World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Edmond John "Ned" Hogan was an Australian politician, the 30th Premier of Victoria. He was born in Wallace, where his Irish-born parents were small farmers. After attending a Roman Catholic primary school, he became a farm worker and a timber worker, spent some time on the goldfields of Western Australia. Hogan became active in Labor Party politics in Kalgoorlie. In 1912, he contracted typhoid. To recuperate, he took up farming at Ballan. In 1913, Hogan was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Warrenheip, an electorate near Ballarat, renamed Warrenheip and Grenville in 1927. Although it was not a natural Labor seat, it was Irish-Catholic, which helped Hogan, an active Catholic, retain it for 30 years. In 1914, he was elected to the Labor Party's state executive, becoming state president in 1922. Hogan was a fine speaker and soon became a leading figure in a parliamentary party, thin on talent. Victoria was Labor's weakest state and in the 1920s there seemed little chance it would win a state election.
In 1924, Hogan was made Minister for Agriculture and Railways in the short-lived minority government of George Prendergast. When Prendergast stepped down as leader in 1926, Hogan was the obvious choice to succeed him, his main drawback was his close association with the Melbourne horse-racing and gambling identity John Wren, suspected of corruption. The Wren connection alienated many middle-class voters from Labor through the 1930s. At the 1927 state election, Hogan was able to capitalise on resentment against rural over-representation in the state parliament, the consequent domination by the Country Party. Labor won 28 seats to the Country Party's ten. Hogan was able to form a government with the support of the four Country Progressive Party and two Liberal members. However, the alliance broke down in 1928 in the face a prolonged and violent industrial dispute on the Melbourne waterfront, in November his government was defeated in a confidence vote and he resigned, being succeeded by the Nationalist William McPherson, who had the support of the Victorian Country Party.
In 1929, the Country Party withdrew its support from McPherson's government and there was another election, fought just as the Great Depression was breaking over Australia. Hogan led Labor to its best result yet, winning 30 seats to the Nationalists' 17 and the Country Party's 11. A collection of Country Progressives and independents held the balance of power, they agreed to support a second Hogan government. Tom Tunnecliffe was Chief Secretary, John Cain was Minister for Railways and William Slater was Attorney-General; the Depression had a devastating effect on Victoria's economy and society, because the state was dependent on agricultural exports wheat and wool, for its income, those industries collapsed completely as demand in Britain dried up. By 1931, most Victorian farmers were bankrupt and about 25 percent of the workforce was unemployed. Hogan's government, in common with all other governments, had no solution to the disaster. If the Hogan government had been minded to attempt radical solutions, it was dependent on Country Progressive support in the Assembly, had only six members in the Legislative Council.
Hogan adopted the orthodox economic view that governments must balance their budgets, since the Council would not permit any increases in taxation, the only way to do that, in the face of falling government revenue, was to cut expenditure. That increased the burdens while providing no stimulus to the economy. There was little possibility of effective unemployment relief, although there were some government works to soak up unemployment, such as the building of Shrine of Remembrance and the Great Ocean Road. In August 1930, Hogan attended a conference with the other Premiers and the Labor Prime Minister, James Scullin, to consider what to do. On the advice of Sir Otto Niemeyer, a senior official of the Bank of England, they agreed to radical cuts to government spending and borrowing; this provoked a storm of protest in the Labor Party and trade unions, who regarded Scullin and Hogan as traitors. In June 1931, a second conference, produced the Premiers' Plan, which entailed further cuts in government spending, accompanied by increases in taxation on the wealthy.
In the circumstances, both of those measures further depressed the economy, while not satisfying either side of politics. The New South Wales Labor Party, led by Jack Lang, rebelled and, in November, Lang's supporters in the federal parliament voted to bring down the Scullin government. However, Hogan's government survived because the Country Party continued to support it from the cross benches; as well, the Nationalists, now renamed the United Australia Party, preferred to see Hogan implement the Premiers' Plan. In February 1932, Hogan travelled to London to talk to the banks about Victoria's desperate economic plight. While he was away, Tom Tunnecliffe was acting Premier, he was much more willing than Hogan to reject the Premiers' Plan; as a result, the Country Party withdrew its support and, in April, the government was defeated in a confidence vote. Tunnecliffe replaced Hogan as Labor leader and led the Labor campaign in the May election, now rejecting the Premiers' Plan completely; the Labor Party executive expelled everyone who had supported the Premiers' Plan, including Hogan, although it did not run a candidate against him in Warrenheip and Grenville.
At the elections the UAP won 31 seats to Labor's 16 and the reunited Country Party's 14. Hogan and one of his
George Turner (Australian politician)
Sir George Turner, Australian politician, was the 18th Premier of Victoria and the first Treasurer of Australia in the federal Barton Ministry. Turner was born in Melbourne: he was the first Premier of Victoria born in the colony, he received a sound education and began work as a clerk in a law office, matriculating in 1872 and being admitted to practise as a solicitor in 1881. He was a founding member of the Australian Natives' Association, an influential lobby group of Australian-born political liberals who campaigned for Australian federation and other causes, he was a member of the town council in St Kilda and was mayor in 1887–1888. A liberal, Turner was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for St Kilda in 1889, he was Minister of Health and Solicitor-General in the liberal government of William Shiels from 1891–1893. When Shiels was defeated by the conservatives under James Patterson in 1893, he went into opposition, succeeded Shiels as leader of the liberal party – because Alfred Deakin, the colony's leading liberal, refused the position.
At the September 1894 election the Patterson government, floundering in the face of the deep depression which followed the Crash of 1892, was defeated. Turner's image as a modest, dependable suburban solicitor proved popular, he gained the support of the newly formed Labour Party, which won 17 seats in 1894; as well as Premier, Turner was Treasurer, Minister for Defence and Vice-President of the Board of Land and Works. The Turner Ministry of 1894 included John Gavan Duffy and Isaac Isaacs. Turner imposed a policy of strict economy and balanced budgets, raising taxes and cutting spending in accordance with the economic theory of the time. Although these policies did little to relieve the effects of the 1892 Depression, they did restore confidence in Victoria's public finances and the banking system; the historian Don Garden describes Turner as "frugal, prudent and self-sacrificing," an image in tune with the depressed economy. His policies of cutting government spending caused increased unemployment, but were accepted as necessary.
His government was re-elected at the 1897 election. In other areas Turner's government was more liberal, he persuaded the Legislative Council to accept the abolition of plural voting, tried unsuccessfully to pass a bill giving votes to women. He introduced Victoria's first scheme of old-age pensions, together with the Victorian wages boards; this latter measure was considered to be his greatest accomplishment, which aimed to combat sweating and poverty together with reforming the hours and working conditions in shops and factories. He was made a Privy Councillor and a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1897. In December 1899 discontented radicals joined with the conservative opposition to defeat Turner's government in the Assembly, he resigned, he was succeeded by the conservative leader Allan McLean, but Mclean was unable to consolidate his position, at elections in November 1900 the liberals were returned and Turner again became Premier. He retained office until February 1901.
Turner was elected to the first Australian House of Representatives in 1901 as a Protectionist member for the Division of Balaclava. His long experience in Victoria made him a natural choice to be Treasurer in the first federal ministry under Edmund Barton, he held this post from January 1901 under Barton and Deakin until April 1904, again in George Reid's conservative government in 1904–1905. His acceptance of office under Reid offended the Deakinite liberals, he was not re-appointed to Deakin's second ministry in 1905, he retired from politics in 1906, served as Chairman of the Commissioners of the State Savings Bank of Victoria until his death in 1916. A sign on the median strip of Brighton Road, close to the western border of the Melbourne suburb of Balaclava, denotes the location as the "Sir G. Turner Reserve". A suburb in Australia's capital city, Canberra is named after George Turner. Australian Commonwealth ministries 1901-2004 Geoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900–84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1856–1900, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1972 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel.
A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992 Ross McMullin, The Light on the Hill: The Australian Labor Party 1891–1991
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of
William Shiels was an Australian colonial-era politician, serving as the 16th Premier of Victoria. Shiels was born in a city in the west of Ulster in the north of Ireland, he was born into an Ulster-Scots Presbyterian family and arrived in Melbourne as a child in 1853. He was educated at Scotch College and the University of Melbourne, where he graduated in law and arts, gaining a master's degree in law in 1885, he was called to the Melbourne bar in 1872 and was active in public life, being a noted campaigner for divorce law reform. Shiels was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Normanby in 1880, as a moderate liberal, holding that seat throughout his career, he was Attorney-General and Minister for Railways in the government of James Munro from 1890 to 1892. During this time Shiels was one of the few politicians to warn against the excesses of the Land Boom which swept Victoria between 1887 and 1891; as a result, when Munro resigned in the face of imminent bankruptcy in February 1892, the liberals turned to Shiels as a "clean" new leader, he became Premier.
