Effie M. Morrissey
Effie M. Morrissey was a schooner skippered by Robert Bartlett that made many scientific expeditions to the Arctic, sponsored by American museums, the Explorers Club and the National Geographic Society, she helped survey the Arctic for the United States Government during World War II. She is designated by the United States Department of the Interior as a National Historic Landmark as part of the New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park, she is the State Ship of Massachusetts. Designed by George McClain of Gloucester, Massachusetts to withstand North Atlantic gales, Effie M. Morrissey was the last fishing schooner built for the Wonson Fish Company. Built with white oak and yellow pine at the John F. James & Washington Tarr shipyard, she took four months to build and was launched 1 February 1894, her hull was painted black and her first skipper was William Edward Morrissey, who named her after his daughter Effie Maude Morrissey. In 2014, the ship was given the green light by the Massachusetts Department of Recreation and Conservation to undergo a $6 million restoration project at the Boothbay Harbor Shipyard in Boothbay Harbor, Maine.
After months of waiting for the weather to cooperate, the ship was able to reach Boothbay Harbor in April, 2015 and was hauled-out that month. Effie M. Morrissey fished out of Gloucester for eleven years. Considered a high liner, on her first voyage she brought in over 200,000 pounds of fish, enough to pay for her construction. One of Effie M. Morrissey's more notable skippers was Clayton Morrissey who went on to skipper the racing schooner Henry Ford. A statue to Clayton Morrissey by sculptor Leonard Craske entitled the Gloucester Fisherman's Memorial can be seen on Gloucester's Western Avenue. In 1905 under a new owner, Captain Ansel Snow, Effie M. Morrissey began fishing out of Digby, Nova Scotia. In 1912, the Montreal journalist and photographer Frederick William Wallace sailed on the vessel as a member of Snow's crew, his epic poem about his time aboard Effie M. Morrissey, "The Log of the Record Run," was read and adopted by east coast fishermen with such authentic results that the folklorist Helen Creighton mistakenly believed it to be a old traditional song.
In 1914, ownership moved to Brigus, Newfoundland where Harold Bartlett used her as a fishing and coasting vessel along the Newfoundland and Labrador shoreline. In 1925 Harold Bartlett sold her to his cousin, noted Arctic explorer Capt. Bob Bartlett, who installed an auxiliary engine and reinforced the hull so the vessel could be used in Arctic ice. In 1926 with the financial support of the well known publisher George Palmer Putnam, Bartlett embarked on two decades of Arctic exploration using this vessel; the following is a listing of the many voyages captained by Robert Bartlett aboard Effie M. Morrissey: 1926 Greenland Expedition to Northwest Greenland for the American Museum of National History with George Palmer Putnam and University of Michigan Professor William H. Hobbs. 1927 Voyage to Western Baffin Land for the American Geographical Society, Museum of the American Indian and the Heye Foundation with George Palmer Putman and Robert E. Peary, Jr.. 1928 Stoll McCracken Siberian Arctic Expedition to the Aleutian Islands, Bering Strait, Arctic for the American Museum of Natural History with Charles H. Stoll and Harold McCracken.
1929 Labrador Motion Picture Expedition along the Labrador Coast with Maurice Kellerman. 1930 North East Greenland Expedition for the Museum of the American Indian. 1931 Norcross-Bartlett Expedition to Northeast Greenland for the Smithsonian Institution, Heye Foundation, American Museum of Natural History, the New York Botanical Garden to gather flowering plants for Botanical Gardens. In addition to this they carried out oceanographic and meteorological work for the US Navy, Smithsonian Institution, others. 1932 Peary Memorial Expedition as a monument to Robert E. Peary, co-chartered by Peary's daughter Mrs. Marie Peary Stafford and Arthur D. Norcross. Peary's grandchildren and Peary Stafford, accompanied their mother. 1933 Bartlett Northwest Greenland Expedition through the Hudson Strait, Fury Strait and the Hecla Strait for the American Museum of Natural History, Museum of American Indian, American Geographical Society and the Navy Department. 1934 Expedition to Greenland and Ellesmere Land making scientific collections for the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences.
1935 Northwest Greenland Expedition for Field Museum and the Smithsonian Institution. On this expedition was Dr. Lamar Soutter, founding dean of the University of Massachusetts Medical School. 1936 Bartlett Northeast Greenland Expedition for the Smithsonian Institution, American Geographical Society, Chicago Zoological Society and the Field Museum. 1937 Bartlett Northwest Greenland Expedition for the Smithsonian Institution and the Chicago Zoological Society. 1938 Northwest Greenland Expedition for the Smithsonian Institution, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, the United States National Museum. 1939 Northeast Greenland Expedition for the New York Zoological Society and the Smithsonian Institution. 1940 Greenland Expedition where Effie M. Morrissey set a record for furthest north at 80 degrees 22 minutes North Latitude, a mere 578 nautical miles from the North Pole. Pathe Newsreels had filmed this incredible effort, among those in attendance was Fred Littleton, Austen Colgate, John Pitcairn, Jim Pond, David Nutt, Reggie Wilcox and George Hodge.
1941 Greenland Expedition into the Arctic regions sponsored by Louise Arner Boyd of San Francisco into the Baffin Bay region. It was the first opportunity by National Bureau of Standards for an ex
Robert Bartlett (explorer)
Robert "Bob" Abram Bartlett was a Newfoundland-born American Arctic explorer of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Born in Brigus, Colony of Newfoundland, Bartlett was the oldest of ten children born to William James Bartlett and Mary J. Leamon, heir to a family tradition of seafaring, he grew up in Hawthorne Cottage in Brigus. By the age of 17, he began a lifelong love affair with the Arctic. Bartlett spent more than 50 years mapping and exploring the waters of the Far North and led over 40 expeditions to the Arctic, more than anyone before or since. Bartlett was captain of the SS Roosevelt and accompanied United States Navy Commander Robert Peary on his attempts to reach the North Pole, he was awarded the Hubbard Medal of the National Geographic Society for breaking the trail through the frozen Arctic Sea to within 150 miles of the pole, yet was excluded from the final exploring party. Bartlett took a ship and was the first person to sail north of 88° N. In 1914, Bartlett's leadership in the doomed Karluk Expedition helped save the lives of most of its stranded participants after leader Vilhjalmur Stefansson abandoned the expedition.
After being stranded for several months and Inuit hunter Kataktovik walked 700 miles from Wrangel Island over the ice of the Chukchi Sea and across Siberia and mounted an expedition from Alaska to rescue his surviving companions on Wrangel Island. He received the highest award from the Royal Geographical Society for his outstanding heroism. However, despite his popularity among the press, the public, those he had rescued, he was censured by an admiralty commission for taking Karluk into the Arctic, for allowing a party of four to leave the main group—despite a letter that Mackay and the others had signed, absolving the captain from responsibility. In 1917, Bartlett rescued the members of Donald Baxter MacMillan's ill-fated Crocker Land Expedition, stuck on the ice for four years. From 1925-1945, at the command of his own schooner, Effie M. Morrissey, Bartlett led many important scientific expeditions to the Arctic sponsored by American museums, the Explorers Club and the National Geographic Society.
He helped to survey the Arctic for the United States Government during World War II. In 1931, Bartlett starred as Captain Barker in the film The Viking about a sealing ship in Newfoundland; the film was shot on location and during the filming of several action scenes, the ship that filming was taking place on exploded, killing 28 men. Despite this, the film was still released. In it, Bartlett plays the captain of the sealing vessel The Viking, proud of his reputation for having never lost a man. Bartlett died when he was 70 in a New York City hospital from pneumonia and was buried in his hometown of Brigus and Labrador. Hawthorne Cottage, Bartlett's place of residence in Brigus, is a National Historic Site of Canada. In 1909, Bartlett was awarded the Hubbard Medal by the National Geographic Society, awarded for distinction in exploration and research. In 1927, the Boy Scouts of America made Bartlett an Honorary Scout, a new category of Scout created that same year; this distinction was given to "American citizens whose achievements in outdoor activity and worthwhile adventure are of such an exceptional character as to capture the imagination of boys...".
