as much affection by the chiefs. On 30 March 1849, the Punjab was proclaimed a province of British India. A Board of Administration was formed to govern the province, led by Henry Lawrence, with John Lawrence assisting alongside Charles Grenville Mansel. In the role he was responsible for numerous reforms of the province, including the abolition of internal duties, establishment of a common currency and postal system, encouraged the development of Punjabi infrastructure, earning him the sobriquet of "the Saviour of the Punjab". Lawrence was eager to raise money for public works and to raise improve infrastructure after half a century of conflict, however was driven to make ends meet and to deliver a surplus. After three years, revenue had increased by fifty percent and the Punjab was delivering a surplus of over one million pounds sterling.
Lawrence oversaw an extension of the Grand Trunk Road from Delhi to Peshawar, the construction of a highway from Lahore to Multan, the Bari Doab Canal which provided a boon to cultivators in the area. Despite being successful in its output, the Board of Administration saw tensions over Henry's policy of retaining the support of the local aristocracy, with John arguing that the policy was too extravagant and hurting finances. In December 1852, with the success of the Board of Administration ensured, both John and Henry offered their resignation, both with a view of take up the vacant Residency at Hyderabad. Lord Dalhousie feeling the necessity of a Board of Administration was no longer required, sought to replace it with a Chief Commissioner. Dalhousie made John the first Chief Commissioner of the Punjab; as Chief Commissioner, Lawrence carried on the policies from before - public works were extended and education encouraged and surveying completed. He granted greater authority to villages, upheld the decisions of village headsmen.
In addition, Lawrence now had responsibility for managing the mercurial group of assistants recruited by his brother known as Henry Lawrence's "Young Men". In February 1856, John returned to Calcutta to wish farewell to the departing Lord Dalhousie, retiring to England; as a parting gift, Dalhouse recommended Lawrence for a K. C. B.. Whilst in Calcutta, John would meet Henry for the last
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.