Ernestine Marie Carter OBE was an American-born British museum curator and fashion writer. She became hugely influential in her roles as women's editor, associate editor of The Sunday Times, her obituary described her as not only influencing British taste, but putting her authority behind emerging fashion talent, becoming: "not only the acknowledged leader among women's fashion writers but created a reputation for British fashion at a time when this country was considered a desert". In particular, she was instrumental in adding her authority to bolster the growing reputation of designers such as Mary Quant, Jean Muir, Gina Fratini and John Bates. Ernestine Marie Fantl was born on 10 October 1906 in Savannah, where she was brought up, she studied modern and contemporary art and design at Wellesley College, from which she graduated in 1927. She started out as a curatorial assistant at the newly formed Museum of Modern Art, New York City, where,between 1935 and 1937 she was Curator of Architecture and Industrial Art.
In 1936 she married a British antiquarian book dealer, John Waynflete Carter, the Carters moved to London. During the Second World War Carter was employed by the British Ministry of Information, she worked on exhibitions and edited a book of photographs by Lee Miller titled Grim Glory: Pictures of Britain Under Fire. The book, which included a foreword by Edward R. Murrow, went into five printings. In the war, Carter went to work for the U. S. office of war information in London. Carter worked on the important design exhibition Britain Can Make It, organised by the Council of Industrial Design and held at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1946; that same year she became fashion editor for Harper's Bazaar. Her first trip to Paris for the magazine was to report on Christian Dior's landmark New Look collection, launched 12 February 1947. From 1952-54, she wrote her first newspaper column, a cookery section for The Observer, during which time she published a cookbook called Flash In The Pan. In 1955, Carter began editing the women's page of The Sunday Times.
She became well known for the high standard of her journalism and writing, became associate editor of the paper in 1968. Carter's editorial team, including Moira Keenan, was credited with having changed the face of fashion reporting in newspapers, presenting articles that emphasised excellence of design at all price levels. Carter encouraged the emergence of London as a major centre of fashion in the 1960s, her intelligent prose and high standards led to her being recognised as an authoritative figure in the world of fashion. At a time when widespread intellectual snobbery led to the dismissal of fashion as a subject not worthy of serious consideration, Carter argued that fashion was "surely no more frivolous than architecture, to which it is related". In 1962, Carter was appointed to the National Council for Diplomas in Art and Design, a post awarded by the Minister of Education, she was appointed an OBE in 1964. In the same year, she became a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. In 1966, she was the first individual fashion journalist to be invited to select an outfit for the Dress Of The Year, for which she chose a futuristic PVC and linen ensemble by Michèle Rosier, Young Jaeger and Simone Mirman.
Two years she was appointed associate editor of The Sunday Times, a role she held until her retirement from the paper in 1972. After her retirement in 1972, Ernestine Carter wrote several books on fashion history, she died on 1 August 1983 at her home in London. The Fashion Museum, Bath holds an important archive of more than 2000 fashion photographs from The Sunday Times during Carter's tenure there; this is known both as The Sunday Times Fashion Archive. The Fashion Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum both own garments from Carter's wardrobe. Flash In The Pan 20th Century Fashion: a Scrapbook The Changing World of Fashion Magic Names of Fashion With Tongue in Chic
André Courrèges was a French fashion designer. He was known for his streamlined 1960s designs influenced by modernism and futurism, exploiting modern technology and new fabrics. Courrèges defined the go-go boot and along with Mary Quant, is one of the designers credited with inventing the miniskirt. Courrèges was born in the city of Pau within the Basque region of the Pyrenees, he wanted to pursue design in art school but his father, a butler disapproved his passion as he wanted him to be an engineer. Courrèges attended École Nationale des Ponts-et-Chaussées. During World War II, he became a pilot for the French Air Force. At 25, after studying to be a civil engineer, Courrèges went to Paris to work at the fashion house Jeanne Lafaurie. A few months he went to work for Cristóbal Balenciaga. Courrèges worked for Balenciaga for 10 years mastering the construction of garments. In 1961, Courrèges launched his own fashion house, he became known for simple, modern designs, including the "little white dress" and pants for women.
They were paired with low-heeled white ankle boots, a style that became known as the Courrèges boot, evolved into the popular go-go boot. His clientele were conservative woman with high disposable income, his designs style was shaped by Balenciaga with garments. Courrège's autumn 1964 collection evolved the fashion industry with modern, futuristic designs that were unheard of during the time; the collection included tailored tunics and trousers which were paired with his version of the miniskirt. "He paired his shorter skirts with white or colored leather, calf-high boots that added a confident flair to the ensemble. This look became one of the most important fashion developments of the decade and was copied." Controversy over who created the idea for the miniskirt revolves around Mary Quant. He explicitly claimed to have invented, accusing his London rival to the claim, Mary Quant of "commercialising" it. Courrèges presented short skirts in January 1965 for that year's Spring/Summer collection.
He had presented "above-the-knee" skirts in the previous year, with his August 1964 haute couture presentation proclaimed the "best show seen so far" for that season by The New York Times. Valerie Steele has stated that Courrèges was designing short skirts as early as 1961, although she champions Quant's claim to have created the miniskirt first as being more convincingly supported by evidence. Others, such as Jess Cartner-Morley of The Guardian explicitly credit Courrèges with having invented the miniskirt; the Independent stated that "Courreges was the inventor of the miniskirt: at least in his eyes and those of the French fashion fraternity... The argument came down to high fashion vs street fashion and to France versus Britain – there's no conclusive evidence either way." Alongside short skirts, Courrèges was renowned for his trouser suits, cut-out backs and midriffs, all designed for a new type of athletic, active young woman. Steele has described Courrèges's work as a "brilliant couture version of youth fashion."
One of Courrèges's most distinctive looks, a knit bodystocking with a gabardine miniskirt slung around the hips, was copied and plagiarised, much to his chagrin, it would be 1967 before he again held a press showing for his work. Courrèges's favoured materials included plastics such as stretch fabrics like Lycra. While he preferred white and silver, he used flashes of citrus colour, the predominantly white designs in his August 1964 show were tempered with touches of his signature clear pink, a "bright stinging" green, various shades of brown from dark to pale, poppy red. In 1967 Courrèges married Coqueline Barrière, his design assistant, they had met while working together at Balenciaga, worked together as a husband and wife team for the rest of his life. In 1968 Courrèges sold a share of his company to L'Oréal in order to finance his expansion, which, by 1972, included 125 boutiques around the world; that year, Courrèges was commissioned to design staff uniforms for the Munich Olympics that year.
He began offering menswear in 1973. In early 1983, Courrèges worked with the Japanese motor company Honda to design special editions of their TACT motor scooter. By 2005, Itokin held the Japanese ready-to-wear license for the Courrèges brand, with a retail value of €50 million. By this point, Madame Courrèges had succeeded her husband as artistic director for the brand, Courrèges having retired in 1995 following their successful reclamation of the brand in 1994 despite several ownership changes; as of 2012, 50% of the firm's total income was from license royalties. In 2011 Andre and Coqueline Courrèges sold the Courrèges brand to two advertising executives, Jacques Bungert and Frédéric Torloting. After a long absence from Paris Fashion Week, September 2015 saw the presentation of a new Courrèges collection designed by new creative directors Sébastien Meyer and Arnaud Vaillant. Courrège's Spring 1964 collection established his impact on the fashion industry and named him the Space Age designer.
The line consisted of "architecturally-sculpted, double-breasted coats with contrasting trim, well-tailored, sleeveless or short-sleeved minidresses with dropped waistlines and detailed welt seaming, tunics worn with hipster pants". A notable look was the linear minidresses with revolutionary tailoring with cut-out panels that displayed waists and backs. Courrège had strong beliefs within the liberation of fashion, he emphasized that "A woman's body must be not soft and harnessed. The harness – the girdle and bra – is the chain of the slave." Which is why his cut-out panel
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Vogue (British magazine)
The British edition of the fashion magazine Vogue is owned and distributed by US media company Conde Nast. British Vogue has been published since autumn 1916, its current editor stated. It’s the place everybody wants to be if they want to be in the world of fashion" and 85% of the magazine’s readers agree that “Vogue is the Fashion Bible”; the magazine is considered to be one that links fashion to high society and class, teaching its readers how to ‘assume a distinctively chic and modern appearance’. As a branch-off of American Vogue, British Vogue is a magazine whose success is based upon its advertising rather than its sales revenue. In 2007, it ran 2,020 pages of advertising at an average of £16,000 a page, it is deemed to be more commercial than other editions of Vogue. British Vogue is the most profitable British magazine as well as the most profitable edition of Vogue besides the US and China editions. During the First World War, Condé Nast, Vogue's publisher, had to deal with restrictions on overseas shipping as well as paper shortages in America.