Among others who were awarded this distinction were included Richard E. Byrd, Charles Lindbergh, Orville Wright, he was awarded an Honorary Fellowship from the American Geographical Society in 1918, its Daly Medal in 1925. In 1944, he was awarded the Peary Polar Expedition Medal; the Canadian Coast Guard vessel CCGS Bartlett is named for Bartlett. Canada Post featured Bartlett on a Canadian postage stamp released on July 10, 2009. Author Eric Walters documented some of the aspects of his journey to find Arctic islands in the historical novels Trapped in Ice and The Pole. Bartlett and Kataktovik's journey through Chukotka, Siberia is recounted as an episode in Chukchi author Yuri Rytkheu's novel A Dream in Polar Fog. Harold Horwood, The Great Explorer, Toronto: Doubleday, 1977. Robert A. Bartlett; the Last Voyage of the Karluk. Boston: Small, Maynard, 1916. Robert A. Bartlett. Log of "Bob" Bartlett. New York & London: G. P. Putnam, 1928. Jennifer Niven; the Ice Master: The Doomed 1913 Voyage of the Karluk and the Miraculous Rescue of her Survivors.
New York: Hyperion, 2000. Niven, Jennifer; the Ice Master. London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-39123-2. Robert A. Bartlett; the Log of Bob Bartlett. St. John's: Flankers, 2006. Maura Hanrahan. Unchained Man: The Arctic Life and Times of Captain Robert Abram Bartlett. Portugal Cove-St. Philip's: Boulder Publications, 2018. Robert Bartlett Government of Canada Robert Bartlett Canadian Coast Guard Robert Bartlett Arctic Museum
Order of Canada
The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, the personal gift of Canada's monarch. To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation, the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16; the three tiers of the order are Companion and Member. The Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Sovereign of the order and the serving governor general Julie Payette, is its Chancellor and Principal Companion and administers the order on behalf of the Sovereign.
Appointees to the order are recommended by an advisory board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of August 2017, 6,898 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, politicians, athletes, business people, film stars and others; some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial. Appointees receive the right to armorial bearings; the process of founding the Order of Canada began in early 1966 and came to a conclusion on 17 April 1967, when the organization was instituted by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of the Canadian prime minister, Lester B. Pearson, assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson; the association was launched on 1 July 1967, the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, with Governor General Roland Michener being the first inductee to the order, to the level of Companion, on 7 July of the same year, 90 more people were appointed, including Vincent Massey, Louis St. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, Brock Chisholm, M. J. Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, Maurice Richard.
During a visit to London, United Kingdom in 1970, Michener presented the Queen with her Sovereign's badge for the Order of Canada, which she first wore during a banquet in Yellowknife in July 1970. From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours. Among the civilian awards of the Canadian honours system, the Order of Canada comes third, after the Cross of Valour and membership in the Order of Merit, within the personal gift of Canada's monarch. By the 1980s, Canada's provinces decorations; the Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour, is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign, followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowship's Chancellor. Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence: Companion and Member, each having accordant post-nominal letters that members are entitled to use; each incumbent governor general is installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter.
Additionally, any governor general, viceregal consort, former governor general, former viceregal consort, or member of the Canadian Royal Family may be appointed as an extraordinary Companion, Officer, or Member. Promotions in grade are possible, though this is ordinarily not done within five years of the initial appointment, a maximum of five honorary appointments into any of the three grades may be made by the governor general each year; as of March 2016, there have been 21 honorary appointments. There were in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada: Companion and the Medal of Service. There was, however a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry; this latter decoration fell in rank between the other two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order. Without having been awarded, the Medal of Courage was on 1 July 1972 replaced by the autonomous Cross of Valour and, at the same time, the levels of Officer and Member were introduced, with all existing holders of the Medal of Service created as Officers.
Lester Pearson's vision of a three-tiered structure to the order was thus fulfilled. Companions of the Order of Canada have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on either the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed annually, with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity; as of August 2017, there are 146 living Companions. Since 1994, substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship. Officers of the Order of Canada have demonstrated an outstanding level of talent and service to Canadians, up to 64 may be appointed each year, not including those inducted as extraordinary Officers or in an ho
Dominion of Newfoundland
Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949. The dominion, situated in northeastern North America along the Atlantic coast, comprised the island of Newfoundland as well as Labrador on the continental mainland. Before attaining dominion status, Newfoundland was a British colony, self-governing from 1855. Newfoundland was one of the original "dominions" within the meaning of the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and accordingly enjoyed a constitutional status equivalent to the other dominions at the time. In 1934, Newfoundland became the only dominion to give up its self-governing status, ending 79 years of self-government; this episode came about due to a crisis in Newfoundland's public finances in 1932. Newfoundland had accumulated a significant amount of debt by building a railway across the island and by raising its own regiment for the First World War. In November 1932 the government warned that Newfoundland would default on payments on the public debt; the British government established the Newfoundland Royal Commission to inquire into and report on the position.
The Commission's report, published in October 1933, recommended that Newfoundland give up its system of self-government temporarily and allow the United Kingdom to administer the dominion through an appointed commission. The Newfoundland parliament accepted this recommendation and presented a petition to the King asking for the suspension of the constitution and the appointment of commissioners to administer the government until the country became self-supporting again. To enable compliance with this request, the United Kingdom Parliament passed the Newfoundland Act 1933, on 16 February 1934, the UK government appointed six commissioners, three from Newfoundland and three from the UK, with the Governor as chairman; the dominion would never become self-governing again. The system of a six-member Commission of Government continued to govern Newfoundland until it joined Canada in 1949 to become Canada's tenth province; the official name of the dominion was "Newfoundland" and not, as is sometimes reported, "Dominion of Newfoundland".
The distinction is apparent in many statutes, most notably the Statute of Westminster that listed the full name of each realm, including the "Dominion of New Zealand", the "Dominion of Canada", "Newfoundland". The Newfoundland Blue Ensign was used as the colonial flag from 1870 to 1904; the Newfoundland Red Ensign was used as the'de facto' national flag of the dominion until the legislature adopted the Union Flag on 15 May 1931. The anthem of the Dominion was the "Ode to Newfoundland", written by British colonial governor Sir Charles Cavendish Boyle in 1902 during his administration of Newfoundland, it was adopted as the dominion's anthem on 20 May 1904, until confederation with Canada in 1949. In 1980, the province of Newfoundland re-adopted the song as a provincial anthem, making Newfoundland and Labrador the only province in Canada to adopt a provincial anthem; the "Ode to Newfoundland" continues to be heard at public events in the province. In 1854 the British government established Newfoundland's responsible government.
In 1855, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a parliamentary majority over Sir Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858. Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. Prime Minister of Canada Sir John Thompson came close to negotiating Newfoundland's entry into confederation in 1892, it remained a colony until the 1907 Imperial Conference resolved to confer dominion status on all self-governing colonies in attendance. The annual holiday of Dominion Day was celebrated each 26 September to commemorate the occasion. Newfoundland's own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment, fought in the First World War. On 1 July 1916, the German Army wiped out most of that regiment at Beaumont Hamel on the first day on the Somme, inflicting 90 percent casualties, yet the regiment went on to serve with distinction in several subsequent battles, earning the prefix "Royal". Despite people's pride in the accomplishments of the regiment, Newfoundland's war debt and pension responsibility for the regiment and the cost of maintaining a trans-island railway led to increased and unsustainable government debt in the post-war era.
After the war, Newfoundland along with the other dominions sent a separate delegation to the Paris Peace Conference but, unlike the other dominions, Newfoundland neither signed the Treaty of Versailles in her own right nor sought separate membership in the League of Nations. In the 1920s, political scandals wracked the dominion. In 1923, the attorney general arrested Newfoundland's prime minister Sir Richard Squires on charges of corruption. Despite his release soon after on bail, the British-led Hollis Walker commission reviewed the scandal. Soon after, the Squires government fell. Squires returned to power in 1928 because of the unpopularity of his successors, the pro-business Walter Stanley Monroe and Frederick C. Alderdice, but found himself governing a country suffering from the Great Depression; the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council resolved Newfoundland's long-standing Labrador boundary dispute with Canada to the satisfaction of Newfoundland and against Canada with a ruling on 1 April 1927.
Prior to 1867, the Quebec North Shore portion of the "Labrador coast" had shuttled back and forth between the colonies of Lower Canada and Newfoundland. Maps up to 1927 showed the coastal region with an undefined boundary; the Privy Council ruling established a boundary along the drainage div
Foxe Basin is a shallow oceanic basin north of Hudson Bay, in Nunavut, located between Baffin Island and the Melville Peninsula. For most of the year, it is blocked by sea drift ice made up of multiple ice floes; the nutrient-rich cold waters found in the basin are known to be favourable to phytoplankton and the numerous islands within it are important bird habitats, including Sabine's gulls and many types of shorebirds. Bowhead whales migrate to the northern part of the basin each summer; the basin takes its name from the English explorer Luke Foxe who entered the lower part in 1631. Foxe Basin is a broad, predominantly shallow depression less than 100 metres in depth, while to the south, depths of up to 400 metres occur; the tidal range decreases from 5 m in the southeast to less than 1 m in the northwest. During much of the year, landfast ice dominates in the north, while pack ice prevails towards the south. Foxe Basin itself is ice-free until September, open pack ice being common throughout the summer.
Vigorous tidal currents and strong winds keep the ice pack in constant motion and contribute to the numerous polynyas and shore leads which are found throughout the region. This same motion, combined with the high sediment content of the water makes the sea ice of Foxe Basin dark and rough distinguishable from other ice in the Canadian Arctic. Foxe Basin is connected to the Gulf of Boothia via the narrow Fury and Hecla Strait, to Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait via the wide Foxe Channel, it is connected to Repulse Bay and Roes Welcome Sound via Frozen Strait. The terrain is rocky and rugged in the southern half of the region, low-lying in the north. High cliffs are found across the southern portion of the region. Coastal marshes and tidal flats up to 6.5 km in width are found in the vast lowland section of eastern Foxe Basin, as well as in the bays of Southampton Island. This is one of the little-known areas of the Canadian Arctic, though it is proving to be biologically rich and diverse; the numerous polynyas in northern Foxe Basin support high densities of bearded seals and the largest walrus herd in Canada.
Ringed seal and polar bear are common, with north Southampton Island as one of the highest-density polar bear denning areas in Canada. This area is an important summering area for the bowhead whale, beluga whale and narwhal. Both bowhead belugas winter in the waters of northeastern Hudson Bay. Bowheads were the only known baleen whales to occur in the Hudson Bay, but some other species of whale, such as humpback and minke, are confirmed to migrate into the waters as well; the region is the main North American stronghold of the Sabine's gull, with some 10,000 pairs nesting here. Moderate numbers of black guillemots, Arctic terns and glaucous and ivory gulls breed here; the Great Plain of the Koukdjuak on Baffin Island is the world's largest goose nesting colony, with upwards of 1.5 million birds, 75 percent of which are lesser snow geese and the remainder Canada and brant geese. Shorebirds and ducks are abundant. Several hundred thousand thick-billed murres breed on the cliffs of Digges Sound and Coats Island to the south.
This region is not yet represented in the national marine conservation areas system. Studies to identify preliminary representative marine areas have yet to be undertaken
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium; the majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century settling across the island. Greenland is the world's largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated territory in the world. About a third of the population live in the capital and largest city; the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.
Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having settled Iceland to escape persecution from the King of Norway and his central government. These Norsemen would set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262; the Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island; because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved.
Greenland became Danish in 1814, was integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Established in 1974, expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. Greenland is divided into five municipalities – Sermersooq, Qeqertalik and Avannaata. Greenland does not have an independent seat at the United Nations. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009, Greenland can assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law and auditing.
It retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, planned to diminish over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources; the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world coming from hydropower; the early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers; the Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat.
The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people. In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today through archaeological finds; the earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named. From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland, it was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition. Towns, including Deltaterrassern
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador
St. John's is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, it is on the eastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula on Newfoundland. The city is North America's easternmost city, its name has been attributed to the Nativity of John the Baptist, when John Cabot was believed to have sailed into the harbour in 1497 and to a Basque fishing town with the same name. Existing on maps as early as 1519, it is one of the oldest cities in North America, it was incorporated as a city in 1888. With a metropolitan population of 219,207, the St. John's Metropolitan Area is Canada's 20th largest metropolitan area and the second largest Census Metropolitan Area in Atlantic Canada, after Halifax; the city has a rich history, having played a role in the French and Indian War, the American Revolutionary War, the War of 1812. Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi received the first transatlantic wireless signal in St. John's, its history and culture have made it into an important tourist destination.
St. John's is the oldest post-Columbian European settlement in North America, with fishermen setting up seasonal camps in the early 16th century. Sebastian Cabot declares in a handwritten Latin text in his original 1545 map that St. John's earned its name when he and his father, the Venetian explorer John Cabot became the first Europeans to sail into the harbour, in the morning of 24 June 1494, the feast day of Saint John the Baptist. However, the locations of Cabot's landfalls are disputed. A series of expeditions to St. John's by Portuguese from the Azores took place in the early 16th century, by 1540 French and Portuguese ships crossed the Atlantic annually to fish the waters off the Avalon Peninsula. In the Basque Country, it is a common belief the name of St. John's was given by Basque fishermen because the bay of St. John's is similar to the Bay of Pasaia in the Basque Country, where one of the fishing towns is called St. John; the earliest record of the location appears as São João on a Portuguese map by Pedro Reinel in 1519.
When John Rut visited St. John's in 1527, he found Norman and Portuguese ships in the harbour. On 3 August 1527, Rut wrote a letter to King Henry on the findings of his voyage to North America. St. Jehan is shown on Nicolas Desliens' world map of 1541, San Joham is found in João Freire's Atlas of 1546. On 5 August 1583, an English Sea Dog, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, claimed the area as England's first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I. There was no permanent population and Gilbert was lost at sea during his return voyage, thereby ending any immediate plans for settlement; the Newfoundland National War Memorial is on the waterfront in St. John's, at the purported site of Gilbert's landing and proclamation. By 1620, the fishermen of England's West Country controlled most of Newfoundland's east coast. In 1627, William Payne, called St. John's "the principal prime and chief lot in all the whole country". Sometime after 1630, the town of St. John's was established as a permanent community.
Before this they were expressly forbidden by the English government, at the urging of the West Country fishing industry, from establishing permanent settlements along the English-controlled coast. The population grew in the 17th century: St. John's was Newfoundland's largest settlement when English naval officers began to take censuses around 1675; the population grew in the summers with the arrival of migratory fishermen. In 1680, fishing ships set up fishing rooms at St. John's, bringing hundreds of Irish men into the port to operate inshore fishing boats; the town's first significant defenses were erected due to commercial interests, following the temporary seizure of St. John's by the Dutch admiral Michiel de Ruyter in June 1665; the inhabitants fended off a second Dutch attack in 1673, when it was defended by Christopher Martin, an English merchant captain. Martin landed six cannons from his vessel, the Elias Andrews, constructed an earthen breastwork and battery near Chain Rock commanding the Narrows leading into the harbour.
With only 23 men, the valiant Martin beat off an attack by three Dutch warships. The English government planned to expand these fortifications in around 1689, but construction didn't begin until after the French admiral Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville captured and destroyed the town in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign; when 1500 English reinforcements arrived in late 1697, they found rubble where the town and fortifications had stood. The French attacked St. John's again in 1705, captured it in 1708, devastating civilian structures with fire on each instance; the harbour remained fortified through most of the 19th centuries. The final battle of the Seven Years' War in North America was fought in St. John's. Following a surprise capture of the town by the French early in the year, the British responded and, at the Battle of Signal Hill, the French surrendered St. John's to British forces under the command of Colonel William Amherst. In the late 1700s Fort Amherst and Fort Waldegrave were built to defend the harbour entrance.
There has been some controversy regarding. As mentioned above, while English fishermen had set up seasonal camps in St. John's in the 16th century, they were expressly forbidden by the English government, at the urging of the West Country fishing industry, from establishing permanent s