Williams Bay, Wisconsin
Williams Bay is a village in Walworth County, United States. The population was 2,564 at the 2010 census. Williams Bay is one of three municipalities on Geneva Lake, it was named for Captain Israel Williams of Massachusetts, a War of 1812 infantry captain who, with several of his sons, settled in the area in 1835. Much of the surrounding area was settled in the early 19th century by surveyors plotting roadways from the East, it was a vacation spot for wealthy Chicagoans displaced by the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. It is best known internationally for being home to the University of Chicago's Yerkes Observatory, which houses the world's largest refracting telescope, the great 40-inch. Construction of the Observatory began in 1895 and the 40-inch saw first light in May 1897; the Observatory's first Director was George Ellery Hale, who went on to establish Mount Wilson Observatory in Southern California. Officials and students of Chicago-based George Williams College met just west of the town of Williams Bay and established a camp in the village on the shores of Geneva Lake.
George Williams College folded in 1985 and is now part of Aurora University, which today maintains the campus. Every year on the 3rd weekend in September Williams Bay hosts the Bret'Wet N Wild' Wilde Memorial Hot Dog Swallowing contest; the contest has been held every year since 1994, with the exception of 2001, in respects to the victims of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks. Williams Bay is located at 42°34′27″N 88°32′37″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.80 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,564 people, 1,061 households, 706 families residing in the village; the population density was 915.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,985 housing units at an average density of 708.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 94.3% White, 0.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.0% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.5% of the population.
There were 1,061 households of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.5% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the village was 43.5 years. 22.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.2% male and 51.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,415 people, 993 households, 639 families residing in the village; the population density was 912.6 people per square mile. There were 1,772 housing units at an average density of 669.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.18% White, 0.50% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.70% from other races, 0.17% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.73% of the population. There were 993 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.96. In the village, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $50,450, the median income for a family was $60,573. Males had a median income of $45,750 versus $24,875 for females; the per capita income for the village was $26,231. About 5.3% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
No public transportation presently serves Williams Bay, but until the 1960s, it was the terminus of the Chicago and North Western Railway. The line had stops in Como, Lake Geneva, Genoa City, McHenry, Illinois. Kishwauketoe Nature Conservancy now stands on the site of yards; the public schools include Williams Bay High School. One private school, Faith Christian School, serves students in grades K-12. George Williams College of Aurora University is located along the lake. Williams Bay has a lake-side nature conservancy, Kishwauketoe Nature Conservancy, along with a beach and a public boat launching facility. Williams Bay is home to Yerkes Observatory, owned by the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago; the observatory was designed by architect Henry Ives Cobb. Its Greco-Roman facade carvings; the university plans to cease operation of the observatory by October 1, 2018. The Belfry Theater, Wisconsin's first summer stock theater, was an active seasonal repertory company from the 1930s through the 1970s, its buildings still stand at highways 50 and 67.
Village of Williams Bay government website Williams Bay Historical Society Geneva Lake West Chamber of Commerce
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Parkhurst is a degraded lunar impact crater to the northeast of the Mare Australe on the far side of the Moon. To the north-northeast of Parkhurst is the crater Scaliger and to the southwest lies the dark-floored Gernsback; the small lunar mare named. Little remains of this crater formation other than the uneven outline of the outer rim. Several satellite craters lie along the rim edge, with Parkhust D along the northeast, B to the north, X along the northwest; the satellite crater. The interior floor of Parkhurst is pock-marked by small craterlets. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Parkhurst
Marengo is a city in McHenry County, United States 60 miles west northwest of Chicago. The population was 7,648 as of the 2010 census. Marengo is located at 42°15′3″N 88°36′18″W. According to the 2010 census, Marengo has a total area of all land. Grant Highway State Street Telegraph Street Marengo was first named Pleasant Grove after a grove of trees near the town site; the present name commemorates the Battle of Marengo. A post office named Marengo was established in 1844. In the early morning of June 11, 2017 at around 4:50 A. M. a house in the northwest suburbs exploded. The gas explosion set four houses on fire and damaged 50 more, nearly 20 of which have been deemed "unlivable." Despite the extensive damage, no fatalities or serious injuries occurred. Marengo is governed by the mayor, John Koziol, a city council of eight aldermen; as of the census of 2000, there were 6,355 people, 2,387 households, 1,694 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,598.5 people per square mile. There were 2,475 housing units at an average density of 622.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 92.07% White, 0.30% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 5.54% of other races, 1.53% of two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.00% of the population. There were 2,387 households out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.0% were non-families. 24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.17. The population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 19.2% from 45 to 64, 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $50,214, the median income for a family was $57,209.
Males had a median income of $41,298 versus $26,317 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,225. About 3.9% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.4% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. The Marengo-Union Times is the newspaper of record in Marengo, IL, it has a circulation of 6,300 and is mailed to every home and business in the greater Marengo and Union, Illinois area. Marengo official website The Marengo-Union Times local newspaper website Marengo Township Early History Marengo Early History
Yerkes Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin operated by the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics. It closed public operations in 2018; the observatory, which called itself "the birthplace of modern astrophysics", was founded in 1897 by astronomer George Ellery Hale and financed by businessman Charles T. Yerkes, it represented a shift in the thinking about observatories, from their being mere housing for telescopes and observers, to the early-20th-century concept of observation equipment integrated with laboratory space for physics and chemistry. The observatory houses a 40-inch diameter doublet lens refracting telescope, the largest successfully used for astronomy, a collection of over 170,000 photographic plates. Notable astronomers who conducted research at Yerkes include Edwin Hubble, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Russian-American astronomer Otto Struve, Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper, the twentieth-century popularizer of astronomy Carl Sagan.
Yerkes Observatory's 40 in refracting telescope has a lens produced by the optical firm Alvan Clark & Sons and a mounting by the Warner & Swasey Company. It is the largest refracting telescope used for astronomical research; the mounting and tube for the 40-inch telescope was exhibited at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago before being installed in the observatory. The grinding of the lens was completed later; the observatory houses 40 in and 24 in reflecting telescopes. Several smaller telescopes are used for educational purposes. Both telescopes are available on Skynet Junior Scholars, the 40-inch reflector helped pioneer the field of adaptive optics. Research conducted at Yerkes in the last decade includes work on the interstellar medium, globular cluster formation, infrared astronomy, near-Earth objects; until the University of Chicago maintained an engineering center in the observatory, dedicated to building and maintaining scientific instruments. In 2012 the engineers completed work on the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera, part of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy.
Researchers use the Yerkes collection of over 170,000 archival photographic plates that date back to the 1890s. The past few years have seen astronomical research replaced by educational outreach and astronomical tourism activities. In March 2005, the University of Chicago announced plans to sell the observatory and its land on the shore of Geneva Lake. Two purchasers had expressed an interest: Mirbeau, an East Coast developer that wanted to build luxury homes, Aurora University, which has a campus straddling the Williams Bay property; the Geneva Lake Conservancy, a regional conservation and land trust organization, maintained that it was critical to save the historic Yerkes Observatory structures and telescopes for education and research, as well as to conserve the rare undeveloped, wooded lakefront and deep forest sections of the 77-acre site. On June 7, 2006, the University announced it would sell the facility to Mirbeau for US$8 million with stipulations to preserve the observatory, the surrounding 30 acres, the entire shoreline of the site.
Under the Mirbeau plan, a 100-room resort with a large spa operation and attendant parking and support facilities was to be located on the 9-acre virgin wooded Yerkes land on the lakeshore—the last such undeveloped, natural site on Geneva Lake's 21-mile shoreline. About 70 homes were to be developed on the upper Yerkes property surrounding the historic observatory; these grounds had been designed more than 100 years by John Charles Olmsted, the nephew and adopted son of famed landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. Williams Bay's refusal to change the zoning from education to residential caused Mirbeau to abandon its development plans. In view of the public controversy surrounding the development proposals, the university suspended these plans in January 2007; the university's department of astronomy and astrophysics formed a study group, including representatives from the faculty and observatory and a wide range of other involved parties, to plan for the operation of a regional center for science education at the observatory.
The study group began its work in February 2007 and issued its final report November 30, 2007. The report recommended creating a formal business plan to ensure the financial viability of the proposed science education center, establishing ownership of the proposed center before initiating plans for creating it, forming a partnership between the University of Chicago and local interests to plan for the center, it suggested that some lakefront and woods parcels could be sold for residential development. In March 2018, the University of Chicago announced that it would no longer operate the observatory after October 1, 2018, would be seeking a new owner. In May 2018, the Yerkes Future Foundation, a group of concerned local residents, submitted an expression of interest to the University of Chicago with a proposal that would seek to maintain public access to the site and continuation of the educational programs. No successor operator had been identified by the end of August, plans were put in place to close the facility on October 1.
As of September 14, 2018 the University's talks continue with the Yerkes Future Foundation, but no long term plans have been announced by the University of Chicago for Yerkes Observatory aft
University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890 by John D. Rockefeller, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan; the University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various international rankings. The university is composed of an undergraduate college as well as various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies; the university has additional campuses and centers in London, Beijing and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago. University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including sociology, economics, literary criticism and the behavioralism school of political science.
Chicago's physics department and the Met Lab helped develop the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of university's Stagg Field, a key part of the classified Manhattan Project effort of World War II. The university research efforts include administration of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory; the university is home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2021, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation; the University of Chicago has produced faculty members and researchers. As of 2018, 98 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, faculty, or staff, making it a university with one of the highest concentrations of Nobel laureates in the world. 34 faculty members and 18 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur "Genius Grant".
In addition, Chicago's alumni and faculty include 54 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award Winners, 24 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 16 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world. The University of Chicago was incorporated as a coeducational institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using $400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, including land donated by Marshall Field. While the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings; the Hyde Park campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus' first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, matched Marshall Field's pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson, Martin A. Ryerson Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction of the gymnasium and assembly hall, George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities.
