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1874 United Kingdom general election
The 1874 United Kingdom general election saw the incumbent Liberals, led by William Ewart Gladstone, lose decisively though it won a majority of the votes cast. Benjamin Disraeli's Conservatives won the majority of seats in the House of Commons because they won a number of uncontested seats, it was the first Conservative victory in a general election since 1841. Gladstone's decision to call an election surprised his colleagues, for they were aware of large sectors of discontent in their coalition. For example, the nonconformists were upset with education policies; the Conservatives were making gains in the middle-class, Gladstone wanted to abolish the income tax, but failed to carry his own cabinet. The result was a disaster for the Liberals, who went from 387 MPs to only 242. Conservatives jumped from 271 to 350. For the first time the Irish Nationalists gained seats, returning 60. Gladstone himself noted: "We have been swept away in a torrent of gin and beer"; the election saw Irish nationalists in the Home Rule League become the first significant third party in Parliament.
This had been the first general election that used a secret ballot following the 1872 Secret Ballot Act. The Irish Nationalist gains could well be attributed to the effects of the Secret Ballot Act as tenants faced less of a threat of eviction if they voted against the wishes of their landlords; this is the only time since the introduction of the secret ballot that a party has been defeated despite receiving an absolute majority of the popular vote. This was because over 100 Conservative candidates were elected unopposed; this meant. The election saw 652 MPs elected: 6 fewer than at the prior election. Following allegations of corruption the Conservative held constituencies of Beverley and Sligo Borough, the Liberal held constituencies of Bridgwater and Cashel, had been abolished
William Lawrence (London MP)
Sir William Lawrence was an English builder and Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons in two periods between 1865 and 1885. Lawrence was the eldest son of William Lawrence, an alderman of the City of London, his wife Jane Clarke, daughter of James Clarke, he was a partner in the firm of William Lawrence and Sons Builders. In 1857 he was High Sheriff of London and Middlesex for a year and in 1863 to 1864 Lord Mayor of London, he was a Deputy Lieutenant for the City of London, a J. P. for Middlesex and Westminster and an alderman of London. At the 1865 general election Lawrence was elected as a Member of Parliament for the City of London, but lost the seat in 1874, he was re-elected at the 1880 general election and held the seat until the next general election, in 1885, when representation was reduced from four to two under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. He was the last Liberal to represent the City of London. At the 1885 general election he stood in Paddington South as an independent liberal, but was unsuccessful, winning only 7.2% of the votes.
Lawrence died unmarried at the age of 78. He is buried in the eastern roundel of Kensal Green Cemetery in London, not far from the entrance; the address at his funeral was given by Brooke Herford, minister of Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel where he, like his father, had worshipped. His brothers Sir James Lawrence, 1st Baronet and Sir Edwin Durning-Lawrence were M. P.s. James was MP for Edwin for Truro, his nephew Frederick Pethick-Lawrence was a pacifist and suffragist, an MP. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Lawrence
1847 United Kingdom general election
The 1847 United Kingdom general election saw candidates calling themselves Conservatives win the most seats, in part because they won a number of uncontested seats. However, the split among the Conservatives between the majority of Protectionists, led by Lord Stanley, the minority of free traders, known as the Peelites, led by former prime minister Sir Robert Peel, left the Whigs, led by Prime Minister Lord John Russell, in a position to continue in government; the Irish Repeal group won more seats than in the previous general election, while the Chartists gained the only seat they were to hold, Nottingham's second seat, held by Chartist leader Feargus O'Connor. The election witnessed the election of Britain's first Jewish MP, the Liberal Lionel de Rothschild in the City of London. Members being sworn in were however required to swear the Christian Oath of Allegiance, meaning Rothschild was unable to take his seat until the passage of the Jews Relief Act in 1858. Craig, F. W. S. British Electoral Facts: 1832–1987, Dartmouth: Gower, ISBN 0900178302 Rallings, Colin.
British Electoral Facts 1832–1999, Ashgate Publishing Ltd Spartacus: Political Parties and Election Results
George Holt (merchant)
George Holt was a Victorian ship owner and art collector from Liverpool. Together with William James Lamport, he founded the Lamport and Holt shipping line in 1845. Holt was a son of Emma Durning, he married fellow Liverpudlian Elizabeth Bright on 1 December 1853 and died on 3 April 1896. The Holts lived at Edge Lane, in West Derby before moving in 1884 to Sudley House in Aigburth, Liverpool, they had one child, Emma Holt, born in 1862, inherited the property and lived there until her death in 1944. Her mother, born in 1833, had died in 1920. Among his brothers were Alfred Holt, founder of the Blue Funnel Line, Philip Holt, Robert Durning Holt, the first Lord Mayor of Liverpool. There was a sister, Anne. All were Unitarians. Aside from business interests and his role with the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, Holt was involved with and supportive of both the experimental work of the physicist Oliver Lodge and the Liverpool Physical Society, he donated over £40,000 to University College, the precursor of the University of Liverpool, including endowments for professorial chairs in physiology and pathology, for research studentships in medical sciences.
The University of Liverpool's George Holt Building, which houses five laboratories of the university's department of computer science, is named after him. His wife and daughter contributed £10,000 towards the total £24,000 cost of erecting the building, which opened in 1904 There is a Halls of Residence at Edge Hill University called Holt in his honour. "Papers of the Durning and Holt Families". National Archives
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.
Lambeth is a district in Central London, England, in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is situated 1 mile south of Charing Cross; the population of the London Borough of Lambeth was 303,086 in 2011. The area experienced some slight growth in the medieval period as part of the manor of Lambeth Palace. By the Victorian era the area had seen significant development as London expanded, with dense industrial and residential buildings located adjacent to one another; the changes brought by World War II altered much of the fabric of Lambeth. Subsequent development in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has seen an increase in the number of high-rise buildings; the area is home to the International Maritime Organization. The origins of the name of Lambeth come from its first record in 1062 as Lambehitha, meaning'landing place for lambs', in 1255 as Lambeth. In the Domesday Book, Lambeth is called "Lanchei" in error; the name refers to a harbour where lambs were either shipped to. It is formed from the Old English'lamb' and'hythe'.
South Lambeth is recorded as Sutlamehethe in 1241 and North Lambeth is recorded in 1319 as North Lamhuth. The manor of Lambeth is recorded as being under ownership of the Archbishop of Canterbury from at least 1190; the Archbishops led the development of much of the manor, with Archbishop Hubert Walter creating the residence of Lambeth Palace in 1197. Lambeth and the palace were the site of two important 13th-century international treaties. Edward, the Black Prince lived in Lambeth in the 14th century in an estate that incorporated the land not belonging to the Archbishops, which included Kennington; as such, much of the freehold land of Lambeth to this day remains under Royal ownership as part of the estate of the Duchy of Cornwall. Lambeth was the site of the principal medieval London residence of the Dukes of Norfolk, but by 1680 the large house had been sold and ended up as a pottery manufacturer, creating some of the first examples of English delftware in the country; the road names, Norfolk Place and Norfolk Row reflect the legacy of the house today.
Lambeth Palace lies opposite the southern section of the Palace of Westminster on the Thames. The two were linked by a horse ferry across the river; until the mid-18th century the north of Lambeth was marshland, crossed by a number of roads raised against floods. The marshland in the area, known as Lambeth Marshe, was drained in the 18th century but is remembered in the Lower Marsh street name. With the opening of Westminster Bridge in 1750, followed by the Blackfriars Bridge, Vauxhall Bridge and Lambeth Bridge itself, a number of major thoroughfares were developed through Lambeth, such as Westminster Bridge Road, Kennington Road and Camberwell New Road; until the 18th century Lambeth was still rural in nature, being outside the boundaries of central London, although it had experienced growth in the form of taverns and entertainment venues, such as theatres and Bear pits. The subsequent growth in road and marine transport, along with the development of industry in the wake of the industrial revolution brought great change to the area.
The area grew with an ever-increasing population at this time, many of whom were poor. As a result, Lambeth opened a parish workhouse in 1726. In 1777 a parliamentary report recorded a parish workhouse in operation accommodating up to 270 inmates. On 18 December 1835 the Lambeth Poor Law Parish was formed, comprising the parish of St Mary, Lambeth, "including the district attached to the new churches of St John, Kennington, Norwood", its operation was overseen by an elected Board of twenty Guardians. Following in the tradition of earlier delftware manufacturers, the Royal Doulton Pottery company had their principle manufacturing site in Lambeth for several centuries; the Lambeth factory closed in 1956 and production was transferred to Staffordshire. However the Doulton offices, located on Black Prince Road still remain as they are a listed building, which includes the original decorative tiling. Between 1801 and 1831 the population of Lambeth trebled and in ten years alone between 1831 and 1841 it increased from 87,856 in to 105,883.
The railway first came to Lambeth in the 1840s, as construction began which extended the London and South Western Railway from its original station at Nine Elms to the new terminus at London Waterloo via the newly constructed Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct. With the massive urban development of London in the 19th century and with the opening of the large Waterloo railway station in 1848 the locality around the station and Lower Marsh became known as Waterloo, becoming an area distinct from Lambeth itself; the Lambeth Ragged school was built in 1851 to help educate the children of destitute facilities, although the widening of the London and South Western Railway in 1904 saw the building reduced in size. Part of the school building still is occupied by the Beaconsfield Gallery; the Beaufoy Institute was built in 1907 to provide technical education for the poor of the area, although this stopped being an educational institution at the end of the 20th century. Lambeth Walk and Lambeth High Street were the two principle commercial streets of Lambeth, but today are predominantly residential in nature.
Lambeth Walk was site of a market for many years, which by 1938 had 159 shops, including 11 butchers. The street and surrounding roads, like most of Lambeth were extensively damaged in the Second World War; this included the complete destruction of the Victorian Swimming Baths in 1945, when a V2 Rocket hit the street resulting in the deaths of 37 peopl