Stockport is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, 7 miles south-east of Manchester city centre, where the River Goyt and Tame merge to create the River Mersey, the largest in the metropolitan borough of the same name. Most of the town was in Cheshire, but the area to the north of the Mersey was in Lancashire. Stockport in the 16th century was a small town on the south bank of the Mersey, known for the cultivation of hemp and manufacture of rope. In the 18th century the town had one of the first mechanised silk factories in the British Isles. However, Stockport's predominant industries of the 19th century were the cotton and allied industries. Stockport was at the centre of the country's hatting industry, which by 1884 was exporting more than six million hats a year. Dominating the western approaches to the town is the Stockport Viaduct. Built in 1840, the viaduct's 27 brick arches carry the mainline railways from Manchester to Birmingham and London over the River Mersey; this structure featured as the background in many paintings by L. S. Lowry.
Stockport was recorded as "Stokeport" in 1170. The accepted etymology is Old English port, a market place, with stoc, a hamlet. Older derivations include stock, a stockaded place or castle, with port, a wood, hence a castle in a wood; the castle refers to Stockport Castle, a 12th-century motte-and-bailey first mentioned in 1173. Other derivations are based on early variants such as Stockford. There is evidence. Stopford retains a use in the adjectival form, for Stockport-related items, pupils of Stockport Grammar School style themselves Stopfordians. By contrast, former pupils of Stockport School are known as Old Stoconians. Stopfordian is used as the general term, or demonym used for people from Stockport, much as someone from London would be a Londoner. Stockport has never been a river port as the Mersey is not navigable here; the earliest evidence of human occupation in the wider area are microliths from the hunter-gatherers of the Mesolithic period and weapons and stone tools from the Neolithic period.
Early Bronze Age remains include stone hammers, flint knives and funerary urns. There is a gap in the age of finds between about 1200 BC and the start of the Roman period in about 70 AD, which may indicate depopulation due to a poorer climate. Despite a strong local tradition, there is little evidence of a Roman military station at Stockport, it is assumed that roads from Cheadle to Ardotalia and Manchester to Buxton crossed close to the town centre. The preferred site is at a ford over the Mersey, known to be paved in the 18th century, but it has never been proved that this or any roads in the area are Roman. Hegginbotham reported the discovery of Roman mosaics at Castle Hill in the late 18th century, during the construction of a mill, but noted it was "founded on tradition only". However, Roman coins and pottery were found there during the 18th century. A cache of coins dating from 375–378 AD may have come from the banks of the Mersey at Daw Bank. Six coins from the reigns of the Anglo-Saxon English Kings Edmund and Eadred were found during ploughing at Reddish Green in 1789.
There are contrasting views about the significance of this. The small cache is the only Anglo-Saxon. However, the etymology Stoc-port suggests inhabitation during this period. No part of Stockport appears in the Domesday Book of 1086; the area north of the Mersey was part of the hundred of Salford, poorly surveyed. The area south of the Mersey was part of the Hamestan hundred. Cheadle, Bramhall and Romiley are mentioned, but these all lay just outside the town limits; the survey includes valuations of the Salford hundred as a whole and Cheadle for the times of Edward the Confessor, just before the Norman invasion of 1066, the time of the survey. The reduction in value is taken as evidence of destruction by William the Conqueror's men in the campaigns known as the Harrying of the North; the omission of Stockport was once taken as evidence that destruction was so complete that a survey was not needed. Arrowsmith argues from the etymology that Stockport may have still been a market place associated with a larger estate, so would not be surveyed separately.
The Anglo-Saxon landholders in the area were dispossessed and the land divided amongst the new Norman rulers. The first borough charter was granted in about 1220 and was the only basis for local government for six hundred years. A castle held by Geoffrey de Costentin is recorded as a rebel stronghold against Henry II in 1173–1174 when his sons revolted. There is an incorrect local tradition that Geoffrey was the king's son, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, one of the rebels. Dent gives the size of the castle as about 31 by 60 m, suggests it was similar in pattern to those at Pontefract and Launceston; the castle was ruinous by the middle
Diesel multiple unit
A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU requires no separate locomotive, as the engines are incorporated into one or more of the carriages. Diesel-powered single-unit railcars are generally classed as DMUs. Diesel-powered units may be further classified by their transmission type: diesel–electric, diesel–mechanical or diesel–hydraulic; the diesel engine may be located under the floor. Driving controls can be on one end, or in a separate car. DMUs are classified by the method of transmitting motive power to their wheels. In a diesel–mechanical multiple unit, the rotating energy of the engine is transmitted via a gearbox and driveshaft directly to the wheels of the train, like a car; the transmissions can be shifted manually by the driver, as in the great majority of first-generation British Rail DMUs, but in most applications, gears are changed automatically. In a diesel–hydraulic multiple unit, a hydraulic torque converter, a type of fluid coupling, acts as the transmission medium for the motive power of the diesel engine to turn the wheels.
Some units feature a hybrid mix of hydraulic and mechanical transmissions reverting to the latter at higher operating speeds as this decreases engine RPM and noise. In a diesel–electric multiple unit, a diesel engine drives an electrical generator or an alternator which produces electrical energy; the generated current is fed to electric traction motors on the wheels or bogies in the same way as a conventional diesel–electric locomotive. In modern DEMUs, such as the Bombardier Voyager family, each car is self-contained and has its own engine and electric motors. In older designs, such as the British Rail Class 207, some cars within the consist may be unpowered or only feature electric motors, obtaining electric current from other cars in the consist which have a generator and engine. A train composed of DMU cars scales well, as it allows extra passenger capacity to be added at the same time as motive power, it permits passenger capacity to be matched to demand, for trains to be split and joined en route.
It is not necessary to match the power available to the size and weight of the train, as each unit is capable of moving itself. As units are added, the power available to move the train increases by the necessary amount. DMUs may have better acceleration capabilities, with more power-driven axles, making them more suitable for routes with frequent spaced stops, as compared with conventional locomotive and unpowered carriage setups. Distribution of the propulsion among the cars results in a system, less vulnerable to single-point-of-failure outages. Many classes of DMU are capable of operating with faulty units still in the consist; because of the self-contained nature of diesel engines, there is no need to run overhead electric lines or electrified track, which can result in lower system construction costs. Such advantages must be weighed against the underfloor noise and vibration that may be an issue with this type of train. Diesel traction has several downsides compared to electric traction, namely higher fuel costs, more noise and exhaust as well as worse acceleration and top speed performance.
The power to weight ratio tends to be worse. DMUs have further disadvantages compared to diesel locomotives in that they cannot be swapped out when passing onto an electrified line, necessitating either passengers to change trains or Diesel operation on electrified lines; the lost investment once electrification reduces the demand for diesel rolling stock is higher than with locomotive hauled trains where only the locomotive has to be replaced. Diesel multiple units are in constant use in Croatia, operated by national operator Croatian Railways. On Croatian Railways, DMUs have important role since they cover local and distant lines across the country. Two largest towns in Croatia and Split, are daily connected with DMU tilting trains "RegioSwinger" that provide Inter City service between those two towns since 2004. In the early 1990s, luxury DMU series 7021 provided some of higher ranked lines across the country. DMU series HŽ series 7121, 7122 and Croatian-built series 7022 and 7023 are nowadays in high use covering country's local and regional services in country's interior on the tracks that are not electrified.
In the Republic of Ireland the Córas Iompair Éireann, which controlled the republic's railways between 1945 and 1986, introduced DMUs in the mid-1950s and they were the first diesel trains on many main lines. The first significant use of DMUs in the United Kingdom was by the Great Western Railway, which introduced its small but successful series of diesel–mechanical GWR railcars in 1934; the London and North Eastern Railway and London and Scottish Railway experimented with DMUs in the 1930s, the LMS both on its own system, on that of its Northern Irish subsidiary, but development was curtailed by World War II. After nationalisation, British Railways revived the concept in the early 1950s. At that time there was an urgent need to move away from expensive steam traction which led to many experimental designs using diesel propulsion and multiple units; the early DMUs proved successful, under BR's 1955 Modernisation Plan the building of a large fleet was authorised. These BR "First Generation" DMUs were built between 1956 and 1963.
BR required that contracts for the design and manufacture of new locomotives and rolling stock be split between n
Chapel-en-le-Frith is a small town and civil parish in Derbyshire, England. Dubbed the "Capital of the Peak", as parts of the parish lie within the Peak District National Park, it was established by the Normans in the 12th century as a hunting lodge within the Forest of High Peak; this led to the French-derived name Chapel-en-le-Frith. The population at the 2011 census was 8,635; the first chapel in the town was built by the Normans but was replaced with a larger building a hundred years later. It stands at the highest point in the town proper; the current building is now entirely of 18th-century construction above a crypt of 1225. Buried in the churchyard are soldiers of the Scottish army of the Duke of Hamilton who marched south in support of Charles I in 1648. After their defeat at Preston, they were marched to Chapel and imprisoned in the church for sixteen days in such squalid conditions that forty died; the Eccles Pike Cross stands in the churchyard, having been moved here from Ollerenshaw Farm in 1925.
It is believed to be Anglo-Saxon and is covered in worn carvings. John Wesley has links to the town visiting four times between 1740 and 1786, his journal documents his first visit on 28 May 28 1745 preaching in the hamlet of Chapel Milton where the miller purportedly tried to drown out John with the sound of the watermill. On his following visit twenty years he preached in a field at Townend, by his subsequent visit on 1 April 1782 a chapel had been built. All that remains of the original chapel is an archway inscribed "1780" at the back of the current Townend Methodist Church. Following an illness in 1748, Wesley was nursed by a classleader and housekeeper at an orphan house in Newcastle, Grace Murray. Taken with Grace, he invited her to travel with him to Ireland in 1749 where he believed them to be betrothed though they were never married, it has been suggested that his brother Charles Wesley objected to the engagement though this is disputed. Subsequently Grace married John Bennett and resident of Chapel-en-le-frith, John's last visit to Chapel-en-le-frith on 3 April 1786 at the age of 86 was at Grace's request.
Grace and John Bennett are buried in Chinley Independent Chapel in Chapel Milton. There is a certain amount of industry – behind the church in the lowest part of the town, where the brake-lining manufacturer Ferodo was a family concern for over a hundred years. There is a regular market place and raised above the High Street, still used every Thursday to host the local market. A market cross has a faint date which may read 1636, but the cross itself is older. Chapel Poor Law Union was established in December 1837; the union workhouse was built c.1840 on the Whaley Bridge road. It consisted of an entrance range and an accommodation block of three wings centred on an octagonal hub, an infirmary and an isolation hospital; the workhouse was converted to an old people's home, was demolished in the early 1980s. High Peak Radio, Independent Local Radio for High Peak and the Hope Valley, broadcasts from studios just off the High Street; the town has the Chapel Players, located just off the Market Place.
Chapel-en-le-Frith station is located one mile from the town centre, on the Buxton to Manchester Piccadilly line. The other railway line passing through the town, Chapel-en-le-Frith Central has a more central disused station built by the Midland Railway, was once one of the main lines from London to Manchester. While it no longer carries passenger traffic, it now carries a constant stream of roadstone from the quarries around Buxton, it terminates at its junction with the Hope Valley line by way of two viaducts, diverging east and west, above the Black Brook valley at Chapel Milton near Chinley signalbox. The town's football team is Chapel Town F. C. playing in Division One of the Manchester Football League. There is a golf course on the western edge of the town. To the north and south lie the Dark Peak highlands, which are made up of millstone grit and are heather-covered and bleak. Here are Chinley Churn and South Head with, a little further off, Kinder Scout, which looms above the whole area.
To the east is the gentler and more pastoral White Peak, consisting of limestone grasslands with spectacular bluffs and the occasional gorge. Combs Moss, a gritstone'edge', dominates the valley in which Chapel lies from the south and Eccles Pike rises above the town to its west and provides a commanding 360° viewpoint. There are two schools in the town: Chapel-en-le-Frith High School and Chapel-en-le-Frith Primary School. Scenes from the BBC TV series The Village and The Secret of Crickley Hall were filmed in and around Chapel. In 2015 Halfords made their Christmas advert around Grange Park Road in Chapel-en-le-Frith. Ford Hall in the east of the parish, northeast of Slacke Hall and Bowden Hall, was the home of the Reverend William Bagshaw, the'Apostle of the Peak', after he was ejected from the vicarage of Chinley on the Act of Uniformity in 1662. In the east of the parish, next to a lake alongside the A623 and not nationally listed for its architecture, is the modest Bennetston Hall, being renovated as a hotel.
Nearby are the site of Peaslow's Cross, Rushup Hall, a modest but ornate 19th-century private house. Stodhart Lodge, a care home, is north of the town
1907 Birmingham Tramway accident
The 1907 Birmingham Tramway accident was a fatal tram accident which occurred on 1 October 1907 in the city of Birmingham, England. A tram operated by City of Birmingham Tramways Company Ltd was going downhill on Warstone Lane in the Jewellery Quarter area of the city; the brakes of the tram failed and it ran away. At the junction of Warstone Lane and Icknield Street the tram overturned at high speed, it skidded. Two people seventeen more were injured in the accident, it is the deadliest tram accident in the area covered by the modern West Midlands county. The tram's brakes were found to have been faulty. List of tram accidents
The George Cross is the second highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded "for acts of the greatest heroism or for most conspicuous courage in circumstance of extreme danger", not in the presence of the enemy, to members of the British armed forces and to British civilians. Posthumous awards have been allowed, it was awarded to residents of Commonwealth countries, most of which have since established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians including police, emergency services and merchant seamen. Many of the awards have been presented by the British monarch to recipients or, in the case of posthumous awards, to next of kin; these investitures are held at Buckingham Palace. The George Cross was instituted on 24 September 1940 by King George VI. At this time, during the height of the Blitz, there was a strong desire to reward the many acts of civilian courage; the existing awards open to civilians were not judged suitable to meet the new situation, therefore it was decided that the George Cross and the George Medal would be instituted to recognise both civilian gallantry in the face of enemy action and brave deeds more generally.
Announcing the new award, the King said: In order that they should be worthily and promptly recognised, I have decided to create, at once, a new mark of honour for men and women in all walks of civilian life. I propose to give my name to this new distinction, which will consist of the George Cross, which will rank next to the Victoria Cross, the George Medal for wider distribution; the medal was designed by Percy Metcalfe. The Warrant for the GC, dated 24 September 1940, was published in The London Gazette on 31 January 1941; the King in his speech announcing the new award, stated that it would rank next to the Victoria Cross. This was second on the Order of Wear, much higher than the existing awards for bravery not in the presence of the enemy, the highest being the two-class Albert Medal. In a substitution of awards unprecedented in the history of British decorations, holders of the EGM were required to exchange their insignia for the GC, most receiving their replacement GC at a formal investiture.
The four honorary EGM awards to foreigners were not exchanged and could therefore continue to be worn. In 1971, surviving recipients of the Albert Medal and the Edward Medal became George Cross recipients, but unlike the EGM exchange of insignia, they had the option of retaining their original insignia. Of the 64 holders of the Albert Medal and 68 holders of the Edward Medal eligible to exchange, 49 and 59 took up the option; the GC, which may be awarded posthumously, is granted in recognition of: acts of the greatest heroism or of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger. The award is for civilians but for military personnel whose actions would not be eligible to receive military awards, such as gallantry not in the face of the enemy; the Warrant states: The Cross is intended for civilians and award in Our military services is to be confined to actions for which purely military Honours are not granted. The Cross shall be worn by recipients on the left breast suspended from a ribbon one and a quarter inches in width, of dark blue, that it shall be worn after the Victoria Cross and in front of the Insignia of all British Orders of Chivalry.
When the Cross is worn by a woman, it may be worn on the left shoulder, suspended from a ribbon fashioned into a bow. In June 1941 the specification of the ribbon width was amended to one and a half inches. Bars can be awarded for further acts of bravery meriting the GC, although none have yet been awarded. In common with the Victoria Cross, in undress uniform or on occasions when the medal ribbon alone is worn, a miniature replica of the cross is affixed to the centre of the ribbon, a distinction peculiar to these two premier awards for bravery. In the event of a second award, a second replica would be worn on the ribbon. Recipients are entitled to the postnominal letters GC. All original individual GC awards are published in The London Gazette; the George Cross Committee of the Cabinet Office considers cases of civilian gallantry. The Committee has no formal terms of reference. Since its inception in 1940, the GC has been awarded 408 times, 394 to men, 12 to women, one award to the Island of Malta and one to the Royal Ulster Constabulary.
About half the recipients have been civilians. There have been 163 original awards including those to Malta and RUC, including 106 made before 1947. There have been 245 exchange awards, 112 to Empire Gallantry Medal recipients, 65 to Albert Medal recipients and 68 to Edward Medal recipients. Of the 161 individuals who received original awards, 86 have been posthumous. In addition, there were four posthumous recipients of the Empire Gallantry Medal whose awards were gazetted after the start of the Second World War and whose awards were exchanged for the GC. All the other exchange recipients were living as of the date of the decisions for the exchanges; the George Cross has, on the express instruction of the Sovereign, been awarded, to the island of Malta and the Royal Ulster Constabulary. The GC was awarded to the island of Malta in a letter dated 15 April 1942 from King George VI to the island's Governor Lieutenant-General Sir William Dobbie: To honour her brave people, I award the George Cross to the Island Fortress of Malta to bear witness to a heroism and devotion that will long be famous in history
Margaret "Peggy" Seeger is an American folksinger. She is well known in Britain, where she has lived for more than 30 years, was married to the singer and songwriter Ewan MacColl until his death in 1989. Seeger's father was an important folklorist and musicologist. One of her brothers was Mike Seeger, the well-known Pete Seeger was her half-brother. One of her first recordings was American Folk Songs for Children. In the 1950s, left-leaning singers such as Paul Robeson and The Weavers began to find that life became difficult because of the influence of McCarthyism. Seeger visited as a result had her US passport withdrawn; the US State Department, opposed to Seeger's 1957 trip to Moscow, was vigorously critical about her having gone to China against official "advice". The authorities had warned her that her passport would be impounded barring her from further travel were she to return to the US, she therefore decided to tour Europe – and found out that she was on a blacklist sent to European governments.
Staying in London in 1956, she performed accompanying herself on banjo. There she and Ewan MacColl fell in love. Married to director and actress Joan Littlewood, MacColl left his second wife, Jean Newlove, to become Seeger's lover. In 1958, her UK work permit expired and she was about to be deported; this was narrowly averted by a plan, concocted by MacColl and Seeger, in which she married the folk singer Alex Campbell, in Paris, on January 24, 1959, in what Seeger described as a "hilarious ceremony". This marriage of convenience allowed Seeger to gain British citizenship and continue her relationship with MacColl. MacColl and Seeger were married, following his divorce from Newlove, they remained together until his death in 1989. They had three children: Neill and Kitty, they recorded and released several albums together on Folkways Records, along with Seeger's solo albums and other collaborations with the Seeger Family and the Seeger Sisters. Seeger was a leader in the introduction of the concertina to the English folk music revival.
While not the only concertina player, her "musical skill and proselytizing zeal... was a major force in spreading the gospel of concertina playing in the revival."The documentary film A Kind of Exile was a profile of Seeger and featured Ewan MacColl. The film was directed and produced by John Goldschmidt for ATV and shown on ITV in the UK. Together with MacColl, Seeger founded The Critics Group, a "master class" for young singers performing traditional songs or to compose new songs using traditional song structures; the Critics Group evolved into a performance ensemble seeking to perform satirical songs in a mixture of theatre and song, which created a series of annual productions called "The Festival of Fools". Seeger and MacColl recorded as a duo and as solo artists. None of the couple's numerous albums use any electronic instrumentation. Whilst MacColl wrote many songs about work and against war and prejudice, Seeger sang about women's issues, with many of her songs becoming anthems of the women's movement.
Her most memorable was "I'm Gonna Be an Engineer". There were two major projects dedicated to the Child Ballads; the first was The Long Harvest. The second was Roses, she visited the women's camp at Greenham Common, where protests against US cruise missiles were concentrated. For them she wrote "Carry Greenham Home". Seeger ran a record label, "Blackthorne Records", from 1976 to 1988. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the US authorities began to soften their attitude towards Seeger, she returned to the United States in 1994 to live in North Carolina. Seeger has continued to sing about women's issues. One of her most popular recent albums is Love Will Linger On, she has published a collection of 150 of her songs from before 1998. In 2011, Seeger edited The Essential Ewan MacColl Songbook, her introduction gave a detailed account of her life with MacColl. She expressed some difference of political perspective between Ewan; as a budding eco-feminist, I find the subject matter of many of the songs in this book hard to deal with.
A developed eco-feminist would not have undertaken this book at all. Ewan was a militant, gut-political product of the tail-end of the industrial revolution. In most of his songs, men are digging, cutting, building, re-shaping, controlling, humanising the earth and being praised for doing so for the good of mankind. Humanity and the class struggle were Ewan's main preoccupations but his songs deal with MEN: men's work, men's lives, men's activities and many veiled references to the power of the penis. Where it is obvious that both sexes are being referred to, Ewan employs the masculine pronouns. In 2006, Peggy Seeger relocated to Boston, Massachusetts, to accept a part-time t