Moody Bible Institute
Moody Bible Institute is a Christian institution of higher education with its main campus in Chicago, Illinois. It was founded by evangelist and businessman Dwight Lyman Moody in 1886. Since its founding, MBI's main campus has been located in the Near North Side of Chicago. Moody operates a graduate campus in Plymouth, Michigan. In 1883, Emma Dryer, with Moody's permission and headed what was known as the, "May Institute"; these were weekly meetings in which church members would pray. Most important however, would be the open discussions among the church members. Many of the church members began to request; this school would serve as a training school for the youth of the Church, a place where future evangelists could learn the skills necessary to carry on in the Revivalist tradition. On January 22, 1886, Moody addressed church members as follows: "I tell you what, what I have on my heart I believe we have got to have gap-men, men to stand between the laity and the ministers. Take men that have the gifts and train them for the work of reaching the people."
This formal meeting, held at Farwell Hall, resulted in the group founding the Chicago Evangelization Society for the "education and training of Christian workers, including teachers, ministers and musicians who may and proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ." The school was renamed as "Moody Bible Institute" after Moody died in 1899. Before 1900, Moody played a significant role in fund-raising to support MBI. After Moody died, the Institute struggled financially. James M. Gray, the president of the school, invited Henry Parsons Crowell to financially restructure the Institute. Crowell established the school on business principles of performance; the MBI Executive Committee met nearly every Tuesday for the next 40 years. An administration building took years to complete, but when the building was dedicated there was no mortgage and only $50,000 left to pay. In November 2017, the institution announced the closure of its Spokane, Washington campus and reductions in other programs and services in response to continued drops in enrollment.
Faculty were distressed by impending layoffs and penned an anonymous letter to the administration in the student newspaper expressing concerns about faculty layoffs when the administration had just committed $22 million for a new campus building. Two months the president and Chief Operating Officer both resigned and the provost retired all at the same time. In its announcement of these changes, the institution cited "widespread concerns over the direction" of the institution. Multisite church pastor Mark Jobe became the new president January 2018. Since 2012, MBI has received federal financial assistance, which means the religious institution is subject to federal rules, including Title IX which prohibits sex-based discrimination. After a couple female students complained of being denied access to the, at the time, male-only pastoral ministry program, the institute changed its policy in 2016. However, professor Janay Garrick, who helped the students file Title IX complaints, found that her employment contract would not be renewed at the end of 2017.
MBI's stated mission is to train students for full-time ministry in churches and parachurch organizations. Since 1989 it has been accredited by The Higher Learning Commission, it is accredited by the Association for Biblical Higher Education and the National Association of Schools of Music. In addition to the Bachelor of Arts degree, available in over two dozen fields including theology, the Bible, missions of various emphases, MBI offers a Bachelor of Science degree in Biblical Studies, a Bachelor of Science degree in Missionary Aviation Technology, a two-year Associates of Biblical Studies degree, a five-year Bachelor of Music degree in Sacred Music. Furthermore, non-degree TESOL and Biblical Studies one-year certificates are offered; the Moody Theological Seminary offers a Master of Divinity, Master of Arts in Biblical Studies, a Master of Counseling/Psychology. A one-year graduate certificate is offered. In November 2009, Moody Bible Institute and Michigan Theological Seminary jointly announced plans for Michigan Theological Seminary to merge with Moody Bible Institute's Moody Theological Seminary and Graduate School.
In January 2010, Michigan Theological Seminary became Moody Theological Seminary–Michigan located in Plymouth, Michigan. In addition to its educational programs, Moody runs two major Christian media ministries: Moody Radio and Moody Publishers. In 1894, Moody Publishers was founded under the name Bible Institute Colportage Association; this publishing house publishes books targeted at non-Christians. In 1926 the Institute expanded its reach beyond education and publishing by sponsoring the first non-commercial Christian radio station in America, WMBI. Over time, MBI’s radio outreach grew to the Moody Broadcasting Network, which now owns and operates 36 commercial-free stations and provides programming via satellite to more than 700 outlets; the former Moody magazine ceased publication in 2003 as part of a larger restructuring of Moody in an effort to buttress the institution's core education mission. List of Moody Bible Institute people Gloege, Timothy E. W. Guaranteed Pure: The Moody Bible Institute and the Making of Modern Evangelicalism xviii, 307 pp.