The Hyde Park campus continued the legacy of the original university of the same name, which had closed in 1880s after its campus was foreclosed on. What became known as the Old University of Chicago had been founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator Stephen A. Douglas. After a fire, it closed in 1886. Alumni from the Old University of Chicago are recognized as alumni of the present University of Chicago; the university's depiction on its coat of arms of a phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire and demolition of the Old University of Chicago campus. As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy, a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall on 34th Place was brought to the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building; these connections have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer to conclude that the University of Chicago has, "a plausible genealogy as a pre–Civil War institution".
William Rainey Harper became the university's president on July 1, 1891 and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892. Harper worked on building up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university or college presidents. Harper was an accomplished scholar and a member of the Baptist clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central focus. To fulfill this commitment, he brought the Old University of Chicago's Seminary to Hyde Park; this became the Divinity School in the first professional school at the University of Chicago. Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men's Christian Association training Shool at Springfield to coach the school's football program. Stagg was given a position on the first such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented the numbered football jersey, the huddle, the lighted playing field.
Stagg is the namesake of the university's Stagg
Terre Haute, Indiana
Terre Haute is a city in and the county seat of Vigo County, United States, near the state's western border with Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 60,785 and its metropolitan area had a population of 170,943. Located along the Wabash River, Terre Haute is the "capital" of the Wabash Valley; the city is home to several higher education institutions, including Indiana State University, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana. Terre Haute is located alongside the eastern bank of the Wabash River in western Indiana; the city lies about 75 miles west of Indianapolis. According to the 2010 census, Terre Haute has a total area of 35.272 square miles, of which 34.54 square miles is land and 0.732 square miles is water. The Wabash River dominates the physical geography of the city. Small bluffs on the east side of city mark the edge of the historic flood plain. Lost Creek and Honey Creek drain the southern sections of the city, respectively.
In the late 19th century, several oil and mineral wells were productive in and near the center of the city. Pioneer Oil of Lawrenceville, IL, began drilling for oil at 10th and Chestnut streets on the Indiana State University campus in late December 2013, the first oil well drilled in downtown Terre Haute since 1903; that well produced oil into the 1920s. Terre Haute is at the intersection of two major roadways: U. S. 40 from California to Maryland and US 41 from Michigan to Miami, Florida. Terre Haute is located 77 miles southwest of Indianapolis and within 185 miles of Chicago, St. Louis and Cincinnati. Climate is characterized by high summer temperatures, mean winter temperatures near freezing, evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfa". Terre Haute's name was derived from the French phrase terre haute, meaning "Highland." It was named by French explorers in the area in the early 18th century to describe the unique location above the Wabash River.
At the time the area was claimed by the French and British, these highlands were considered the border between Canada and Louisiana. The construction of Fort Harrison in 1811 marked the known beginning of a permanent population of European-Americans. A Wea Indian village existed near the fort, the orchards and meadows they kept a few miles south of the fort became the site of the present-day city; the village of Terre Haute a part of Knox County, was platted in 1816. Terre Haute became the county seat of newly formed Vigo County in 1818, leading to increased population growth; the village's 1,000 residents voted to incorporate in 1832, followed by elevation to city status in 1853. Early Terre Haute was a center of farming and pork processing; however the business and industrial expansion of the city prior to 1860 developed thanks to transportation. The Wabash River, the building of the National Road and the Wabash and Erie Canal linked Terre Haute to the world and broadened the city's range of influence.
The economy was based on iron and steel mills, hominy plants and, late in the 19th century, distilleries and bottle makers. Coal mines and coal operating companies developed to support the railroads, yet agriculture remained predominant due to the role of corn in making alcoholic beverages and food items. With steady growth and development in the part of the 19th Century, the vibrant neighborhoods of the city benefited from improved fire protection, the founding of two hospitals, dozens of churches and a number of outlets for amusement. Terre Haute's position as an educational hub was fostered as several institutions of higher education were established; the city developed a reputation for entertainment offerings. Grand opera houses were built that hosted hundreds of theatrical performances, it became a stop on the popular vaudeville circuit. The development of the streetcar system and the electric-powered trolleys in the 1890s made it possible for residents to travel with ease to enjoy baseball games, river excursions, amusement parks and racing.
The famous "Four-Cornered" Racetrack, now the site of Memorial Stadium, was laid out in 1886 and drew the best of the country's trotters and drivers. On the evening of Easter Sunday, March 23, 1913, a major tornado struck Terre Haute at 9:45 p.m. It demolished more than 300 homes, killed twenty-one people and injured 250. Damage to local businesses and industries was estimated at $1 million to $2 million. Up to that time it was the deadliest tornado. Heavy rains followed the tornado. By midday on Tuesday, March 25, West Terre Haute was three-quarters submerged. On Saturday June 16, 1923, through to the following dawn, the largest Ku Klux Klan rally held in Indiana took place in Forest Park, five miles north of Terre Haute. A special train of eight coaches brought Klan members from Indianapolis, another came from Evansville and Vincennes, another brought 1,000 Klansmen from Muncie, it was reported tha