The Shiels government responded to the financial disaster of the 1892 crash in the orthodox fashion of the time, cutting spending and increasing taxation to balance the budget – measures which only made the situation worse. The conservatives who had supported the coalition governments of Duncan Gillies and Munro opposed increased taxation, during 1892 they deserted Shiels. In January 1893 the conservative leader James Patterson moved a successful no-confidence motion, Shiels resigned. Shiels kept his reputation for integrity, he was Treasurer under Minister for Railways. In 1904, his health broke down and he retired to rural South Australia shortly before his death, aged only 56. Shiels is buried at Struan House, located on the Dukes HWY 10 km out of Naracoorte in South Australia's South East. Notes BibliographyGeoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900–84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1856–1900, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1972 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel.
A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992 Serle, Percival. "Shiels, William". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson
Kyabram is located in the centre of a rich irrigation district in the Goulburn River Valley, in the Australian state of Victoria, 200 kilometres north of Melbourne. Kyabram, the second-largest town in the Shire of Campaspe, is situated between the towns of Echuca and Shepparton and is close to the Murray River, Goulburn River, Campaspe River and Waranga Basin; as of the 2011 census the town had a population of 7,321 people and provides services to a district population of around 16,000. The name of the town is thought to derive from an Aboriginal word Kiambram meaning "Thick Forest"; the Bangerang people were the original inhabitants of the Goulburn valley. The township started in the 1870s with the first sale of town blocks held in 1876. Kyabram Post Office opened on 23 September 1878. Sheridan Post Office opened on 1 December 1884. On 8 April 1886, in anticipation of the arrival of the railway at what was Sheridan, Kyabram was renamed Kyabram East and Sheridan was renamed Kyabram; the Kyabram Mechanics' Institute was built in 1891.
John Allan, who lived in Kyabram from 1873, became Premier of Victoria in 1924 and Australia's first Country Party premier. Allan was associated with the Kyabram Reform Movement, a conservative political organisation formed at the start of the 20th century and led by Benjamin Goddard, a local businessman; the movement's campaign played a significant role in the downfall of the Peacock state government in June 1902 and its sound defeat in the subsequent September elections. The incoming Irvine government reduced the number of state parliamentarians, a key demand of the movement. Kyabram was formally proclaimed a town on 4 July 1973; the district is dependent on the primary industries of dairying and fruit orchards. Henry Jones IXL, a subsidiary of SPC Ardmona, operate a plant in manufacturing IXL jams; the town provides engineering, financial advisors and accounting services to the district. Nestlé, Southern Processing Ltd and Fonterra all have food processing plants nearby. Medical and aged care services in the town include a 46-bed hospital, a 30-bed home for the aged, infant welfare centre, ambulance station, several doctors and other health practitioners.
In education Kyabram has now combined three state schools to one P-12 school containing three campuses. Kyabram has a Catholic primary and secondary school, two kindergartens and the Kyabram Community & Learning Centre providing community services and adult learning opportunities for the people of Kyabram and the surrounding region; the local newspaper is called the Kyabram Free Press, a part of the McPherson media group in the region, with a circulation of 3,300 copies. Surrounding smaller towns include Merrigum, Undera, Wyuna, Girgarre and Tongala. Attractions include the Kyabram Fauna Park, a 55-hectare reserve housing five hundred species of wildlife. There are hides to observe a variety of water birds. Popular sports in Kyabram include cricket. Jim Higgs was a spin bowler from Kyabram; the local football team is known as the Bombers. Kyabram has produced a number of AFL recruits such as GWS utility and former Richmond best-and-fairest Brett Deledio, former Melbourne & Victorian Captain Garry Lyon, Richmond's Kayne Pettifer, Brisbane's Patrick Wearden, Hawthorn's Cohen Myers, Carlton's Nick Holman, former North Melbourne rookie Brad Mangan.
Netball and soccer are popular in Kyabram. Golfers play at the course of the Kyabram Valley View Golf and Bowls Club on Curr Road, Mount Scobie, or at the Kyabram Parkland Golf Club, the home of the Victorian Par 3 Amateur Championships, on Racecourse Rd, Kyabram. In 2016, former resident Kristen Hilton was appointed Victoria's Human Rights Commissioner, head of the Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission. Kyabram is referenced by Irish singer-songwriter Declan O'Rourke on his debut album Since Kyabram. O'Rourke picked up his first acoustic guitar while living in the town as a teenager. Media related to Kyabram at Wikimedia Commons Kyabram information Kyabram history
Lancefield is a town in the Shire of Macedon Ranges local government area in Victoria, Australia 69 kilometres north of the state capital and had a population of 2,357 at the 2011 census. The area was used by the indigenous aboriginal people as a quarry site for the manufacture of stone axes and was first settled by European squatters in 1837; the main source of these stone tools was to the north east of Lancefield. A Lancefield Post Office opened on 16 January 1858 in the Romsey/Five Mile Creek area, 6 kilometres to the south. In 1860 this was renamed Five Mile Creek. Lancefield's elevation and climate made it a popular summer resort in the 1880s. In recent years, many local wineries have been established in the area; the town has a connection to the Kelly Gang. Lancefield district had a reputation for some of the best fertile soils in Victoria. Prior to being cut up into small blocks during the early 1970s the region produced high yields per acre of potatoes, fat lambs, fat cattle and other cereal crops.
A large fossil deposit from the Pleistocene epoch was discovered at Lancefield Swamp, containing the remains of many species of extinct megafauna, including. The local Australian rules football team, Lancefield Football Club competes in the Riddell District Football League. Golfers play at the course of the Lancefield Golf Club on Heddle Road; the Burke and Wills expedition camped at Lancefield on their journey to cross Australia from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria. They made their fourth camp out of Melbourne. A marker at the site of the original town at Mustey's Bridge on Deep Creek commemorates the site of their camp; the route of their departure northwards from the town is commemorated by the road to Mia Mia, named'Burke and Wills Track' in their honour. A railway branch line off the Melbourne-Bendigo line originated at Clarkefield, opening as far as Lancefield on 6 June 1881; this section of the line was closed on 13 August 1956. By 6 April 1892, the line was extended out of Lancefield to Kilmore.
However, this section of the line was so unsuccessful that it was closed on 1 June 1897. John Allan, the 29th Premier of Victoria, was born near Lancefield in 1866 Alfred Lockwood, born 9 December 1867, was a journalist and newspaper proprietor. James-Anthony Consiglio, Influential chef, Chef of the year 2016 Marian Eldridge, novelist Edith Onians OBE, born in Lancefield in 1866, organizer of the Melbourne City Newsboys Society Richard Giddings, patrol officer and magistrate in Papua New Guinea Peter J Connors DD DCL, former Catholic Bishop of Ballarat On his release from prison in England in 1904, George Witton came to Lancefield and lived in the town for several years. Witton of the Bushveldt Carbineers was charged along with Breaker Morant and Peter Handcock of murdering captured Boers during the Anglo-Boer War. Witton was found guilty of murder and sentenced to be shot, but this was commuted to life of penal servitude. Morant and Handcock both found guilty and sentenced to be shot were executed in Pretoria on 27 February 1902.
Witton was held in prison until released due to public pressure from Australia. It was to Lancefield that he came in broken health on his return to Australia and wrote his angry book, Scapegoats of the Empire. In the introduction to his book that he stated he was living in Lancefield; when due for publication a fire destroyed all but several copies of the book. In 1982, Angus and Robertson in the United Kingdom re-published the book following the success of the movie Breaker Morant. George Witton's cousin, Cecily Adams of Castlecrag Sydney, owned the copyright for "Scapegoats of the Empire" following George's death. Cecily was aware of some additional documentation written by George Witton, which he asked not to be released until after his death. Cecily was determined a further edition, which included this additional material, should be published and in 1989 an edition was published by ADLIB BOOKS of Bath, by arrangement with Cecily Adams as the copyright owner and Angus & Robertson. Reid, John.
When Memory Turns The Key: The History of the Shire of Romsey, Bacchus Marsh, 1992, ISBN 0-9588112-5-3 Official website Lancefield megafauna excavation website Lancefield tourist website SMH Travel webpage Burke & Wills Web A comprehensive website containing many of the historical documents relating to the Burke & Wills Expedition. The Burke & Wills Historical Society The Burke & Wills Historical Society