Johnson City, New York
Johnson City is a village in Broome County, New York, United States. The population was 15,174 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Binghamton Metropolitan Statistical Area. The village of Johnson City is in the town of Union, New York, is a part of the "Triple Cities" along with Endicott and Binghamton. Johnson City lies to the west of Binghamton on the eastern side of the town of Union. Known as the "Home of the Square Deal", from the Square Deal given to all employees of Endicott Johnson Corporation, Johnson City was incorporated in 1892 as the village of Lestershire, In 1916, the village was renamed Johnson City in honor of George F. Johnson, who led the company, by known as Endicott Johnson. In January 2007, a group of residents organized a petition supporting dissolution of the village for tax reasons. A vote was held on November 3, 2009. On November 12, 2009, the results came back "no" for dissolution by just 42 votes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 4.6 square miles, of which 4.5 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 2.13%, is water.
Johnson City is on the north side of the Susquehanna River. The junction of New York State Route 17 and New York State Route 201, which connects the community to the south side of the Susquehanna River, is in Johnson City. New York State Route 17C parallels NY-17; as of the census of 2000, there were 15,535 people, 6,981 households, 3,651 families residing in the village. The population density was 3,497.0 people per square mile. There were 7,650 housing units at an average density of 1,722.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 88.86% White, 3.09% African American, 0.19% Native American, 4.93% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, 2.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.23% of the population. There were 6,981 households out of which 22.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.7% were non-families. 40.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.88. In the village, the population was spread out with 20.0% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 21.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.0 males. The median income for a household in the village was $27,438, the median income for a family was $39,241. Males had a median income of $31,980 versus $24,656 for females; the per capita income for the village was $17,511. About 11.6% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. The Oakdale Mall, opened in 1973 and located at Harry L. Drive and Reynolds Road in Johnson City, is a major indoor shopping destination for the Greater Binghamton area. Anchor stores include Burlington Coat Factory. Your Home Library, founded in 1917, serves the village of the surrounding area.
The library building was the old Brigham homestead, erected by Elijah Brigham in 1850. The old farmhouse was of wooden construction but was replaced by a much finer homestead; the new homestead was erected in 1885, its foundations and partitions were constructed using brick from the Brigham Brick Yard, situated just north of the library building. The building was chosen by Harry L. Johnson and the Endicott Johnson Corporation as the site of the present library. In 1920, a large addition was built and the children's room, dining rooms, kitchen were removed to the new wing of the building; the library was owned, supported, by the Endicott Johnson Corporation until September 1921 when it was incorporated. In 1938, the library building was purchased by the Village of Johnson City, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. The K-8 Elementary and Middle School is located just above the high school on 601 Columbia Drive. Davis College was founded in 1900 under the leadership of John Adelbert Davis.
The first location was on Harrison Street. The present site was bought in 1910 and moved to Riverside Drive in 1911; the college is small. Dorms are located on Riverside Drive, it is in an EJ house neighborhood. Johnson City, NY will become host to the Binghamton University School of Pharmacy on Corliss Ave. Fred Coury, drummer for 80's hair-metal band Cinderella Jerry D'Amigo, professional ice hockey player for the Toronto Marlies, graduated from Johnson City High School in 2009. Jim Johnson, professional MLB player for the Atlanta Braves, was born here. DaQuan Jones, professional NFL player for the Tennessee Titans, graduated from Johnson City High School in 2010. David Sedaris, American humorist, comedian and radio contributor. Village of Johnson City official website Early history of Union and its communities Johnson City Central School District
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
Kalamazoo is a city in the southwest region of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is the county seat of Kalamazoo County; as of the 2010 census, Kalamazoo had a population of 74,262. Kalamazoo is the major city of the Kalamazoo-Portage Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 335,340 as of 2015. Kalamazoo is equidistant from the major American cities of Chicago and Detroit, each less than 150 miles away. One of Kalamazoo's most notable features is the Kalamazoo Mall, an outdoor pedestrian shopping mall; the city created the mall in 1959 by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic, although two of the mall's four blocks have been reopened to auto traffic since 1999. Kalamazoo is home to Western Michigan University, a large public university, Kalamazoo College, a private liberal arts college, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, a two-year community college. Known as Bronson in the township of Arcadia, the names of both the city and the township were changed to "Kalamazoo" in 1836 and 1837, respectively.
The Kalamazoo name comes from a Potawatomi word, first found in a British report in 1772. However, the Kalamazoo River, which passes through the modern city of Kalamazoo, was located on the route between Detroit and Fort Saint-Joseph. French-Canadian traders and military personnel were quite familiar with this area during the French era and thereafter; the name for the Kalamazoo River was known by Canadians and French as La rivière Kikanamaso. The name "Kikanamaso" was recorded by Father Pierre Potier, a Jesuit missionary for the Huron-Wendats at the Assumption mission, while en route to Fort Saint-Joseph during the fall of 1760. Legend has it that "Ki-ka-ma-sung," meaning "boiling water," referring to a footrace held each fall by local Native Americans, who had to run to the river and back before the pot boiled. Another theory is that it means "the mirage or reflecting river". Another legend is that the image of "boiling water" referred to fog on the river as seen from the hills above the current downtown.
The name was given to the river that flows all the way across the state. The name Kalamazoo, which sounds unusual to English-speaking ears, has become a metonym for exotic places, as in the phrase "from Timbuktu to Kalamazoo." Today, T-shirts are sold in Kalamazoo with the phrase "Yes, there is a Kalamazoo." The area on which the modern city of Kalamazoo stands was once home to Native Americans of the Hopewell culture, who migrated into the area sometime before the first millennium. Evidence of their early residency remains in the form of a small mound in downtown's Bronson Park; the Hopewell civilization was replaced by other groups. The Potawatomi culture lived in the area. René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, passed just southeast of the present city of Kalamazoo in late March 1680; the first Europeans to reside in the area were itinerant fur traders in the late 18th and early 19th century. There are records of several traders wintering in the area, by the 1820s at least one trading post had been established.
During the War of 1812, the British established a prison camp in the area. The 1821 Treaty of Chicago ceded the territory south of the Grand River to the United States federal government. However, the area around present-day Kalamazoo was reserved as the village of Potawatomi Chief Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish. Six years as a result of the 1827 Treaty of St. Joseph, the tract that became the city of Kalamazoo was ceded. In 1829, Titus Bronson from Connecticut, became the first white settler to build a cabin within the present city limits of Kalamazoo, he platted the town in 1831 and named it the village of Bronson—not to be confused with the much smaller Bronson, about fifty miles to the south-southeast of Kalamazoo. Bronson described as "eccentric" and argumentative, was run out of town; the village was renamed Kalamazoo in 1836, due in part to Bronson's being fined for stealing a cherry tree. Today, a downtown park, among other things, are named for Bronson. Kalamazoo was incorporated as a village in 1838 and as a city in 1883.
The fertile farmlands attracted prosperous Yankee farmers who settled the surrounding area, sent their sons to Kalamazoo to become businessmen and entrepreneurs who started numerous factories. Most of the original settlers of Kalamazoo were from upstate New York. In the 1940s, the city became the first to install curb cuts. In 1959, the city created the Kalamazoo Mall, the first outdoor pedestrian shopping mall in the United States, by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic; the Mall was designed by Victor Gruen, who designed the country's first enclosed shopping mall, which had opened three years earlier. Two of the mall's four blocks were reopened to auto traffic in 1999 after much debate. An F3 tornado struck downtown Kalamazoo on May 13, 1980, killing five and injuring 79. On February 20, 2016, Kalamazoo became the site of a random series of shootings in which six people were killed. A prime suspect was apprehended by police without incident. In the past, Kalamazoo was known for its production of windmills, buggies, cigars, stoves and paper products.
Agriculturally, it once was noted for celery. Although much of it has become suburbanized, the surrounding area still produces farm crops corn and soybeans. Kalamazoo was the original home of Gibson Guitar Corporation, which spawned the still-local Heritage Guitars; the company was incorporated as "Gibson Mandolin - Guitar Co. Ltd" on October 11, 1902, by the craftsman
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Binghamton, New York
Binghamton is a city in, the county seat of, Broome County, New York, United States. It lies in the state's Southern Tier region near the Pennsylvania border, in a bowl-shaped valley at the confluence of the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers. Binghamton is the principal city and cultural center of the Binghamton metropolitan area, home to a quarter million people; the population of the city itself, according to the 2010 census, is 47,376. From the days of the railroad, Binghamton was a transportation crossroads and a manufacturing center, has been known at different times for the production of cigars and computers. IBM was founded nearby, the flight simulator was invented in the city, leading to a notable concentration of electronics- and defense-oriented firms; this sustained. However, following cuts made by defense firms after the end of the Cold War, the region has lost a significant portion of its manufacturing industry. Today, while there is a continued concentration of high-tech firms, Binghamton is emerging as a healthcare- and education-focused city, with the presence of Binghamton University acting as much of the driving force behind this revitalization.
The first known people of European descent to come to the area were the troops of the Sullivan Expedition in 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, who destroyed local villages of the Onondaga and Oneida tribes. The city was named after William Bingham, a wealthy Philadelphian who bought the 10,000 acre patent for the land in 1786 consisting of portions of the towns of Union and Chenango. Joshua Whitney, Jr. Bingham's land agent, chose land at the junction of the Chenango and Susquehanna Rivers to develop a settlement named Chenango Point, helped build its roads and erect the first bridge. Significant agricultural growth led to the incorporation of the village of Binghamton in 1834; the Chenango Canal, completed in 1837, connected Binghamton to the Erie Canal, was the impetus for the initial industrial development of the area. This growth accelerated with the completion of the Erie Railroad between Binghamton and New York City in 1849. With the Delaware and Western Railroad arriving soon after, the village became an important regional transportation center.
Several buildings of importance were built at this time, including the New York State Inebriate Asylum, opened in 1858 as the first center in the United States to treat alcoholism as a disease. Binghamton incorporated as a city in 1867 and, due to the presence of several stately homes, was nicknamed the Parlor City. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many immigrants moved to the area, finding an abundance of jobs. During the 1880s, Binghamton grew to become the second-largest manufacturer of cigars in the United States. However, by the early 1920s, the major employer of the region became Endicott Johnson, a shoe manufacturer whose development of welfare capitalism resulted in many amenities for local residents. An larger influx of Europeans immigrated to Binghamton, the working class prosperity resulted in the area being called the Valley of Opportunity. In 1913, 31 people perished in the Binghamton Clothing Company fire, which resulted in numerous reforms to the New York fire code. Major floods in 1935 and 1936 resulted in a number of deaths, washed out the Ferry Street Bridge.
The floods were devastating, resulted in the construction of flood walls along the length of the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers. During the Second World War and corporate generosity continued as IBM, founded in greater Binghamton, emerged as a global technology leader. Along with Edwin Link's invention of the flight simulator in Binghamton, IBM transitioned the region to a high-tech economy. Other major manufacturers included General Electric; until the Cold War ended, the area never experienced an economic downfall, due in part to its defense-oriented industries. The population of the city of Binghamton peaked at around 85,000 in the mid-1950s. Post-war suburban development led to a decline in the city population, as the towns of Vestal and Union experienced rapid growth; as in many other Rust Belt cities, traditional manufacturers saw steep declines, though Binghamton's technology industry limited this impact. In an effort to reverse these trends, urban renewal dominated much of the construction during the 1960s and early 1970s, with many ornate city buildings torn down during this period.
The construction included the creation of Government Plaza, the Broome County Veterans Memorial Arena, the Brandywine Highway. As was typical of urban renewal, these projects failed to stem most of the losses, though they did establish Binghamton as the government and cultural center of the region; the city's population declined from 64,000 in 1969 to 56,000 by the early 1980s. As the Cold War came to a close in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the defense-related industries in the Binghamton area began to falter, resulting in several closures and widespread layoffs These were most notable at IBM, which sold its Federal Systems division and laid off several thousands of workers; the local economy went into a deep recession, the long-prevalent manufacturing jobs dropped by 64% from 1990 to 2013. A mass shooting took place on April 3, 2009, at the American Civic Association, leaving 14 dead, including the gunman. In the 21st century, the city has attempted to diversify its economic base in order to spur revitalization.
The local economy has transitioned towards a focus on services and healthcare. Major emphasis has been placed on Binghamton University, which built a downtown cam
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe