John Bell was an American politician and planter. One of Tennessee's most prominent antebellum politicians, he served in the House of Representatives from 1827 to 1841, in the Senate from 1847 to 1859, he was Speaker of the House for the 23rd Congress, served as Secretary of War during the administration of William Henry Harrison. In 1860, he ran for president as the candidate for the Constitutional Union Party, a third party which took a neutral stance on the issue of slavery. An ally of Andrew Jackson, Bell turned against Jackson in the mid-1830s and aligned himself with the Whig Party, a shift which earned him the nickname, "The Great Apostate." He battled Jackson's allies, namely James K. Polk, over issues such as the national bank and the election spoils system. Following the death of Hugh Lawson White in 1840, Bell became the acknowledged leader of Tennessee's Whigs. Although a slaveholder, Bell was one of the few southern politicians to oppose the expansion of slavery in the 1850s, campaigned vigorously against secession in the years leading up to the American Civil War.
During his 1860 presidential campaign, he argued that secession was unnecessary since the Constitution protected slavery, an argument which resonated with voters in border states, helping him capture the electoral votes of Tennessee and Virginia. After the Battle of Fort Sumter in April 1861, Bell abandoned the Union cause and supported the Confederacy. John Bell was born in a hamlet near Nashville, Tennessee, he was one of nine children of blacksmith Samuel Bell and Margaret Bell. His paternal grandfather, Robert Bell, had served in the American Revolution under Nathanael Greene, his maternal grandfather, John Edmiston, had fought at Kings Mountain, he studied law. He was established a prosperous practice in Franklin. Entering politics, he ran for the Tennessee Senate in 1817; as a state senator, he supported judicial and state constitutional reform, voted for moving the state capital to Murfreesboro. After serving a single term, Bell declined to run for reelection and instead moved to Nashville, where he established a law partnership with Henry Crabb.
In 1827, Bell ran for Tennessee's 7th District seat in the U. S. House of Representatives, vacated when the incumbent, Sam Houston, was elected governor. Bell and his opponent, Felix Grundy, engaged in a bitter campaign in which both claimed to support the initiatives of Andrew Jackson. Although Jackson endorsed Grundy, Bell was more popular with younger voters, won the election by just over a thousand votes. Like many southern congressmen, Bell opposed the Tariff of 1828, he opposed federal funding for improvements to the Cumberland Road, arguing that the federal government lacked the constitutional authority to fund such a project. One of Bell's biggest initiatives was the Tennessee land bill, in which he and fellow Tennessee congressmen James K. Polk and Davy Crockett proposed the federal government give some of its lands in Tennessee to the state in order to establish public schools. Congressmen from eastern states rejected this, stating that Tennessee's mismanagement of its land resources was not the federal government's fault, the bill was shelved.
During Bell's second term, he was chairman of the House Committee on Indian Affairs. As such, he wrote the Indian Removal Act, submitted by the committee in February 1830, signed by President Jackson that year; this act led to the removal of the Cherokee and other tribes to Oklahoma, via the Trail of Tears, in the latter half of the decade. One of the bill's most vocal opponents was Massachusetts congressman Edward Everett, Bell's future running mate. Following the shake-up of Jackson's cabinet in the wake of the Petticoat affair in 1831, Senator Hugh Lawson White recommended Bell for Secretary of War, but the appointment went to Lewis Cass. Bell remained a staunch Jackson ally through his third term, opposing nullification and supporting the Force Bill; the rift between Bell and Jackson began to show during Bell's fourth term. Jackson opposed the idea of a national bank and withdrew the government's deposits from the Bank of the United States in 1833. Bell was silent on the issue, while Polk defended the administration's actions on the House floor in April 1834.
In June 1834, following the resignation of Speaker of the House Andrew Stevenson, Polk sought the Speakership. Anti-Jacksonites threw their support behind Bell and Bell was elected Speaker by a 114 to 78 vote. Following his election, Bell stated he wasn't opposed to rechartering the bank, something Jackson vigorously opposed, Polk's allies assailed Bell in the press as a friend of the bank; the final break with Jackson came in 1835 when Bell supported the presidential campaign of Hugh Lawson White, one of three members of the new Whig Party running against Jackson's chosen successor, Martin Van Buren. Jackson dismissed Bell and long-time foe Davy Crockett as "hypocritical apostates." When the House of Representatives convened in 1835, Polk mounted a strong campaign for the Speakership, defeated Bell 132 to 84. Jackson's friends were so elated at Bell's defeat, they held a gala at Vauxhall Gardens in Nashville, celebrating with champagne and the firing of cannons. Bell spent much of his remaining House career sponsoring mostly-unsuccessful legislation aimed at ending the spoils system.
In 1837, he was
The Primacy Collegiate Academy Taipei Adventist Preparatory Academy, is a private international high school located in Shilin District, Taiwan. In 2002, Adventist College Preparatory Center was founded with the purpose of providing part-time English-language tutoring for high school students and college-placement assistance for students interested in attending English-speaking universities. During the first year, the school provided tutoring to 30 students and college-placement to 6 students. Throughout the following years, the student population increased and, in 2005, the English-language training was integrated into an American curriculum high school offering regular and Advanced Placement courses. In 2005, the Academy had its first high school graduates—a class of three. In the fall of 2005, ACPC changed its name to Taipei Adventist Preparatory Academy or more known as TAPA; the Taipei Adventist Preparatory Academy continued to grow throughout the years until in 2012, it reached over 150 students representing twenty plus nationalities.
The Primacy Collegiate Academy follows the American educational system designated for private schools. It affiliated with Atlanta Adventist Academy in Atlanta and Griggs International Academy in Berrien Springs, Michigan. Through these affiliations, Primacy students are issued American high school transcripts and diplomas that are recognized by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and are accepted by western colleges and universities. In addition to enriched academic standards, we participated in our Initial Accreditation Visit from the Western Association of Schools and Colleges in May 2013; the former Taipei Adventist Preparatory Academy first transited into a 1:1 iPad school in the fall of 2011. 李玉璽, Class of 2011 - Musician 蔣友青, Class of 2010 Rima Zeidan, Class of 2009 – Television presenter Dacie Chao 趙岱新, Class of 2009 - Journalist Taipei Adventist American School Taiwan Adventist International School Lin, Mei-Chun. "Life in Taiwan: Meeting the Educational Needs of Expat Families.
TAS and TES are the biggest and best-known, but in fact Taiwan has a total of 19 international schools – and not all of them are in Taipei and not all teach in English". American Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2009-11-02
The United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific was a World War II command and control authority of the United States Army Air Forces in the Pacific theater of World War II. USASTAF was the Pacific counterpart of the United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe, its mission was to coordinate strategic bombing of the Japanese home islands during the expected invasion of Japan. The Joint Chiefs agreed to the established of the USASTAF on 2 July 1945, it would have a headquarters in Guam and be commanded by General Carl Andrew "Tooey" Spaatz, consisted of the combat commands of the Twentieth Air Force and the Eighth Air Force when redeployed from the European Theater of Operations to Okinawa. General Curtis E. Lemay was appointed Spaatz's Chief of Staff. Guam was the headquarters of the XXI Bomber Command and until the arrival of the Eighth Air Force would provide the bulk of men and equipment of the new command. On 16 July the headquarters of the Twentieth Air Force was moved from Washington, DC to Harmon Field, Guam.
On the same day the Eighth was reassigned to Okinawa, as a paper transfer as it arrived without men or equipment. Spaatz arrived in theater on 29 July and began organizing his forces—a task he had not completed by the war's end; the primary combat missions carried out by USASTAF forces were the firebombing of Japanese cities and industrial targets during June and July 1945 by Twentieth Air Force. No Eighth Air Force combat missions were flown; the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were carried out by direct order of USAAF Chief of Staff General Henry "Hap" Arnold" through the 509th Composite Group. On 6 December 1945 USASTAF was abolished by the inactivation of its headquarters and headquarters squadron, its personnel and aircraft were assigned to Pacific Air Command, United States Army, assigned to United States Army Forces, Pacific. PACUSA was reassigned to Tokyo, Japan on 17 May 1946; the USAAF Air Forces in the Pacific region were reassigned as follows: Fifth Air Force: Assigned to Tokyo, Japan Seventh Air Force: Assigned to Hickam Field, Territory of Hawaii Eighth Air Force: Assigned to Kadena Army Air Base, Okinawa Thirteenth Air Force: Assigned to Clark Field, Philippines Twentieth Air Force: Assigned to Harmon Field, Mariana IslandsThere was the Pacific Air Service Command Far East Air Service Command, attached to HQ PACUSA.
The USAAF Air Forces in the Pacific region had a total of six very-heavy-bombardment groups, nine fighter groups, two light-bombardment groups, two troop-carrier groups, along with three tactical reconnaissance, five air-sea rescue, five night-fighter, two liaison, two tow-target, two very-long-range photographic-reconnaissance squadrons. Although by December 1945 most of these units were in the process of being reassigned to the United States or demobilzing in-theater and the personnel returning to processing centers for discharge. Established as United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific, 2 July 1945Activated and organized on 16 July 1945 Inactivated on 6 December 1945 Assets reassigned to: Pacific Air Command, United States Army, Eighth Air Force, 16 July 1945 – 6 December 1945 Twentieth Air Force, 16 July 1945 – 6 December 1945 Attribution This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Photos of USASTAF facilities on Guam, 1945