The River Raisin is a river in southeastern Michigan, United States that flows through glacial sediments into Lake Erie. The area today is an agricultural and industrial center of Michigan, French settlers named it as La Rivière aux Raisins because of the wild grapes growing along its banks, since the French word for grape is raisin. The French term for raisin is raisin sec, the River Raisin was used by local Potawatomi and Wyandot peoples, who used a portage between the upper river to gain access into the Grand and Kalamazoo rivers flowing west toward Lake Michigan. The river is classified as canoeable throughout its length. But, low gradient, access issues, frequent logjams in the upper reaches and 22 dams on the mainstream limit its recreational use, now part of Monroe, this area is still the most populous area along the river. The resort area of Irish Hills lies in the uppermost region of the watershed, the largest of these is the 800-acre Lake Columbia. During the winter of 1813 as part of the War of 1812, cut off and surrounded and facing total slaughter, Winchester surrendered with British assurances of safety of the prisoners.
The British marched those who could walk to Detroit, but the next day, many of the severely wounded prisoners left in Frenchtown were killed by the Native Americans allies of the British. The Massacre of the River Raisin became a rallying cry particularly for Kentuckians, United States troops returned in the spring to drive the British from Michigan forever. The original battlefield was preserved for years as a county park in Monroe, Michigan, on October 12,2010, the land was transferred to the federal government. By Congressional authorization, it is now the only National Battlefield Park devoted to a battlefield of the War of 1812 - the River Raisin National Battlefield Park, since industrialization and intensified agriculture, the river has been polluted by industrial wastes and agricultural runoff. While cleanup efforts have mitigated some of the pollution, difficult-to-remove PCBs continue to constitute a hazardous waste, environmental authorities advise people not to eat some species of fish from the river, if taken below the outlet of the Monroe Dam.
The river has many dams to control water flow. This is a legacy of the paper mills constructed along it in the mid-1800s during the lumber boom. While most of the dams are in Monroe, the most significant one is located in Dundee, the Port of Monroe was constructed near the mouth of the river in the 1930s, during the Great Depression. Flooding along the river comes from three causes, heavy rains, ice dams during spring break-up, and on-shore winds pushing Lake Erie waters upstream. The worst flood was recorded on March 16,1982 at 15,300 cu ft/s, flooding affects mostly the lowest portions of the river. In contrast on July 13,1988 during a severe drought, most of the flow of the river is diverted through the Detroit Edison plant and discharged into Plum Creek
Isaac Shelby was the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also, a soldier in Lord Dunmores War, the American Revolutionary War, while governor, he led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action, that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinsons The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto United we stand, divided we fall. Issac Shelbys military service began, when he served as second-in-command to his father at the Battle of Point Pleasant and he gained the reputation of an expert woodsman and surveyor and spent the early part of the Revolutionary War gathering supplies for the Continental Army. Later in the war he and John Sevier led expeditions over the Appalachian Mountains against the British forces in North Carolina and he played a pivotal role in the British defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain.
For his service, Shelby was presented with a sword and a pair of pistols, by the North Carolina legislature. Following the war, Isaac Shelby relocated to Kentucky, on lands awarded to him for his military service and his heroism made him popular with the states citizens and the Kentucky electoral college unanimously elected him governor in 1792. He secured Kentucky, from Indian attacks and organized its first government and he used the Citizen Genet affair to convince the Washington administration to make an agreement with the Spanish for free trade on the Mississippi River. At the end of his term, Isaac Shelby retired from public life. Kentuckians urged Shelby to run for governor again and lead them through the anticipated conflict and he was elected easily, and at the request of General William Henry Harrison, commanded troops from Kentucky at the Battle of the Thames. After the war, he declined President James Monroes offer to become Secretary of War, in his last act of public service and Andrew Jackson acted as commissioners to negotiate the Jackson Purchase from the Chickasaw Indian tribe.
Isaac Shelby died, at his estate in Lincoln County, Isaac Shelby was born in the Province of Maryland on December 11,1750, near Hagerstown in Frederick County. He was the child and second son of Evan and Letitia Shelby. Though the family had been loyal to the Church of England, they became Presbyterians after coming to British America, Shelby was educated at the local schools in his native colony. He worked on his fathers plantation and occasionally work as a surveyor. At age eighteen he was appointed deputy sheriff of Frederick County, Shelbys father lost a great deal of money when Pontiacs Rebellion disrupted his lucrative fur trade business, and two years later, the business records were destroyed in a house fire. Consequently, in December 1770 the family moved to the area near Bristol, where they built a fort, here and his father worked for three years herding cattle
Staunton is an independent city in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,746, in Virginia, independent cities are separate jurisdictions from the counties that surround them, so the government offices of Augusta County are in Verona, which is contiguous to Staunton. Staunton is a city of the Staunton-Waynesboro Metropolitan Statistical Area. Staunton is known for being the birthplace of Woodrow Wilson, the 28th U. S. president, the city is home to Stuart Hall, a private co-ed preparatory school, as well as the Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind. The area was first settled in 1732 by John Lewis and family, in 1736, William Beverley, a wealthy planter and merchant from Essex County, was granted by the Crown over 118,000 acres in what would become Augusta County. Surveyor Thomas Lewis in 1746 laid out the first town plat for Beverley of what was originally called Beverleys Mill Place, founded in 1747, it was renamed in honor of Lady Rebecca Staunton, wife to Royal Lieutenant-Governor Sir William Gooch.
Staunton thus played a role in the mid 18th century expansion of the economies of the American Colonies which, in turn. It served as capital of Virginia in June 1781, when state legislators fled Richmond, for instance, in 1815, a slave named Henry ran away from John G. Wrights Staunton plantation. Wright placed an ad in the Daily National Intelligencer in Washington and this ad is notable in its genre for the fact that it notes that Henry was an excellent cook and was widely travelled, having been to the West Indies. In August 1855, President Franklin Pierce visited Staunton and he gave a speech at the Virginia Hotel, in which he stated that his feelings revolted from the idea of a dissolution of the union. He said that t would be the Iliad of innumerable woes, located along the Valley Pike, Staunton developed as a trade and industrial center, particularly after the Virginia Central Railroad arrived in 1854. Factories made carriages, wagons and shoes, clothing, in 1860, the Staunton Military Academy was founded.
By 1860, Staunton had at least one pro-union, pro-slavery and at least one pro-secession, pro-slavery newspaper. The Spectator ran editorials before the war urging its citizens to vote for union, while the Vindicator ran, on May 23,1861, Virginians voted on whether or not to ratify articles of secession from the Union. The articles were approved throughout the Commonwealth. In Staunton the vote was 3300 in favor of secession and 6 opposed, during the Civil War, the town became an important Shenandoah Valley manufacturing, staging area and supply depot for the Confederacy. On May 2,1862, Union General John C, frémont occupied Staunton while on his way to a rendezvous with General Nathaniel P. Banks to pursue Stonewall Jackson into what would become known as the Battle of Cross Keys, fought near Harrisonburg, by October 1862 Staunton was back in rebel hands, occupied by the 2nd South Carolina infantry
Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850. Before his presidency, Taylor was an officer in the United States Army. Taylors status as a hero as a result of his victories in the Mexican-American War won him election to the White House despite his vague political beliefs. His top priority as president was preserving the Union, but he died 16 months into his term, before making any progress on the status of slavery and he remains the only President to come from Louisiana. Taylor was born into a prominent family of planters who migrated westward from Virginia to Kentucky in his youth and he was commissioned as an officer in the U. S. Army in 1808 and made a name for himself as a captain in the War of 1812. He climbed the ranks establishing military forts along the Mississippi River and his success in the Second Seminole War attracted national attention and earned him the nickname Old Rough and Ready. The Mexican–American War broke out in April 1846, in May, Taylor defeated Mexican troops commanded by General Mariano Arista at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and managed to drive his troops out of Texas.
Taylor subsequently led his troops into Mexico, where once again defeated Mexican troops commanded by Pedro de Ampudia at the Battle of Monterrey in September. Defying orders, Taylor moved his troops further south, despite being severely outnumbered, he dealt a crushing blow to Mexican forces under Antonio López de Santa Anna in February 1847 at the Battle of Buena Vista. After this, most of Taylors troops were transferred to the command of Major General Winfield Scott, the Whig Party convinced the reluctant Taylor to lead their ticket in the 1848 presidential election, despite his unclear political beliefs and lack of interest in politics. At the 1848 Whig National Convention, Taylor defeated Scott and former Senator Henry Clay to take the nomination, as president, Taylor kept his distance from Congress and his cabinet, even as partisan tensions threatened to divide the Union. Debate over the status of slavery in the Mexican Cession dominated the political agenda, despite being a Southerner and a slaveholder himself, Taylor did not push for the expansion of slavery, and he sought sectional harmony above all other concerns.
To avoid the issue of slavery, he urged settlers in New Mexico and California to bypass the territorial stage and draft constitutions for statehood, Taylor died suddenly of a stomach-related illness in July 1850, with his administration having accomplished little aside from the ratification of the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty. Fillmore served the remainder of Taylors term, Zachary Taylor was born on November 24,1784, on a plantation in Orange County, Virginia, to a prominent family of planters of English ancestry. He is inconclusively believed to have born at the home of his maternal grandfather. He was the third of five surviving sons in his family and had three younger sisters and his mother was Sarah Dabney Taylor. His father, Richard Taylor, had served as a lieutenant colonel in the American Revolution, Taylors second cousin through that line was James Madison, the fourth president. Leaving exhausted lands, his family joined the migration out of Virginia and settled near what developed as Louisville, Kentucky
George Madison was the sixth Governor of Kentucky. He was the first governor of Kentucky to die in office, Little is known of Madisons early life. He was a member of the influential Madison family of Virginia and he served with distinction in three wars – the Revolutionary War, Northwest Indian War, and War of 1812. He was twice wounded in the Northwest Indian War, and in the War of 1812 he was taken following the Battle of Frenchtown in Michigan. Madisons political experience before becoming governor consisted of a tenure as state auditor. Although his military service made him popular in Kentucky, he sought no higher office until the citizens insisted he run for governor in 1816. James Johnson, his challenger in the race, dropped out early due to Madisons overwhelming popularity. A few weeks later, he became the first Kentucky governor to die in office, opponents of his lieutenant governor, Gabriel Slaughter, mounted a popular but unsuccessful challenge to Slaughters succeeding Madison in office.
George Madison was born in June 1763 in the portion of Augusta County and his parents were John and Agatha Madison. His brother James became the Episcopal bishop of Virginia and the president of the College of William & Mary, another brother was Captain Thomas Madison. They were second cousins to President James Madison, Madison was educated in the local schools and received instruction at home. Before he was old enough to enlist, he entered the Continental Army as a private during the Revolutionary War. It is not known when Madison moved to Kentucky, but land records in Lincoln County indicate he and he married Jane Smith and they had four children – Agatha, William and George. Madison served with the Kentucky militia during the Northwest Indian War and he was a subaltern in Arthur St. Clairs army in the American defeat at the Battle of the Wabash on November 4,1791. During the retreat, a soldier named William Kennan found Madison sitting on a log, Kennan quickly retrieved an abandoned horse he had seen, he helped Madison astride the horse, and they both escaped.
Later in the war, Madison served under Major John Adair, on November 5,1792, Adairs men were encamped near Fort St. Clair when they were ambushed by an Indian force under the command of Little Turtle. Adair ordered a retreat, rallied his men and divided them into three groups and he ordered those under Madison to turn the enemys flank, but they failed and Madison was wounded again in this battle. Following this, Adair withdrew to Fort St. Clair, in Adairs report to Brigadier General James Wilkinson, he wrote, Madisons bravery and conduct need no comment, they are well-known
Battle of Frenchtown
The Battles of Frenchtown, known as the Battle of the River Raisin and the River Raisin Massacre, was a series of conflicts that took place from January 18–23,1813 during the War of 1812. It was fought between the United States and a British and Native American alliance near the River Raisin in Frenchtown, the battle on January 22 had the highest number of fatalities of any battle during this war. On January 18,1813 the Americans forced the retreat of the British and their Native American allies from Frenchtown, the movement was part of a larger United States plan to advance north and retake Fort Detroit, following its loss in the Siege of Detroit the previous summer. Despite this initial success, the British and Native Americans rallied and launched a counterattack four days on January 22. Ill-prepared, the Americans lost 397 soldiers in this battle, while 547 were taken prisoner. Dozens of wounded prisoners were murdered the day in a massacre by the Native Americans. More prisoners were killed if they could not keep up on the march to Fort Malden.
This was the deadliest conflict recorded on Michigan soil, and the casualties included the highest number of Americans killed in a battle during the War of 1812. Parts of the battlefield were designated as a state historic park. In 2009 Congress authorized its upgrade into the River Raisin National Battlefield Park, one of four parks in the nation. The Battle of Frenchtown took place in Frenchtown township in the Michigan Territory, much of the land it was fought on is now incorporated into the city of Monroe. The plural Battles of Frenchtown is used for the conflict from January 18 through 22. While the battle began on January 18, the heaviest fighting took place on January 22 and it is often referred to as the Battle of the River Raisin, because of its proximity to that river. The engagement may be divided into the First Battle of the River Raisin, the name River Raisin Massacre is used for the events of January 23, the day after the surrender, when pro-British Indians murdered dozens of wounded United States prisoners.
These volunteer soldiers from Kentucky were too badly injured to march overland to Canada, on August 17,1812, Brigadier General William Hull, commanding the American Army of the Northwest, surrendered his troops and Fort Detroit to the British army following the Siege of Detroit. This early success convinced many Native Americans to side with Britain in the war, General Hull was tried by a military court and sentenced to death for his disgraceful conduct at Detroit. However, President James Madison commuted the sentence to dismissal from the army in recognition of Hulls honorable service during the American Revolution, at that time, Fort Detroit was a strategic outpost and a potential base for any US invasion of British Upper Canada. Its loss to the British gave them a base to increase their presence in the Michigan Territory, when the British captured Detroit, the Frenchtown militia surrendered and were disarmed
Bardstown is a home rule-class city in Nelson County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was recorded as 11,700 by the 2010 census and it is the county seat of Nelson County. It is named for the pioneering Bard brothers, david Bard obtained a 1,000 acres land grant in 1785 in what was Jefferson County, Virginia from Governor Patrick Henry. William Bard surveyed and platted the town and it was originally chartered as Bairds Town. First settled by European Americans in 1780, Bardstown is the second oldest city in Kentucky, named county seat of the newly created Nelson County, Virginia in 1784, the town was formally established in 1788. It was incorporated by the assembly in 1838. The Diocese of Bardstown was established on February 8,1808, by Pope Pius VII and this divided the previous all-encompassing Diocese of Baltimore, established in 1789. This area is now served by 44 dioceses and archdioceses in 10 states, the Bardstown cathedral is the Basilica of Saint Joseph Proto-Cathedral.
In 1841 the seat of the Diocese was transferred to the larger river town. Bardstown has a Roman Catholic parochial high school, Bethlehem High School, the Old Talbott Tavern, built in 1779 and located just off the Courthouse Square in the center of Bardstown, is part of the citys rich history. Several notable Americans passed through the doors, including famed frontiersman Daniel Boone and future 16th President. Bullet holes in a wall are reputed to have been shot by Jesse James. People claim to have encountered ghosts or other paranormal activity at the tavern, Bardstown is the site of My Old Kentucky Home State Park. Federal Hill is depicted on the reverse of the Kentucky state quarter issued by the United States Mint in 2002, several distilleries operate in and around the Bardstown area, including Jim Beam, Heaven Hill, Barton 1792 and Makers Mark, which is located in nearby Loretto. The regional production of bourbon is celebrated by the annual Kentucky Bourbon Festival, whose promoters have trademarked the phrase, Bourbon Capital of the World, the local tourism commission promotes the use of the trademarked phrase.
A public museum, the Oscar Getz Museum of Whiskey, showcases this aspect of local history, Bardstowns downtown area is designated as a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2012, Bardstown was voted as The Most Beautiful Small Town in America in the Destination Marketing Association Internationals Best of the Road competition, Bardstown is located at 32°48′56″N 85°27′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 7.4 square miles
Tecumsehs War or Tecumsehs Rebellion was a conflict between the United States Army and an American Indian confederacy led by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory. The two principal adversaries in the conflict and William Henry Harrison, had both been junior participants in the Battle of Fallen Timbers at the close of the Northwest Indian War in 1794. However, many Indian leaders in the region accepted the Greenville terms, Little Turtle, a war chief of the Miamis, who had participated in the earlier war and signed the Greenville Treaty, lived in his village on the Eel River. Both Black Hoof and Little Turtle urged cultural adaptation and accommodation with the United States, the tribes of the region participated in several treaties, including the Treaty of Grouseland and the Treaty of Vincennes that gave and recognized American possession of most of southern Indiana. The treaties resulted in an easing of tensions by allowing settlers into Indiana, in May 1805, Lenape Chief Buckongahelas, one of the most important native leaders in the region, died of either smallpox or influenza.
The surrounding tribes believed his death was caused by a form of witchcraft, the witch-hunts inspired a nativist religious revival led by Tecumsehs brother Tenskwatawa, who emerged in 1805 as a leader among the witch hunters. He quickly posed a threat to the influence of the accommodationist chiefs, as part of his religious teachings, Tenskwatawa urged Indians to reject European American ways, such as drinking liquor, European-style clothing, and firearms. He called for the tribes to refrain from ceding any more lands to the United States, numerous Indians, who were inclined to cooperate with the United States, were accused of witchcraft, and some were executed by followers of Tenskwatawa. Black Hoof was accused in the witch-hunt, but was not harmed, from his village at Greenville, Tenskwatawa compromised Black Hoofs friendly relationship with the United States, leading to rising tensions with settlers in the region. Black Hoof and other leaders began to put pressure on Tenskwatawa. Little Turtle told the Shawnee that they were there.
In 1808, Tecumseh began to be seen as a leader by his community, in 1808, the British in Canada approached him to form an alliance, but he refused. The Americans first took notice of him in 1810, Tecumseh eventually emerged as the leader of the confederation, but it was built upon a foundation established by the religious appeal of his younger brother. Tippecanoe was the largest Native American community in the Great Lakes region and served as important cultural and it was an intertribal, religious stronghold along the Wabash River in Indiana for 3000 Native Americans, it was known as Prophetstown to whites. Led by Tenskwatawa initially, and jointly with Tecumseh, thousands of Algonquin-speaking Indians gathered at Tippecanoe to gain spiritual strength, meanwhile, in 1800, William Henry Harrison had become the governor of the newly formed Indiana Territory, with the capital at Vincennes. Harrison sought to secure title to Indian lands to allow for American expansion, in particular, Harrison negotiated numerous land cession treaties with American Indians.
In 1809, Harrison began to push for the need of another treaty to open land for settlement. The Miami and Kickapoo were vehemently opposed to selling any more land around the Wabash River, in September 1809, he invited the Potawatomi, Eel Rivers, and the Miami to a meeting in Fort Wayne
John Adair was an American pioneer and politician. He was the eighth Governor of Kentucky and represented the state in both the U. S. House and Senate. A native of South Carolina, Adair enlisted in the militia and served in the Revolutionary War, during which he was twice captured. Following the War, he was elected as a delegate to South Carolinas convention to ratify the United States Constitution. After moving to Kentucky in 1786, Adair participated in the Northwest Indian War, popular for his service in two wars, he entered politics in 1792 as a delegate to Kentuckys constitutional convention. Adair was elected to a total of eight terms in the state House of Representatives between 1793 and 1803 and he served as Speaker of the Kentucky House in 1802 and 1803, and was a delegate to the states Second Constitutional Convention in 1799. After a long battle, he was acquitted of any wrongdoing. The negative publicity kept him out of politics for more than a decade and he returned to the State House in 1817, and Isaac Shelby, his commanding officer in the War who was serving a second term as governor, appointed him adjutant general of the state militia.
In 1820, Adair was elected governor on a platform of financial relief for Kentuckians hit hard by the Panic of 1819. Following his term as governor, Adair served one undistinguished term in the United States House of Representatives, John Adair was born January 9,1757, in Chester County, South Carolina, a son of Scottish immigrants Baron William and Mary Adair. He was educated at schools in Charlotte, North Carolina, during the British victory over the Colonists at the August 16,1780, Battle of Camden, Adair was taken as a prisoner of war. He contracted smallpox and was treated harshly by his captors during his months-long imprisonment, subsequently, he was released via a prisoner exchange. In 1781, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the South Carolina militia, and fought in the drawn Battle of Eutaw Springs, the wars last major battle in the Carolinas. Edward Lacey was elected sheriff of Chester County after the war and he was chosen as a delegate to the South Carolina convention to ratify the U. S.
Constitution. In 1784, Adair married Katherine Palmer and they had twelve children, ten of them daughters. One married Thomas Bell Monroe, who served as Adairs Secretary of State and was appointed to a federal judgeship. In 1786, the Adairs migrated westward to Kentucky, settling in Mercer County, enlisting for service as a captain in the Northwest Indian War in 1791, Adair was soon promoted to major and assigned to the brigade of James Wilkinson. On November 6,1792, a band of Miamis under the command of Little Turtle encountered Adair, when the Miami attacked, Adair ordered Lieutenant George Madison to attack their right flank while Adair led 25 men to attack the left flank
James Johnson (Kentucky)
Representative from Kentucky, brother of Richard Mentor Johnson and John Telemachus Johnson and uncle of Robert Ward Johnson. Born in Orange County, Johnson moved with his father to Kentucky in 1779 and he was a member of the State senate in 1808. He served as lieutenant colonel in the War of 1812, contractor for furnishing supplies to troops on the western frontier in 1819 and 1820. He served as presidential elector on the ticket of Monroe and Tompkins in 1820, Johnson was elected as a Jacksonian to the Nineteenth Congress and served from March 4,1825, until his death in Washington, D. C. He was interred in the cemetery, Great Crossings, Kentucky. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress and this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http, //bioguide. congress. gov
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Lima is a city in and the county seat of Allen County, United States. The municipality is located in northwestern Ohio along Interstate 75 approximately 72 miles north of Dayton and 78 miles south-southwest of Toledo, as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 38,771. It is the city of and is included in the Lima, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area. The Lima Army Tank Plant, built in 1941, is the producer of the M1 Abrams. In the years after the American Revolution, the Shawnee were the most prominent residents of west central Ohio, growing in numbers and permanency after the 1794 Treaty of Greenville. By 1817, the United States had created the Hog Creek Reservation for the local Shawnee, covering portions of what would become Allen and Auglaize counties, and including part of present-day Lima. The creation of the Shawnee reservation freed other lands in the area for settlement, and in February 1820, in 1831 the Shawnee were forced to surrender all their land in the area to the United States and relocated to Kansas, opening all of Allen County to settlement.
The Ohio legislature mandated that a county seat be established and Lima was the result, since 1831, Lima has been the center of government for Allen County, the first of its three courthouses erected in the citys first year. The foundations of city life followed in quick order, the first school appeared in 1832. Limas first surgeon, Doctor William McHenry arrived in 1834,1836 brought the first newspaper to Lima. Lima was officially organized as a city in 1842, henry DeVilliers Williams was its first mayor. The first public school opened in 1850, in 1854, the first train appeared in Lima, a harbinger of economic success. Also in 1854, an outbreak in Delphos spread throughout west central Ohio. Countywide problems caused by the water supply were not solved until 1886 when Lima started a municipal water system. Limas role as a center for industry began early. The Lima Agricultural Works began operations in 1869, the company changed names and types of manufacturing through the years. In 1882, under the name Lima Machine Works, the built the first Shay-geared locomotive.
Stimulated by the boom in nearby Findlay, in 1885 Lima businessman Benjamin C