Kenneth Robert Rosewall is a former world top-ranking amateur and professional tennis player from Australia. He won a record 23 tennis Majors including 8 Grand Slam singles titles and, before the Open Era, a record 15 Pro Slam titles, he won the Pro Grand Slam in 1963. Rosewall won 9 slams in doubles with a career double grand slam, he is considered to be one of the greatest tennis players of all time. He had a renowned backhand and enjoyed a long career at the highest levels from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Rosewall was one of the two best male players for about nine years and was the World No. 1 player for a number of years in the early 1960s. He was ranked among the top 20 players, amateur or professional, every year from 1952 through 1977. Rosewall is the only player to have held Pro Grand Slam titles on three different surfaces. At the 1971 Australian Open he became the first male player during the open era to win a Grand Slam tournament without dropping a set. A natural left-hander, he was taught by his father to play right-handed.
He developed a powerful and effective backhand but never had anything more than an accurate but soft serve. He was 1.70 m tall, weighed 67 kg and was nicknamed "Muscles" by his fellow-players because of his lack of them. He was, fast and tireless, with a deadly volley, his sliced backhand was his strongest shot, along with the different backhand of former player Don Budge, has been considered one of the best, if not the best, backhands yet seen. The father of Brett and Glenn Rosewall, grandfather of five, Rosewall now lives in northern Sydney. Rosewall was born on 2 November 1934 in Sydney, his father, Robert Rosewall, was a grocer at Penshurst, New South Wales and when Ken was one year old they moved to the Rockdale where his father bought three clay tennis courts. Ken started playing tennis at age three with a shortened racket and using both hands for forehand and backhand shots, they practiced early in the morning. He was taught to play right-handed by his father, he lost to the eventual winner.
At age eleven Rosewall won the Metropolitan Hardcourt Championships for under fourteen. In 1949 at age 14 he became the junior champion at the Australian Hardcourt Championships in Sydney, the youngest player to win an Australian title. In October 1950 at the age of 15 and still a junior player, Rosewall reached the semifinals of the 1950 New South Wales Metropolitan Championships, where he was defeated by the world-class adult player Ken McGregor; the following year, he won his first men's tournament in Manly. In 1952, still only 17, Rosewall reached the quarterfinals of the U. S. Championships, upsetting the top-seeded Vic Seixas in the fourth round 3–6, 6–2, 7–5, 5–7, 6–3 before losing to Gardnar Mulloy in five sets. In his end-of-year rankings, the British tennis expert Lance Tingay ranked Rosewall and Lew Hoad, his youthful doubles partner, jointly as the tenth best amateur players in the world. Rosewall was only 18 years old when, in 1953, he won his first singles title at a Grand Slam event after defeating compatriot Mervyn Rose at the Australian Championships.
He won the French Championships and the Pacific Southwest Championships. He lost the quarterfinal match to Kurt Nielsen. Rosewall reached the semifinals at the U. S. Championships, where he was defeated by Tony Trabert in straight sets, he lost again to Trabert in the Challenge Round of the Davis Cup in Melbourne 6–3, 6–4, 6–4. Rosewall, won the fifth and deciding rubber of that tie, defeating Seixas in four sets. At the end of the year, Tingay placed Trabert first and Rosewall second in his annual amateur rankings. In 1954, Rosewall defeated Trabert in a five-set semifinal at Wimbledon but lost the final to crowd-favorite Jaroslav Drobný 13–11, 4–6, 6–2, 9–7. Rosewall won the singles title at the Australian Championships for the second time in 1955, defeating Hoad in the final 9–7, 6–4, 6–4, he did not play in the 1955 French Championships because it did not fit in the preparation of the Australian team for the Davis Cup. At the U. S. Championships, Trabert defeated Rosewall in the final 9–7, 6–3, 6–3.
In 1956, Rosewall and Hoad captured all the Grand Slam men's doubles titles except at the French Championships, from which Rosewall was absent. For several years in their youthful careers and Hoad were known as "The Gold-dust Twins." In singles, Rosewall lost to Hoad in the final of two Grand Slam tournaments. At the Australian Championships, Hoad defeated Rosewall 6–4, 3–6, 6–4, 7–5 and at Wimbledon, Hoad won 6–2, 4–6, 7–5, 6–4. Rosewall, prevented Hoad from winning the Grand Slam when Rosewall won their final at the U. S. Championships 4–6, 6–2, 6–3, 6–3. During his amateur career, Rosewall helped. Rosewall won 15 of the 17 Davis Cup singles rubbers he played those years, including the last 14 in a row. Promoter and former tennis great Jack Kramer tried unsuccessfully to sign the "Whiz Kids" to professional contracts in late 1955, but one year Rosewall accepted Kramer's offer. Rosewall, during the Challenge Round of the Davis Cup, tried to convince his partner Hoad to do the same, but he rejected the proposition.
