National Technical University of Athens
The National Technical University of Athens, sometimes known as Athens Polytechnic, is among the oldest higher education institutions of Greece and the most prestigious among engineering schools. It is named Metsovio in honor of its benefactors Nikolaos Stournaris, Eleni Tositsa, Michail Tositsas and Georgios Averoff, whose origin is from the town of Metsovo in Epirus, it was founded in 1837 as a part-time vocational school named Royal School of Arts which, as its role in the technical development of the fledgling state grew, developed into Greece's sole institution providing engineering degrees up until the 1950s, when polytechnics were established outside Athens. Its traditional campus, located in the center of the city of Athens on Patision Avenue, features a suite of magnificent neo-classical buildings by architect Lysandros Kaftantzoglou. A suburban campus, the Zografou Campus, was built in the 1980s. NTUA is divided into nine academic schools, eight being for the engineering disciplines, including architecture, one for applied sciences.
Undergraduate studies have a duration of five years. Admission to NTUA is selective and can only be accomplished through achieving exceptional grades in the annual Panhellenic Exams, it is a spread perception that the vast majority of each year's Panhellenic Exams top students interested in the sciences and technology opts to attend NTUA. The university comprises about 700 of academic staff, 140 scientific assistants and 260 administrative and technical staff, it has about 8,500 undergraduates and about 1,500 postgraduate students. Eight of the NTUA's Schools are housed at the Zografou Campus, while the School of Architecture is based at the Patision Complex. NTUA was established by royal decree on December 31, 1836, January 21, 1837, under the name "Royal School of Arts", it began functioning as a part-time vocational school to train craftsmen and master craftsmen to cover the needs of the new Greek state. In 1840, due to its increasing popularity and the changing socio-economic conditions in the new state, NTUA was upgraded to a daily technical school which worked along with the Sunday school.
The courses were expanded and the institution was housed in its own building in Pireos Street. In 1843 a major restructuring was made. Three departments were created: Part-Time Vocational School Daily School A new Higher School of Fine ArtsThe new department's object was fine arts and engineering; the new department, renamed School of Industrial and Fine Arts evolved towards a major higher education institution. Tradition has it that arts referred to fine arts. Today, the school maintains a school of architecture, related to the School of Fine Arts, which evolved to become a separate school; the name Polytechnnic came with the introduction of several new technical courses. This restructuring continued until 1873. At the time, the school became overwhelmed by the plethora of students wanting to learn high technical skills, this led to its moving to a new campus. In 1873 it moved to its new campus in Patision Street and was known as Metsovion Polytechnion after the birthplace of its benefactors who financed the construction of this campus.
At the time, the campus in Patision Street was partially incomplete, but the high demand by students made it urgent to rellocate. In 1887, the institution was partitioned into three schools of technical orientation, the schools of Structural Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, all four-year degrees at the time; this is when the institute was recognized as a technical education facility by the state, a crucial step for its development, as it became accompanied to the country's needs as it developed. In 1914, new schools were created and was named Ethnicon Metsovion Polytechnion went under the supervision of the Ministry of Public Works; this is when new technical schools started to be formed, a procedure was completed three years in 1917 when the NTUA changed form: By special law, the old School of Industrial Arts was now separated into the Higher Schools of Civil Engineering, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Surveying Engineering and Architecture. The schools of Naval Engineering, Mining and Metallurgical Engineering were formed, the school of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering was split up into two separate schools, Mechanical Engineering and Electrical and Computer Engineering, the form of schools maintained until now.
In 1923, the NTUA alumni formed the core of the Technical Chamber of Greece, the professional organization that serves as the official technical adviser of the Greek state and is responsible for awarding professional licenses to all practicing engineers in Greece. In 1930, the Athens School of Fine Arts was established, acquiring its independence from the NTUA, as a school focused in the teaching the fine arts; this allowed the two schools to develop separately as an arts school respectively. In 1941 to 1944, the National Technical University of Athens played an important role in the country's political life with the Greek students participating in the National Resistance under the German occupation. During the Axis occupation of Greece, NTUA, in addition to its function as an academic institution, became one of the most active resistance centers in Athens; the most important event of NTUA's history is the Athens Polytechnic uprising on November 17, 1973, the first step to overthrow
Simon Donaldson
Sir Simon Kirwan Donaldson, is an English mathematician known for his work on the topology of smooth four-dimensional manifolds and Donaldson–Thomas theory. He is a permanent member of the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics at Stony Brook University and a Professor in Pure Mathematics at Imperial College London. Donaldson's father was an electrical engineer in the physiology department at the University of Cambridge, his mother earned a science degree there. Donaldson gained a BA degree in mathematics from Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1979, in 1980 began postgraduate work at Worcester College, Oxford, at first under Nigel Hitchin and under Michael Atiyah's supervision. Still a postgraduate student, Donaldson proved in 1982 a result, he published the result in a paper "Self-dual connections and the topology of smooth 4-manifolds" which appeared in 1983. In the words of Atiyah, the paper "stunned the mathematical world". Whereas Michael Freedman classified topological four-manifolds, Donaldson's work focused on four-manifolds admitting a differentiable structure, using instantons, a particular solution to the equations of Yang–Mills gauge theory which has its origin in quantum field theory.
One of Donaldson's first results gave severe restrictions on the intersection form of a smooth four-manifold. As a consequence, a large class of the topological four-manifolds do not admit any smooth structure at all. Donaldson derived polynomial invariants from gauge theory; these were new topological invariants sensitive to the underlying smooth structure of the four-manifold. They made it possible to deduce the existence of "exotic" smooth structures—certain topological four-manifolds could carry an infinite family of different smooth structures. After gaining his DPhil degree from Oxford University in 1983, Donaldson was appointed a Junior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford, he spent the academic year 1983–84 at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, returned to Oxford as Wallis Professor of Mathematics in 1985. After spending one year visiting Stanford University, he moved to Imperial College London in 1998. In 2014, he joined the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics at Stony Brook University in New York, United States.
Donaldson received the Junior Whitehead Prize from the London Mathematical Society in 1985 and in the following year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and in 1986, he received a Fields Medal. He was awarded the 1994 Crafoord Prize. In February 2006, Donaldson was awarded the King Faisal International Prize for science for his work in pure mathematical theories linked to physics, which have helped in forming an understanding of the laws of matter at a subnuclear level. In April 2008, he was awarded the Nemmers Prize in Mathematics, a mathematics prize awarded by Northwestern University. In 2009 he was awarded the Shaw Prize in Mathematics for their contributions to geometry in 3 and 4 dimensions. In 2010, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Donaldson was knighted in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to mathematics. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society. In March 2014, he was awarded the degree "Docteur Honoris Causa" by Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble.
In 2014 he was awarded the Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics "for the new revolutionary invariants of 4-dimensional manifolds and for the study of the relation between stability in algebraic geometry and in global differential geometry, both for bundles and for Fano varieties."In January 2017, he was awarded the degree "Doctor Honoris Causa" by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain. In January 2019, he was awarded the Oswald Veblen Prize in Geometry. Donaldson's work is on the application of mathematical analysis to problems in geometry; the problems concern 4-manifolds, complex differential geometry and symplectic geometry. The following theorems have been mentioned: The diagonalizability theorem: If the intersection form of a smooth, closed connected 4-manifold is positive- or negative-definite it is diagonalizable over the integers; this result is sometimes called Donaldson's theorem. A smooth h-cobordism between connected 4-manifolds need not be trivial; this contrasts with the situation in higher dimensions.
A stable holomorphic vector bundle over a non-singular projective algebraic variety admits a Hermitian–Einstein metric. A non-singular, projective algebraic surface can be diffeomorphic to the connected sum of two oriented 4-manifolds only if one of them has negative-definite intersection form; this was an early application of the Donaldson invariant. Any compact symplectic manifold admits a symplectic Lefschetz pencil. Donaldson's recent work centers on a problem in complex differential geometry concerning a conjectural relationship between algebro-geometric "stability" conditions for smooth projective varieties and the existence of "extremal" Kähler metrics those with constant scalar curvature. Donaldson obtained results in the toric case of the problem, he solved the Kähler-Einstein case of the problem in 2012, in collaboration with Chen and Sun. This latest spectacular achievement involved a number of technical papers; the first of these was the paper of Sun on Gromov-Hausdorff limits. The summary of
Royal Aeronautical Society
The Royal Aeronautical Society known as the RAeS, is a British multi-disciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community. Founded in 1866, it is the oldest aeronautical society in the world. Fellows and Companions of the society can use the post-nominal letters CRAeS, respectively; the objectives of The Royal Aeronautical Society include: to support and maintain high professional standards in aerospace disciplines. The Royal Aeronautical Society is a worldwide society with an international network of 67 branches. Many practitioners of aerospace disciplines use the Society's designatory post-nominals such as FRAeS, CRAeS, MRAeS, AMRAeS, ARAeS; the RAeS headquarters is located in the United Kingdom. The staff of the Royal Aeronautical Society are based at the Society's headquarters at No. 4 Hamilton Place, London, W1J 7BQ. The headquarters is on the north-east edge of Hyde Park Corner, with the nearest access being Hyde Park Corner tube station; the Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society: ISSN 0368-3931 The Aeronautical Quarterly: Aerospace: Aerospace International: ISSN 1467-5072 The Aerospace Professional: The Aeronautical Journal: ISSN 0001-9240 The Journal of Aeronautical History: AEROSPACE: ISSN 2052-451X Branches are the regional embodiment of the Society.
They deliver membership benefits and provide a global platform for the dissemination of aerospace information. As of September 2013, branches located in the United Kingdom include: Belfast, Boscombe Down, Brough, Cardiff, Christchurch, Cranfield, Derby, FAA Yeovilton, Gatwick, Gloucester & Cheltenham, Heathrow, Isle of Wight, Isle of Man, Manchester, Medway, Preston, Sheffield, Southend, Swindon and Yeovil; the RAeS international branch network includes: Adelaide, Blenheim, Brussels, Canterbury, Dublin, Hamilton, Hong Kong, Melbourne, Munich, Palmerston North, Perth, Singapore, Sydney and the UAE. Divisions of the Society have been formed in countries and regions that can sustain a number of Branches. Divisions operate with a large degree of autonomy, being responsible for their own branch network, membership recruitment, subscription levels and lecture programmes. Specialist Groups covering all facets of the aerospace industry exist under the overall umbrella of the Society, with the aim of serving the interests of both enthusiasts and industry professionals.
The Groups' remit is to consider significant developments in their field, they attempt to achieve this through their conferences and lectures, with the intention of stimulating debate and facilitating action on key industry issues in order to reflect and respond to the constant innovation and progress in aviation. The Groups act as focal points for all enquiries to the Society concerning their specialist subject matter, forming a crucial interface between the Society and the world in general; as of September 2013, the Specialist Group committees are as follows: Aerodynamics, Aerospace Medicine, Air Power, Air Law, Air Transport, Airworthiness & Maintenance, Avionics & Systems, Flight Operations, Flight Simulation, Flight Test, General Aviation, Greener by Design, Human Factors, Human Powered Flight, Rotorcraft, Structures & Materials, UAS, Weapons Systems & Technologies, Women in Aviation & Aerospace. In 2009, the Royal Aeronautical Society formed a group of experts to document how to better simulate aircraft upset conditions, thus improve training programs.
The Society was founded in January 1866 with the name "The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain" and is the oldest aeronautical society in the world. Early or founding members included James Glaisher, Francis Wenham, the Duke of Argyll, Frederick Brearey. In the first year, there were 65 members, at the end of the second year, 91 members, in the third year, 106 members. Annual reports were produced in the first decades. In 1868 the Society held a major exhibition at London's Crystal Palace with 78 entries. John Stringfellow's steam engine was shown there; the Society sponsored the first wind tunnel in 1870-71, designed by Browning. In 1918, the organization's name was changed to the Royal Aeronautical Society. In 1923 its principal journal was renamed from The Aeronautical Journal to The Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society and in 1927 the Institution of Aeronautical Engineers Journal was merged into it. In 1940, the RAeS responded to the wartime need to expand the aircraft industry; the Society established a Technical Department to bring together the best available knowledge and present it in an authoritative and accessible form – a working tool for engineers who might come from other industries and lack the specialised knowledge required for aircraft design.
This technical department became known as the Engineering Sciences Data Unit and became a separate entity in the 1980s. In 1987 the'Society of Licensed Aircraft Engineers and Technologists' called the'Society of Licensed Aircraft Engineers' was incorporated into the Royal Aeronautical Society; the following have served as President of the Royal Aeronautical Society: In addition to the award of Fellowship of the Royal Aeronautical Society, the Society awards several other medals and p
Olgierd Zienkiewicz
Olgierd Cecil Zienkiewicz was a British academic of Polish descent and civil engineer. He was born in England, he was one of the early pioneers of the finite element method. Since his first paper in 1947 dealing with numerical approximation to the stress analysis of dams, he published nearly 600 papers and wrote or edited more than 25 books, his school education took place in Poland. He and his family moved to the UK due to World War II. Zienkiewicz studied in the early 1940s at Imperial College London for an undergraduate BSc degree in civil engineering which he obtained in 1943 with first class honours. After being offered a scholarship, he stayed for two more years at Imperial College to carry out research on dams under the supervision of Professors Alfred Pippard and Sir Richard V. Southwell, he was awarded the PhD degree in 1945 with his thesis title "Classical theories of gravity dam design in the light of modern analytical methods". Zienkiewicz was notable for having recognized the general potential for using the finite element method to resolve problems in areas outside the area of solid mechanics.
The idea behind finite elements design is to develop tools based in computational mechanics schemes that can be useful to designers, not for research purposes. His books on the Finite Element Method were the first to present the subject and to this day remain the standard reference texts, he founded the first journal dealing with computational mechanics in 1968, still the major journal for the field of Numerical Computations. The international range of Zienkiewicz' academic experiences has been geographically diverse, he became a lecturer at the Department of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, UK before becoming Professor of Structural and Civil Engineering at Northwestern University, Illinois, USA. From 1961 to 1988 he was Head of the Department of Civil Engineering at Swansea University, he was latterly Professor Emeritus of this institution. Other teaching positions have included: International Centre for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Spain—Professor of Numerical Methods in Engineering Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain—UNESCO Chair of Numerical Methods in Engineering University of Texas, Austin—Joe C. Walter Chair of Engineering.
Zienkiewicz received over 30 honorary degrees from Ireland, Norway, China, Scotland, France, Italy, Portugal and the United States. He was elected to a number of learned societies, including: Royal Society Royal Academy of Engineering, 1979 United States National Academy of Engineering Polish Academy of Science Italian National Academy of Sciences Chinese Academy of SciencesHe has been the recipient of many honours and medals. Including Commander of the Order of the British Empire Royal Medal Carl Friedrich Gauss Medal Nathan Newmark Medal Newton Gauss Medal Gold Medal Gold Medal Timoshenko Medal Prince Philip Medal, Zienkiewicz has been listed as an ISI Highly Cited Author in Engineering by the ISI Web of Knowledge, Thomson Scientific Company, he was instrumental in setting up the association of computational mechanics in engineering for the United Kingdom in 1992 and was the honorary president for the association for the rest of his life. The Institution of Civil Engineers awards a prize in his honour biennially.
The Zienkiewicz Numerical Methods in Engineering Prize was instituted in 1998 following a donation by John Wiley & Sons Ltd to commemorate his work in Numerical Methods in Engineering. O. C. Zienkiewicz, As I Remember, Timoshenko Medal acceptance speech presented at the ASME applied mechanics annual dinner in 1998. Zienkiewicz, O. C. Classical theories of gravity dam design in the light of modern analytical methods. PhD Thesis, Imperial College, University of London. Imperial College Alumni, Professor Olgierd C. Zienkiewicz Swansea University, College of Engineering, Professor Olgierd C. Zienkiewicz Imperial College Civil & Environmental Engineering
Nonlinear system
In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input. Nonlinear problems are of interest to engineers, physicists and many other scientists because most systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. Nonlinear dynamical systems, describing changes in variables over time, may appear chaotic, unpredictable, or counterintuitive, contrasting with much simpler linear systems; the behavior of a nonlinear system is described in mathematics by a nonlinear system of equations, a set of simultaneous equations in which the unknowns appear as variables of a polynomial of degree higher than one or in the argument of a function, not a polynomial of degree one. In other words, in a nonlinear system of equations, the equation to be solved cannot be written as a linear combination of the unknown variables or functions that appear in them. Systems can be defined as nonlinear, regardless of whether known linear functions appear in the equations.
In particular, a differential equation is linear if it is linear in terms of the unknown function and its derivatives if nonlinear in terms of the other variables appearing in it. As nonlinear dynamical equations are difficult to solve, nonlinear systems are approximated by linear equations; this works well up to some accuracy and some range for the input values, but some interesting phenomena such as solitons and singularities are hidden by linearization. It follows that some aspects of the dynamic behavior of a nonlinear system can appear to be counterintuitive, unpredictable or chaotic. Although such chaotic behavior may resemble random behavior, it is in fact not random. For example, some aspects of the weather are seen to be chaotic, where simple changes in one part of the system produce complex effects throughout; this nonlinearity is one of the reasons why accurate long-term forecasts are impossible with current technology. Some authors use the term nonlinear science for the study of nonlinear systems.
This is disputed by others: Using a term like nonlinear science is like referring to the bulk of zoology as the study of non-elephant animals. In mathematics, a linear map f is one which satisfies both of the following properties: Additivity or superposition principle: f = f + f. Additivity implies homogeneity for any rational α, for continuous functions, for any real α. For a complex α, homogeneity does not follow from additivity. For example, an antilinear map is additive but not homogeneous; the conditions of additivity and homogeneity are combined in the superposition principle f = α f + β f An equation written as f = C is called linear if f is a linear map and nonlinear otherwise. The equation is called homogeneous if C = 0; the definition f = C is general in that x can be any sensible mathematical object, the function f can be any mapping, including integration or differentiation with associated constraints. If f contains differentiation with respect to x, the result will be a differential equation.
Nonlinear algebraic equations, which are called polynomial equations, are defined by equating polynomials to zero. For example, x 2 + x − 1 = 0. For a single polynomial equation, root-finding algorithms can be used to find solutions to the equation. However, systems of algebraic equations are more complicated, it is difficult to decide whether a given algebraic system has complex solutions. In the case of the systems with a finite number of complex solutions, these systems of polynomial equations are now well understood and efficient methods exist for solving them. A nonlinear recurrence relation defines successive terms of a sequence as a nonlinear function of preceding terms. Examples of nonlinear recurrence relations are the logistic map and the relations that define the various Hofstadter sequences. Nonlinear discrete models that represent a wide class of nonlinear recurrence relationships include the NARMAX model and the related nonli
Nazism
National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of