The British edition of Vogue was the answer to this problem, providing Vogue fashion coverage in the British Isles when it was not practicable to receive it in the usual way. Under the London edition's second editor, Elspeth Champcommunal, the magazine was the same as the American edition, except for its British English spellings. However, Champcommunal thought it important, it featured articles on ‘society and sporting news… Health and beauty advice… travelogues… and editorials’, making it a'skillfully mixed cocktail'. Champcommunal held her editorial position until 1922. Under its second editor, Dorothy Todd, a renowned Vogue editor due to her boldness in her movement to blend the arts and fashion, the magazine shifted its focus from fashion to literature, featuring articles from Clive Bell about art exhibitions in Paris. There were notable features from noted English writers such as Virginia Woolf and Aldous Huxley. Due to Todd's changes, the magazine lost much of its audience, she spent only four years as editor.
British Vogue is not believed to have taken off until after its third editor, Alison Settle, was appointed in 1926. Under Audrey Withers, the magazine again took a literary direction, during the Second World War it took part in reporting the war. In 1944, the American photographer Lee Miller persuaded Withers to send her to Normandy to produce an article on wartime nursing. Alexandra Shulman was Editor-in-Chief of the magazine from 1992 to 2017; when Shulman was editor, the magazine drew more than a million readers. Shulman was known for developing collector’s issues of British Vogue, such as the ‘Gold Millennium Issue’ where celebrities and supermodels such as Kate Moss featured on the cover. Shulman was praised for her use of up and coming photographers like Mario Testino. Shulman became known for her attempt to change the face of fashion, she pushed designers to stop using'size-zero' models. Shulman stated that "super-skinny models are no longer acceptable," receiving positive notes from women all over the world.
Edward Enninful was confirmed as the new Editor-in-Chief of British Vogue on 10 April 2017. Condé Nast International Chairman and CEO Jonathan Newhouse announced him as the successor to Alexandra Shulman, calling Enninful "an influential figure in the communities of fashion and music which shape the cultural zeitgeist", adding that "by virtue of his talent and experience, Edward is supremely prepared to assume the responsibility of British Vogue". Enninful's first issue as Editor-in-Chief was 2017's December issue, featuring British model and activist Adwoa Aboah on the cover. On the magazine’s website there are more than 25 fashion blogs on beauty and culture. You can find VogueTV which features recent fashion videos from catwalks to interviews with models and designers. There has been an ongoing debate about whether or not the fashion industry is racist, with the arrest of British designer John Galliano, found guilty of making racist and anti-Semitic comments in a public setting, as well as the news the hairdresser James Brown, who has worked with Kate Moss, went on a rant where he used the'N' word, more attention has been brought to the issue.
Vogue editor Alexandra Shulman joined the race debate, making a statement to the Daily Mail that she doesn't "think fashion is institutionally racist in the slightest". British Vogue faces some criticisms for fashion blunders. In 2011, the magazine was criticised for a spread in the December 2011 issue which featured a rosy-cheeked model sitting atop a yak, sporting a pair of £5,820 trousers said to make the model look like the animal. List of British Vogue cover models List of Vogue cover models List of women's magazines List of men's magazines Official Site British Vogue – magazine profile at Fashion Model Directory
A boutique is "a small store that sells stylish clothing, jewelry, or other luxury goods". The word is French for "shop", which derives from the Greek ἀποθήκη or "storehouse"; the term "boutique" and "designer" refer to both goods and services which are containing some element, claimed to justify an high price, itself called boutique pricing. As with the fine art market, the use of art in money laundering schemes, national governments have to be concerned with boutique shops and the high pricing of boutique goods as instruments in fraud and other financial schemes; the term "boutique" entered common English parlance in the late 1960s. In Europe, Avenue Montaigne and Bond Street were the focus of much media attention for having the most fashionable stores of the era; some multi-outlet businesses can be referred to as boutiques if they target small, upscale market niches. Although some boutiques specialize in hand-made items and other unique products, others produce T-shirts and other fashion accessories in artificially small runs and sell them at high prices.
In the late 1990s, some European retail traders developed the idea of tailoring a shop towards a lifestyle theme, in what they called "concept stores", which specialized in cross-selling without using separate departments. One of the first concept stores was 10 Corso Como in Milan, founded in 1990, followed by Colette in Paris and Quartier 206 in Berlin. Several well-known American chains such as Tiffany & Co. Urban Outfitters and The Gap, Australian chain Billabong and, though less common, Lord & Taylor, adapted to the concept store trend after 2000. Nowadays, people are turning more and more to online shopping. Retailers as well as buyers, due to lack of time, prefer to be able to order their stocks, or pieces through 1-3 clicks. Online boutique business has a lot of good sides, like there is no need to pay a high rent or invest in the store or the possibility to manage the store wherever you are, which make retailers to turn more and more towards internet. For the buyers, online shopping represents the possibility to save time as well, since they can order the item and get it delivered in just a few days.
Types of retail outlets Types of advertising agencies