Rosewall played his first professional match on 14 January 1957, at Kooyong Stadium in Melbourne against the reigning king of professional tennis, Pancho Gonzales who won after a close five-set match. The following day Rose
The French Open called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros, it is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments, the other three being the Australian Open and the US Open. The French Open is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, it is the zenith of the spring clay court season; because of the seven rounds needed for a championship, the slow-playing surface and the best-of-five-set men's singles matches, the event is considered to be the most physically demanding tennis tournament in the world. Named in French Championnats Internationaux de France de tennis and Tournoi de Roland-Garros, the tournament is referred to in English as the "French Open" and alternatively as "Roland Garros", the designation used by the tournament itself in all languages. French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen.
Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros. In 1891 the Championnat de France, referred to in English as the French Championships, began, they were only open to tennis players. The first winner was a Briton—H. Briggs—who was a Paris resident; the first women's singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the women's doubles in 1907; this "French club members only" tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period: Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, played on sand laid out on a bed of rubble. The Racing Club de France, played on clay. For one year, 1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, on clay. Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is sometimes considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors, it was held on clay courts at Stade Français in Saint-Cloud from 1912 to 1914 after World War I, was contested there again in 1920, 1921 and 1923, with the 1922 tournament held at Brussels, Belgium.
Winners of this tournament included world No. 1's such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games. In 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF, it was held at the Stade Français on clay courts. In 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French Championship on clay. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the French decided to defend the cup in 1928 at a new tennis stadium at Porte d'Auteuil; the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros. The new Stade de Roland Garros, its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge. In 1928, the French Internationals were moved there, the event has been held there since.
During World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, making it the third Grand Slam event of the year. In 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented: the Prix Citron and the Prix Bourgeon. In another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the tournament's opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place, where the profits go to different charity associations. In March 2007, it was announced that the event would provide equal prize money for both men and women in all rounds for the first time. In 2010, it was announced that the French Open was considering a move away from Roland Garros as part of a continuing rejuvenation of the tournament.
Plans to renovate and expand Roland Garros have put aside any such consideration, the tournament remains in its long time home. Clay courts slow down the ball and produce a high bounce when compared to grass courts or hard courts. For this reason, clay courts take away some of the advantages of big servers and serve-and-volleyers, which makes it hard for these types of players to dominate on the surface. For example, Pete Sampras, known for his huge serve and who won 14 Grand Slam titles, never won the French Open – his best result was reaching the semi-finals in 1996. Other notable players who have won multiple Grand Slam events but have never won the French Open i
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence, which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism. The RAF describes its mission statement as "... an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power.
Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps deliver air power, integrated into the maritime and land environments. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924 but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939. The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. Additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom. In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron, or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Between 26 June and the lifting of the Russian blockade of the city on 2 May, the RAF provided 17% of the total supplies delivered du
Mill Hill is a suburb in the London Borough of Barnet, England. It is situated around 9 miles northwest of Charing Cross. Mill Hill was in the historic county of Middlesex until 1965. Mill Hill consists of several distinct parts: the original Mill Hill Village. A further area at the western edge of the suburb, The Hale, is on the borders of Mill Hill and Edgware, is in each; the area's name was first recorded as Myllehill in 1547 and appears to mean "hill with a windmill". However, the workings of the original Mill are in the building adjacent to The Mill Field. Mill Hill Village is the oldest known inhabited part of the district, a ribbon development along a medieval route called'The Ridgeway', it is thought that the name'Mill Hill' may be derived from a mill on The Ridgeway, built on an area of open ground known as The Mill Field. The village is bounded on the north and the south by Green Belt land, its High Street, at 100 yards, is the shortest in London; the area's proximity to the city made it popular as a country retreat from the 17th century onwards, large houses and quaint cottages survive.
William Wilberforce and Sir Stamford Raffles both resided here, the former being the patron of Mill Hill's first church, Saint Paul's. As late as 1960 five shops existed in the Village but although the buildings survive, they have all since been converted into private houses, as the retail focus in the area shifted to Mill Hill Broadway; as of February 2011, the only places in Mill Hill Village where money can be spent are The Three Hammers and Adam & Eve pubs and Belmont Farm. Inglis Barracks at Mill Hill East was home to the Middlesex Regiment between 1905 and 1966; the 1941 reopening of the railway station, under wartime conditions, was to allow easy access to the barracks. Situated along Partingdale Lane is Seafield House. Now converted into a private home, it was designed and operated as a secret nuclear bunker to house and protect the'London North Group' emergency regional government between about 1951 and 1985. Mill Hill was part of the ancient civil parish of Hendon within the historic county boundaries of Middlesex.
Mill Hill as part of Municipal Borough of Hendon was merged into the London Borough of Barnet in Greater London in 1965. Mill Hill is one of 21 electoral wards in the borough; this ward has 3 out of the 63 seats on the Barnet Council. Mill Hill was in the parliamentary constituency of Hendon, created in 1918; this lasted until 1945 when the constituency was split in Mill Hill in Hendon North. In 1997, the Hendon constituency was recreated. From until he lost his seat to the Conservative candidate, Matthew Offord, at the 2010 general election, Hendon was represented in the House of Commons by Andrew Dismore of the Labour Party. Mill Hill's postal address is London NW7; the village is a ribbon development along The Ridgeway. It has green belt either side. "Partingdale" and "Burtonhole" form a distinct valley north of The Ridgeway. North is Folly Brook, a tributary of the Dollis Brook, running west to east. Between The Ridgeway and Folly Brook are Burtonhole Farm, a garden centre called Finchley Nurseries, several sports grounds.
The National Institute for Medical Research, a landmark building, was demolished in 2018 and the site is being developed for new houses and apartments. On 1 April 2015, the NIMR became part of the new Francis Crick Institute and ceased to exist as a separate MRC institute; the site was vacated and closed for redevelopment during 2017. Arrandene Open Space and Featherstone Hill is a large open space, bordered by Wise Lane, Wills Grove, Milespit Hill and The Ridgeway. While there are many open spaces in the area, Arrandene is unique because of its many open fields and woodland; the open fields were hay meadows which provided feed for the horses pulling carriages north to Barnet and beyond. On Milespit Hill, is the non-denominational Mill Hill Cemetery known as the "Paddington District Cemetery"; the 1960s pop. The cemetery contains 53 Second World War Commonwealth war graves and a Dutch "Field of Honour", containing the graves of more than 250 servicemen of the Netherlands, many of which have been brought to the cemetery from other United Kingdom burial grounds.
To the southwest of Mill Hill Village is a small suburban district called "Poets' Corner", to the north an old estate, now a nature reserve, Moat Mount Open Space. The modern-day centre of Mill Hill is at Mill Hill Broadway; this is a suburban district which developed from the 1890s onwards, in the early part of the 20th century, after the arrival of the Midland Railway station in 1868. The Broadway itself is now an important local retail area with numerous shops and cafes and transport links. Parts of the eastern side of Mill Hill have undergone redevelopment, with the old gas works replaced by a Waitrose supermarket and housing developments; the small local retail area at Mill Hill East is at "Kelly’s Corner" east of the station. To the south of Mill Hill East are Holders Hill; the United Kingdom / Carl Zeiss / Bausch & Lomb Optical Works was established at the top of Bittacy Hill in 1912 and demolished about 1990, to be replaced by a large building owned by the Jehovah's Witne
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
International Tennis Hall of Fame
The International Tennis Hall of Fame is located in Newport, Rhode Island, United States. It honors players and contributors to the sport of tennis and includes a museum, grass tennis courts, an indoor tennis facility, a court tennis facility; the hall of fame and museum are located in the Newport Casino, commissioned in 1879 by James Gordon Bennett Jr. as an exclusive resort for wealthy Newport summer residents, was designed by Charles McKim along with Stanford White, who did the interiors. In 1881, the Real Tennis Court and the Casino Theatre were constructed at the east end of the campus; the club was opened on July 1, 1880 after just a six month construction period and became a fashionable venue for Newport Summer residents. The United States Lawn Tennis Association had held its first championships at the Newport Casino in 1881, an event that would continue through 1914, by which time tennis had become the key attraction at the resort. However, by the 1950s, the retreat was struggling financially and was in danger of being demolished for modern retail space, but the building was purchased and saved by Jimmy Van Alen, a wealthy Newport summer resident and sportsman, his wife Candy.
In 1954, Jimmy Van Alen established the Tennis Hall of Museum in the Casino. The combination of tennis matches and the museum allowed the building to be saved, it is an example of Victorian Shingle Style architecture. Van Alen intended the facility to be "a shrine to the ideals of the game", was elected president of the hall in 1957; the International Tennis Hall of Fame was sanctioned by the United States Tennis Association on its foundation in 1954, recognized by the International Tennis Federation in 1986. The first Hall of Fame members were inducted in 1955. Martina Hingis became the first Global Ambassador for the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 2015; the current Board of Governors includes former professional tennis players Todd Martin, Stan Smith and Katrina Adams. The museum houses a vast collection of artifacts and memorabilia – including videos, audio recordings, tennis equipment and apparel and art – highlighting the history of tennis from its origins up through the modern era.
The collection is displayed year-round in the museum's 13,000 square feet of exhibit space. For a description of each award and a list of its recipients, see footnote. Chairman's Award Davis Cup Award of Excellence Eugene L. Scott Award Fed Cup Award of Excellence Golden Achievement Award Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Award Samuel Hardy Award Tennis Educational Merit Award The Hall of Fame hosts several tournaments, including the Hall of Fame Tennis Championships. Part of the men's ATP World Tour, the tournament is the only grass court event in North America. Top male players come to Newport directly from Wimbledon to compete for the Van Alen Cup at the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Past champions include Americans John Isner, Mardy Fish, as well as two-time champion Fabrice Santoro of France. For a list of inductees—alphabetically, by country, by year of induction—see footnote. Note: Inductees are listed below in two categories. Note - Bob Hewitt of South Africa was inducted into the Tennis Hall of Fame in 1992, but he was suspended indefinitely in 2012 and expelled from the Hall in 2016 after being convicted of child sexual offences.
Tenniseum Official website 11 Intriguing Items at the International Tennis Hall of Fame article International Tennis Hall of Fame article
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica