San Francisco Board of Supervisors
The San Francisco Board of Supervisors is the legislative body within the government of the City and County of San Francisco, United States. The City and County of San Francisco is a consolidated city-county, being simultaneously a city and charter county with a consolidated government. Members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors were paid $110,858 per year in 2015, there are 11 members of the Board of Supervisors, each representing a geographic district. How the Board of Supervisors should be elected has been a matter of contention in recent San Francisco history, but San Francisco, notwithstanding a population of over 700,000, was often an exception. Prior to 1977 and again from 1980 through 2000, the Board of Supervisors was chosen in at-large elections, the person who received the most votes was elected President of the Board of Supervisors, and the next four or five were elected to seats on the board. District elections were enacted by Proposition T in November 1976, district elections were repealed by Proposition A in August 1980 by a vote of 50.
58% Yes to 49. 42% No. An attempt was made to district elections in November 1980 with Proposition N. District elections were reinstated by Proposition G in November 1996 with a November runoff, runoffs were eliminated and replaced with instant-runoff voting with Proposition A in March 2002. Under the current system, supervisors are elected by district to four-year terms, a partial term counts as a full term if the supervisor is appointed and/or elected to serve more than two years of it. The terms are staggered so that half the board is elected every two years, thereby providing continuity. Supervisors representing odd-numbered districts are elected every fourth year counted from 2000, Supervisors representing even-numbered districts were elected to transitional two-year terms in 2000, thereafter to be elected every fourth year. Terms of office begin on the January 8th following the election for each seat. Each supervisor is elected on a basis and is required to live in his or her district. Although supervisors positions are non-partisan, as of 2016 all 11 supervisors are members of the Democratic Party, the most recent supervisoral elections were held on November 8,2016.
The President of the Board of Supervisors, under the new system, is elected by the members of the Board from among their number. This is typically done at the first meeting of the new session commencing after the general election, members of the Board of Supervisors are elected from 11 single-member districts. The districts cover the following neighborhoods, the maps shown below lack markings for streets or street names. The City of San Francisco has detailed maps of each district available on its website, members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors San Francisco Board of Supervisors website
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election. Acts of fraud affect vote counts to bring about a result, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates. What constitutes electoral fraud under law varies from country to country, many kinds of election fraud are outlawed in electoral legislation, but others are in violation of general laws, such as those banning assault, harassment or libel. Show elections, in only one candidate can win, are sometimes classified as electoral fraud. In national elections, successful electoral fraud can have the effect of a coup détat or corruption of democracy, in a narrow election, a small amount of fraud may be enough to change the result. Even if the outcome is not affected, revelation of fraud can have an effect, if not punished. A list of threats to voting systems, or electoral fraud methods considered as sabotage, is kept by the National Institute of Standards, Electoral fraud can occur in advance of voting if the composition of the electorate is altered.
The legality of this type of manipulation varies across jurisdictions, deliberate manipulation of election outcomes is widely considered a violation of the principles of democracy. In many cases it is possible for authorities to control the composition of an electorate in order to produce a foregone result. One way of doing this is to move a number of voters into the electorate prior to an election. Many countries prevent this with rules stipulating that a voter must have lived in a district for a minimum period in order to be eligible to vote there. However, such laws can be used for demographic manipulation as they tend to disenfranchise those with no fixed address, such as the homeless, Roma, another strategy is to permanently move people into an electoral district, usually through public housing. One notable example of this occurred in the City of Westminster in England under Shirley Porter, immigration law may be used to manipulate electoral demography. A method of manipulating primary contests and other elections of party leaders is related to this, people who support one party may temporarily join another party in order to elect a weak candidate for that partys leadership.
The goal ultimately is defeat of the candidate in the general election by the leader of the party that the voter truly supports. The composition of an electorate may be altered by disenfranchising some classes of people, from the turn of the century into the late 1960s, most African Americans in the southern states of the former Confederacy were disenfranchised by such measures. Compared to most European nations, many states in the US have much more severe laws that prevent convicted felons who have served their sentences from ever voting again, groups may be disenfranchised by rules which make it impractical or impossible for them to cast a vote. Communities may be effectively disenfranchised if polling places are situated in areas perceived by voters as unsafe, in some cases voters may be invalidly disenfranchised, which is true electoral fraud
George Richard Moscone was an Italian-American attorney and Democratic politician. He was the 37th mayor of San Francisco, California from January 1976 until his assassination in November 1978, Moscone served in the California State Senate from 1967 until becoming Mayor. In the Senate, he served as Majority Leader, Moscone was born in the Italian-American enclave of San Franciscos Marina District, California. His father was George Joseph Moscone, a guard at nearby San Quentin. Moscone attended St. Brigids, and St. Ignatius College Preparatory and he attended College of the Pacific and played basketball for the Tigers. While in college, Moscone befriended John L. Burton, who would become a member of the U. S. House of Representatives. Moscone studied at University of California, Hastings College of the Law and he met and married Gina Bondanza, in 1954. The Moscones would go on to have four children, after serving in the United States Navy, Moscone started private practice in 1956. John Burtons brother, Phillip, a member of the California State Assembly, though he lost that race, Moscone would go on to win a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1963.
On the Board, Moscone was known for his defense of the poor, racial minorities, in 1966 Moscone ran for and won a seat in the California State Senate, representing the 10th District in San Francisco County. This alliance was known as the Burton Machine and included John Burton, Phillip Burton, soon after his election to the State Senate, Moscone was elected by his party to serve as Majority Leader. He was reelected to the 10th District seat in 1970 and to the newly redistricted 6th District seat, representing parts of San Francisco and San Mateo Counties and he successfully sponsored legislation to institute a school lunch program for California students. In 1974 Moscone briefly considered a run for governor of California, as a heterosexual, Moscone was considered ahead of his time as an early proponent of gay rights. In conjunction with his friend and ally in the Assembly, Willie Brown, the repeal was signed into law by California Governor Jerry Brown. Moscone decided in 1975 to run for Mayor of San Francisco, in a close race in November of that year, Moscone placed first with conservative city supervisor John Barbagelata second and moderate supervisor Dianne Feinstein coming in third.
Moscone and Barbagelata thus both advanced to the runoff election in December where Moscone narrowly defeated the conservative supervisor by fewer than 5,000 votes. Liberals won the other top executive offices that year as Joseph Freitas was elected District attorney. Members of the Peoples Temple leftist religious cult saturated San Francisco neighborhoods, distributing slate cards for Moscone, Joseph Freitas, the Peoples Temple worked to get out the vote in precincts where Moscone received a 12 to 1 vote margin over Barbagelata
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution and it was founded by anti-slavery activists, modernists, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers in 1854. The Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern States for most of the period between 1860 and 1932, there have been 19 Republican presidents, the most from any one party. The Republican Partys current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats more progressive platform, its platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defense and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative. As of 2017, the GOP is documented as being at its strongest position politically since 1928, in addition to holding the Presidency, the Republicans control the 115th United States Congress, having majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures, the main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil, the first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement where the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party was held on March 20,1854, in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. The name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jeffersons Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 6,1854, in Jackson and it oversaw the preserving of the union, the end of slavery, and the provision of equal rights to all men in the American Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861–1877. The Republicans initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest, with the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states, early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan free labor, free land, free men, which had been coined by Salmon P.
Chase, a Senator from Ohio. Free labor referred to the Republican opposition to labor and belief in independent artisans. Free land referred to Republican opposition to the system whereby slaveowners could buy up all the good farm land. The Party strove to contain the expansion of slavery, which would cause the collapse of the slave power, representing the fast-growing western states, won the Republican nomination in 1860 and subsequently won the presidency. The party took on the mission of preserving the Union, and destroying slavery during the American Civil War, in the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. The partys success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s and those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant ran Horace Greeley for the presidency. The Stalwarts defended Grant and the system, the Half-Breeds led by Chester A.
Arthur pushed for reform of the civil service in 1883
The word hippie came from hipster and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into New York Citys Greenwich Village and San Franciscos Haight-Ashbury district. The term hippie was first popularized in San Francisco by Herb Caen, the origins of the terms hip and hep are uncertain. By the 1940s, both had become part of African American jive slang and meant sophisticated, currently fashionable, fully up-to-date, the Beats adopted the term hip, and early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation. In the United Kingdom in 1970, many gathered at the gigantic Isle of Wight Festival with a crowd of around 400,000 people, in years, mobile peace convoys of New Age travelers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge and elsewhere. In Australia, hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival, piedra Roja Festival, a major hippie event in Chile, was held in 1970. Hippie fashion and values had an effect on culture, influencing popular music, film, literature.
Since the 1960s, many aspects of culture have been assimilated by mainstream society. The religious and cultural diversity espoused by the hippies has gained widespread acceptance, lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, the principal American editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, argues that the terms hipster and hippie derive from the word hip, whose origins are unknown. The term hipster was coined by Harry Gibson in 1944, by the 1940s, the terms hip and hepcat were popular in Harlem jazz slang, although hep eventually came to denote an inferior status to hip. In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered in the know or cool, as opposed to being square. In the April 27,1961 issue of The Village Voice, An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro, Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFKs behavior. In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.
According to Malcolm Xs 1964 autobiography, the hippie in 1940s Harlem had been used to describe a specific type of white man who acted more Negro than Negroes. Andrew Loog Oldham refers to all the Chicago hippies, seemingly in reference to black musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones. The word hippie was used in reference to Philadelphia in at least two songs in 1963, South Street by The Orlons, and You Cant Sit Down by The Dovells. In both songs, the term is applied to residents of Philadelphias South Street, in that article, Fallon wrote about the Blue Unicorn Cafe, using the term hippie to refer to the new generation of beatniks who had moved from North Beach into the Haight-Ashbury district. New York Times editor and usage writer Theodore M. Bernstein said the paper changed the spelling from hippy to hippie to avoid the ambiguous description of clothing as hippy fashions. Even the counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics were early forms of hippie culture
A counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a population during a well-defined era. When oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes, John Milton Yinger originated the term contraculture in his 1960 article in American Sociological Review. Some scholars have attributed the counterculture to Theodore Roszak, author of The Making of a Counter Culture and it became prominent in the news media amid the social revolution that swept the Americas, Western Europe, Japan and New Zealand during the 1960s. Scholars differ in the characteristics and specificity they attribute to counterculture, mainstream culture is of course difficult to define, and in some ways becomes identified and understood through contrast with counterculture. Counterculture might oppose mass culture, or middle-class culture and values, Counterculture is sometimes conceptualized in terms of generational conflict and rejection of older or adult values.
Counterculture may or may not be explicitly political and it typically involves criticism or rejection of currently powerful institutions, with accompanying hope for a better life or a new society. It does not look favorably on party politics or authoritarianism, typically, a fringe culture expands and grows into a counterculture by defining its own values in opposition to mainstream norms. Countercultures tend to peak, go into decline, leaving an impact on mainstream cultural values. Their life cycles include phases of rejection, partial acceptance, during the late 1960s, hippies became the largest and most visible countercultural group in the United States. The cultural shadows left by the Romantics, Beats, the counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s generated its own unique brand of notable literature, including comics and cartoons, and sometimes referred to as the underground press. In the United States, this includes the work of Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton, another such hippie/anarchist bookshop was Mushroom Books, tucked away in the Lace Market area of Nottingham.
Some genres tend to challenge societies with their content that is meant to question the norms within cultures. More often than not, sources of these controversies can be found in art such as Marcel Duchamp whose piece Fountain was meant to be an attack on the most basic conventions of art in 1917. Instead of being a topic to fear, they have initiated subtle trends that other artists, in order to achieve such liberation, consciousness raising and direct action were employed. At the outset of the 20th century, homosexual acts were punishable offenses in these countries, the prevailing public attitude was that homosexuality was a moral failing that should be punished, as exemplified by Oscar Wildes 1895 trial and imprisonment for gross indecency. But even then, there were dissenting views, according to Charles Kaisers The Gay Metropolis, there were already semi-public gay-themed gatherings by the mid-1930s in the United States. There were bars and bathhouses that catered to gay clientele, but homosexuality was typically subsumed into bohemian culture, and was not a significant movement in itself
The Peoples Temple of the Disciples of Christ, commonly shortened to Peoples Temple, was a new religious movement founded in 1955 by Jim Jones in Indianapolis, Indiana. Jones used the Peoples Temple to spread a message which combined elements of Christianity with socialist politics, the group moved to California in the 1970s and established several locations throughout the state, including its headquarters in San Francisco. At its peak, the Temple boasted 20,000 members, the mass suicide and killings at Jonestown resulted in the greatest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act prior to the events of September 11,2001. The thought was, infiltrate the church, so I consciously made a decision to look into that prospect. Although he feared a backlash for being a communist, Jones was surprised when a Methodist superintendent helped him into the church, despite his knowledge that Jones was a communist. In 1952, Jones became a student pastor in Sommerset Southside Methodist Church in Indianapolis, in 1954, Jones began his own church in a rented space in Indianapolis, at first naming it the Community Unity Church.
Jones and Temple members knowingly faked healings because they found that the increased faith generated financial resources to help the poor and these healings involved chicken livers and other animal tissue, claimed by Jones to be cancerous tissues removed from the body. In 1956, Jones bought his first church building, in a racially mixed Indianapolis neighborhood and he first named this church Wings of Deliverance, and that year renamed it the Peoples Temple Full Gospel Church, the first time he used the phrase Peoples Temple. Jones healings and purported clairvoyant revelations attracted spiritualists and Temple members drove through various cities in Indiana and Ohio on recruiting and fund raising efforts. The Temple stressed egalitarian ideals, asking members to attend in casual clothes so poor members would not feel out of place, while the Temple had increased its African-American membership from 15% to nearly 50%, in order to attempt further gains the Temple hired African-American preacher Archie Ijames.
Pastor Ijames was one of the first to commit to Jones socialist collective program, in 1959, the church joined the Christian Church, and was renamed the Peoples Temple Christian Church Full Gospel. This affiliation was an attempt to both raise the dwindling membership and restore the reputation of the organization. Jones and his wife helped to increase the Temples soup kitchen service to an average of about 2,800 meals per month, the Temples public profile was further elevated when Jones was appointed to the Indianapolis Human Rights Commission. He engaged in attempts to integrate businesses, and was the subject of much local media coverage. Jones had read extensively about Father Divine, the founder of the International Peace Mission movement and Temple members visited Divine several times, while Jones studied his writings and tape recordings of his sermons. The Temple printed Divines texts for its members and began to preach that members should abstain from sex, in 1959, in a sermon in his Delaware Street Temple, Jones tested the new fiery rhetorical style that Divine had used.
His speech captivated members with lulls and crescendos, as Jones challenged individual members in front of the group, the speech marked the beginning of the Temples underlying us versus them message. He did so knowing that his Christian audience would recognize the similarities with text from the Acts of the Apostles which stated distribution was made to each as any had need
West Portal, San Francisco
West Portal is a small neighborhood in San Francisco, California. Similar to adjacent Forest Hill and St. Francis Wood, West Portal is a residential area of the City. The neighborhoods main corridor, West Portal Avenue, serves as a shopping district of southwestern San Francisco. West Portal is located at the edge of the hills in central San Francisco. The neighborhood is named for the terminus of the Muni tunnel beneath Twin Peaks that opened in 1918. The ride in the subway from West Portal to Castro Station is about ten minutes, because of its small size and mom and pop stores and saloons, the neighborhood is often described as having a village atmosphere. The neighborhood is served by a branch of the San Francisco Public Library
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
James Warren Jim Jones was an American cult leader. Ordained as a Disciples of Christ pastor, Jones founded and led the Peoples Temple, nearly three hundred children were murdered at Jonestown, almost all of them by poisoning. Jones died from a wound to the head - it is suspected his death was a suicide. Jones was born in Indiana and started the Temple there in the 1950s and he moved the Temple to California in the mid-1960s, and gained notoriety with the move of the Temples headquarters to San Francisco in the early 1970s. Jones was born in a area of Crete, Indiana, to James Thurman Jones, a World War I veteran. Lynetta reportedly believed she had given birth to a messiah and he was of Irish and Welsh descent. Jones claimed partial Cherokee ancestry through his mother, though according to his second cousin Barbara Shaffer. Economic difficulties during the Great Depression necessitated that Jones family move to Lynn, Indiana, in 1934, where he grew up in a shack without plumbing. Jones was a reader as a child and studied Joseph Stalin, Karl Marx, Mao Zedong, Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler carefully, noting the strengths.
Jones developed an intense interest in religion, primarily because he found making friends difficult, childhood acquaintances recalled Jones as being a really weird kid who was obsessed with religion. They alleged that he frequently held funerals for small animals on his parents property and had stabbed a cat to death, Jones and a childhood friend both claimed that his father, who was an alcoholic, was associated with the Ku Klux Klan. Jones himself, came to sympathize with the countrys repressed African-American community due to his own experiences as a social outcast, after Jones parents separated, Jones moved with his mother to Richmond, Indiana. He graduated from Richmond High School early and with honors in December 1948, Jones married nurse Marceline Baldwin in 1949, and moved to Bloomington, Indiana. He attended Indiana University Bloomington, where a speech by Eleanor Roosevelt about the plight of African-Americans impressed him, in 1951, Jones moved to Indianapolis, where he attended night school at Butler University, earning a degree in secondary education in 1961.
In 1951, Jones began attending meetings and rallies of the Communist Party USA in Indianapolis and he became frustrated with ostracism of open communists in the United States, especially during the trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. This frustration, among other things, provoked a seminal moment for Jones in which he asked himself, the thought was, infiltrate the church. Jones was surprised when a Methodist superintendent helped him get a start in the even though he knew Jones to be a communist. In 1952, Jones became a student pastor in Sommerset Southside Methodist Church, around this time, Jones witnessed a faith-healing service at a Seventh Day Baptist Church
They have been used in Israeli targeted killings and in terrorist attacks such as those of the Unabomber. Some countries have agencies whose duties include the interdiction of letter bombs, the letter bomb may have been in use for nearly as long as the common postal service has been in existence, as far back as 1764. Letter bombs are designed to explode immediately on opening, with the intention of seriously injuring or killing the recipient. A related threat is mail containing unidentified powders or chemicals, as in the 2001 anthrax attacks, one of the worlds first mailbombs is mentioned in the 18th century diary of Danish official and historian Bolle Willum Luxdorph. His diary mainly consists of references to news from Denmark. In the entry for January 19,1764 he writes the following, when he opens it, therein is to be found gunpowder and a firelock which sets fire unto it, so he became very injured. The entry for February 15 same year says, Colonel Poulsen receives a letter in German and it is referring to the dose of gunpowder in the box.
In a reference Luxdorph has found a mention of a bomb being used, in 1764. June 1889, Edward White, formerly an artist at Madame Tussauds, was alleged to have sent a parcel bomb to John Theodore Tussaud after being dismissed, August 20,1904, A Swedish man named Martin Ekenberg sent a mailbomb to businessman Karl Fredrik Lundin in Stockholm. It was a box loaded with bullets and explosives, in 1915, Vice President of the United States Thomas R. Marshall was the target of an assassination attempt by letter bomb. In 1946, several British high officials, including Sir Stafford Cripps, Ernest Bevin, in 1947, several letter bombs were sent to President Harry Truman in the White House. They were intercepted by White House mail room workers, who were on alert because of the bombs to British officials. These were claimed by the Stern Gang, August 30,1958, A parcel bomb sent by Ngo Dinh Nhu, younger brother and chief adviser of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, failed to kill King Sihanouk of Cambodia.
In 1961 the Nazi war criminal Alois Brunner received a bomb that caused the loss of an eye. In 1980 another letter bomb cost him the fingers of his left hand, two Damascus postal workers were killed. The senders are unknown but some suspect the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad, in the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, several terrorist organizations in Argentina such as Montoneros and ERP included letter bombs into their weaponry. On 28 December 1977, in Malta, Karen Grech, age 15, was killed when she opened a letterbomb addressed to her father Edwin Grech, on the same day, another bomb was sent to Labour MP Dr. Paul Chetcuti Caruana, but it did not detonate. Theodore Kaczynski, the Unabomber, killed three and injured 23 in a series of mailbombings in the United States from the late 1970s to the early 1990s