Hollywood and Highland Center
The Hollywood & Highland Center is a shopping mall and entertainment complex at Hollywood Boulevard and Highland Avenue in the Hollywood district in Los Angeles. The 387,000-square-foot center includes TCL Chinese Theatre and the Dolby Theatre, home to the Academy Awards; the historic site was once the home of the famed Hollywood Hotel. Located in the heart of Hollywood, along the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it is among the most visited tourist destinations in Los Angeles; the complex sits just across Hollywood Blvd. from the El Capitan Theatre and offers views of the Hollywood Hills and Hollywood Sign to the north, Santa Monica Mountains to the west and downtown Los Angeles to the east. The centerpiece of the complex is a massive three-story courtyard inspired by the Babylon scene from the D. W. Griffith film Intolerance; the developer of the shopping center built part of the archway and two pillars with elephant sculptures on the capitals, just as seen in the film, to the same full scale. It gives visitors an idea of.
The center has over 25 restaurants. Major retail tenants that face Hollywood Boulevard include American Eagle Outfitters, Forever 21, Sephora; the complex houses a Lucky Strike Lanes bowling alley, a six-plex movie theater, a nightclub. Hollywood & Highland houses 65,000 square feet of gathering spaces including the Grand Ballroom, used for the Oscars Governors Ball. Celebrity chef Wolfgang Puck operates his regional headquarters out of the complex; the center includes television broadcast facilities that in 2004 included the studios for the daily talk show On Air With Ryan Seacrest. The studio is home to Revolt TV; the 637-room Loews Hollywood Hotel is part of the site. The Metro Red Line's subway station of the same name is beneath the structure. Metro Local lines 212, 217, 222, 237, 656 and Metro Rapid 780 serve Hollywood & Highland. Developed by TrizecHahn and with funds from the Community Redevelopment Agency, Hollywood & Highland opened after three years of construction in November 2001 and is part of an overall effort to revitalize Hollywood Boulevard.
The project is an example of joint development, in which a public agency leases the right to develop a parcel in exchange for improvements to the property, in this case, an enhanced portal to the Hollywood/Highland Metro Red Line station. TrizecHahn leased 1.35 acres of Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority land for 55 years at a rate of $492,000 per year and four 11-year optional extensions. Leading up to the construction of the development the City of Los Angeles was persuaded, through its Community Redevelopment Agency, to contribute at least $90 million in 1998 toward the initial construction of Hollywood and Highland; this was in addition to the costs of constructing the Red Line subway station below the mall. Trizec Properties Inc. sold its interest in the development for over $200 million in 2004 to CIM Group. This was a substantial loss and represented an investment failure as it was estimated that Trizec spent at least $625 million to develop the center; the current owner, CIM Group, describes itself as a premier real estate fund manager that makes private equity and/or debt investments in urban communities throughout North America.
CIM is headquartered in Hollywood in the TV Guide Building located across the street from Hollywood and Highland. CIM has active projects in Los Angeles, West Hollywood, Orange County, Santa Monica, Washington D. C. Austin TX, Boulder CO, as well as other communities. One of their better known projects in the Los Angeles region is the Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica. CIM repositioned the center with higher end tenants. In 2005, the center underwent renovations to add additional features such as escalators leading visitors from Hollywood Boulevard directly to the third floor of the central courtyard, new signage, new stores; the Hollywood and Highland complex opened in 2001 with a conditional use permit that enabled, among other things, for the complex to have special exemptions of Los Angeles billboard ordinances. Despite objections of some residents and neighbors, in 2002 this agreement was amended and extended for an additional 20 years. L. A. City Councilman Eric Garcetti, who represented the Hollywood-area district and was elected mayor in 2013, supported extending this special permit.
The design of the center has been criticized. In 2007, Curbed L. A. an online magazine, named Hollywood and Highland the "winner" of their Ugliest Building in Los Angeles contest. In selecting Hollywood & Highland, they cited its aesthetics, pedestrian unfriendliness, confusing circulation, "mish-mash of architectural styles"; the center played a significant role in attracting development to other parts of Hollywood Boulevard. The TV Guide Hollywood Center across the street reconstructed the ground floor and has attracted new tenants such as American Apparel, Baja Fresh and Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf. Other notable retail stores that have a presence on the Boulevard include clothier H&M and the Spanish retail chain Zara. In addition, several blocks further east on Vine Street, a W Hotel opened incorporating the existing Hollywood/Vine Metro Red Line station; the sidewalk in front of Hollywood and Highland is considered a coveted location for recent additions to the Hollywood Walk of Fame. As such is one of t
The Hollywood Hills is a hillside neighborhood of the same name in the central region of the city of Los Angeles, California. The Hollywood Hills straddle the Cahuenga Pass within the Santa Monica Mountains; the neighborhood touches Studio City, Universal City and Burbank on the north, Griffith Park on the north and east, Los Feliz on the southeast, Hollywood on the south and Hollywood Hills West on the west. It includes Forest Lawn Memorial Park, the Hollywood Reservoir, the Hollywood Sign, the Hollywood Bowl and the John Anson Ford Theater. Hollywood Hills is bisected southeast-northwest by US 101; the neighborhood is bounded on the northwest and north by the Los Angeles city line, on the east by a fireroad through Griffith Park, continuing on Western Avenue, on the south by Franklin Avenue and on the west by an irregular line that includes Outpost Drive. The neighborhood of Hollywood Hills includes the Hollywood Bowl and Forest Lawn Memorial Park as well as two private and three public schools.
Hollywood Hills contains several neighborhoods: A total of 21,588 people lived in the neighborhood's 7.05 square miles, according to the 2000 U. S. census—averaging 3,063 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities in the city or the county. The population was estimated at 22,988 in 2008; the median age for residents was 37, considered old for the county. The percentages of residents aged 19 through 64 were among the county's highest; the neighborhood is "not diverse" for the city, the diversity index being 0.433, the percentage of Non-Hispanic Whites is considered high, at 74.1%. Latinos make up 9.4%, Asians are at 6.7%, African American at 4.6% and others at 5.3%. In 2000, Mexico and the United Kingdom were the most common places of birth for the 22.8% of the residents who were born abroad, considered a low percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city or county as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $69,277, considered high for the city but about average for the county.
The percentage of households earning $125,000 or more was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 1.8 people was low. Renters occupied 56.5% of the housing units, homeowners the rest. In 2000, there were 270 families headed by single parents, or 6.9%, a rate, low in both the county and the city. In 2000, 54.8% of residents aged 25 and older held a four-year degree, considered high when compared with the city and the county as a whole. There are five secondary or elementary schools within the neighborhood's boundaries: Immaculate Heart High and Middle School, private, 5515 Franklin Avenue Valley View Elementary School, LAUSD, 6921 Woodrow Wilson Drive The Neilson Academy, private, 2528 Canyon Drive Cheremoya Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 6017 Franklin Avenue The Oaks, private elementary, 6817 Franklin AvenueThe American Film Institute is at 2021 North Western Avenue The neighborhood includes: The Hollywood Bowl The John Anson Ford Amphitheatre A portion of Griffith Park, including Hollywoodland Camp Forest Lawn Memorial Park Elisha Cuthbert, actress Ben Affleck, actor Christina Aguilera, singer Earle D. Baker, Los Angeles City Council member Halle Berry, actress Jolene Blalock, actress Gisele Bundchen, Victoria's Secret supermodel, bought her three-bedroom house in the Hollywood Hills for close to $2 million Sam Cooke, singer Kevin Costner, actor Robert Culp, actor William De Los Santos, poet, producer, film director Richard Dreyfuss, actor Anna Faris, actress Errol Flynn, actor David Giuntoli, actor Stuart Hamblen, country singer Salma Hayek, actress Niall Horan, Irish pop singer Helen Hunt, actress Billy Idol, English rock musician Tom Leykis and internet talk show personality Demi Lovato, actress and songwriter Tobey Maguire paid more than $2 million for a modern home in the Hollywood Hills Johnny Mathis, singer Joel McHale, American actor and comedian Simon Monjack, producer, writer Brittany Murphy, actress Kristin Nelson and painter Ricky Nelson, actor and songwriter Tracy Nelson, actress Matthew Perry, actor Joaquin Phoenix, actor Chris Pratt, Keanu Reeves actor, bought a house in May 2003 for $4.5 million Kevin Smith, actor and comedian Sage Stallone and son of Sylvester Stallone Robert and Peggy Stevenson, Los Angeles City Council members Quentin Tarantino, film director Justin Timberlake, American singer, songwriter and record producer Bitsie Tulloch, actress Anna Kendrick, singer Rebel Wilson, actress and singer Lloyd G. Davies, Los Angeles City Council member, 1943–51, active against gravel extraction in the hills
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
John Anson Ford
John Anson Ford was an American journalist, advertising executive and Democratic Party politician. He was a long-serving member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Ford was born in Illinois, he attended Beloit College in Beloit, taught history and economics moved to Chicago, where he worked on the Chicago Tribune. He was on the editorial board of Popular Mechanics. In 1920 he entered the advertising and publicity business. Ford represented District 3 on the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors from 1934 to 1958, he was active in Democratic Party politics, serving on the state Central Committee, as chair of the Los Angeles County Democratic Party, as delegate to Democratic National Conventions from California, Democratic candidate for U. S. Senator from California, 1940, as chairman of the Southern California Citizens for Kennedy Committee. On his motion, in 1944, the Board of Supervisors established the Joint Committee for Interracial Progress that became the Human Relations Commission.
After retiring, Ford "wrote regular newspaper columns and continued to give service to the community at large." The John Anson Ford Human Relations Award is named for him, as are the John Anson Ford Amphitheatre in Los Angeles, John Anson Ford Park in Bell Gardens, California. John Anson Ford died at Midway Hospital in Los Angeles, he is buried in Glendale. "Thirty Explosive Years in Los Angeles County", University of California Press, 2010 Transcript of an eight-hour interview – Ford discusses his life and career in Los Angeles, at The UCLA Oral History Program
Pantages Theatre (Hollywood)
The Hollywood Pantages Theatre known as RKO Pantages Theatre, is located at Hollywood and Vine, in Hollywood. Designed by architect B. Marcus Priteca, it was the last theater built by the vaudeville impresario Alexander Pantages; the palatial Art Deco theater opened on June 1930, as part of the Pantages Theatre Circuit. The Pantages Theatre Circuit had been built on vaudeville, the new Hollywood theater programmed first-run movies alternating through the day with vaudeville acts for its first two years, but like other theaters during the Great Depression, it was forced to economize and thereafter operated as a movie theater, though live entertainment was presented occasionally. Alexander Pantages sold the Hollywood landmark in 1932 to Fox West Coast Theaters. In 1949, Howard Hughes acquired the Hollywood Pantages for his RKO Theatre Circuit and moved his personal offices to the building's second floor. From 1949 through 1959, the theatre hosted the American motion picture industry's annual Academy Award Ceremonies.
It continued to be a major venue for roadshow movies into the 1970s. From 1965, it was operated by Pacific Theatres; the Hollywood Pantages closed as a movie theater in January, 1977, re-opened the following month with Bubbling Brown Sugar, the first of the many stage productions that have since become its regular fare. Now operated by an arm of the Nederlander Organization, the Hollywood Pantages is one of Los Angeles' leading venues for live theater; the theatre has presented large-scale Broadway musicals such as Disney's The Lion King, which ran at the theatre for over two years, hosted the long-running Los Angeles production of the Broadway musical Wicked. Situated on a prime location, the area's building and a rejuvenation boom has spread to Bob Hope Square with the addition of a new W Hotel and retail stores, tied to the Hollywood/Vine station; the theater underwent a $10-million restoration and upgrade in 2000. The original plans for the Hollywood Pantages were for a 12-story building: 2 floors dedicated to theater and 10 floors of office space.
Completion of the 10 upper floors was halted due to the 1929 stock market crash during construction. In December 2007, plans were revealed to complete the original design and additional stories, but it was never realized; the theatre has occasionally hosted popular music concerts, including those of the bands Dream Theater, Foo Fighters and Mark Knopfler. Talking Heads' 1984 concert film Stop Making Sense was shot there. In 1997, 4 years before her English crossover, Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira performed her first show in the United States at the Hollywood Pantages. In 2006, Mexican pop-group RBD recorded their CD/DVD Live in Hollywood at the Hollywood Pantages; the Hollywood Pantages Theatre is a popular location for the filming of movies, TV shows, music videos. Concert scenes in the 1980 film The Jazz Singer and in Michael Jackson's 1995 video "You Are Not Alone" are just two examples out of many. Rickie Lee Jones's 1979 self-titled debut album includes a reference to the Pantages in her song "Chuck E.'s In Love".
Productions at the Pantages, have included: School of Rock On Your Feet! Waitress A Bronx Tale Wicked Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood Official Pantages Theatre website
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo