Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Edward Dmytryk was a Canadian-born American film director. He was known for his 1940s noir films and received an Oscar nomination for Best Director for Crossfire. In 1947, he was named as one of the Hollywood Ten, a group of blacklisted film industry professionals who refused to testify to the House Un-American Activities Committee in their investigations during the McCarthy-era'Red scare', they all served time in prison for contempt of Congress. In 1951, Dmytryk did testify to HUAC and rehabilitated his career. First hired again by independent producer Stanley Kramer in 1952, Dmytryk is best known for directing The Caine Mutiny, a critical and commercial success; the second-highest grossing film of the year, it was nominated for Best Picture and several other awards at the 1955 Oscars. Dmytryk was nominated for a Directors Guild Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures. Dmytryk was born on September 1908, in Grand Forks, British Columbia, Canada, his Polish-Ukrainian immigrant parents were Frances and Michael Dmytryk, a severe disciplinarian who bounced between jobs as truck driver, smelter worker, motorman.
The family moved to San Francisco, to Los Angeles. After his mother died, his father remarried. Dmytryk worked as a messenger at Famous Players-Lasky for $6 a week while attending Hollywood High School, he progressed to projectionist, film editor, by age 31, a director and a naturalized citizen of the United States. Dmytryk worked in the editing department on films such as The Dance of Life, Only Saps Work, The Royal Family of Broadway, Make Me a Star, The Phantom President, If I Had a Million, he helped edit Duck Soup and Six of a Kind. He edited College Rhythm, did Leo McCarey's Ruggles of Red Gap. Dmytryk made his directorial debut with a low-budget independent Western, he returned to editing duties at Paramount, but was assigned to B films:Too Many Parents, Three Cheers for Love, Three Married Men, Easy to Take, Murder Goes to College, Turn Off the Moon, Double or Nothing with Bing Crosby, That Navy Spirit. Dmytryk edited Bulldog Drummond's Peril and Prison Farm, he moved his way back up to A movies with Zaza, directed by George Cukor.
Leo McCarey asked him over to RKO to edit Love Affair. He returned to Paramount to edit the Bob Hope comedy. Dmytryk did some uncredited directing on Million Dollar Legs with Betty Grable; this encouraged Paramount to allow him to direct Television Spy. He followed it with Emergency Squad, Golden Gloves, Mystery Sea Raider with Carole Landis. Dmytryk went to Monogram Pictures to direct a musical with Her First Romance, he went over to Columbia to direct for their B picture unit: The Devil Commands with Boris Karloff, Under Age, Broadway Ahead, Hot Pearls, Secrets of the Lone Wolf, Confessions of Boston Blackie, Counter-Espionage, a "Lone Wolf" movie. Dmytryk signed a contract to RKO, where he continued to direct B movies, starting with Seven Miles from Alcatraz. However, he made Hitler's Children, which turned out to be a massive "sleeper" hit, earning over $3 million, it did not change his career. Back at RKO, he directed a Hitler's Children-style thriller about the Japanese, Behind the Rising Sun.
It was another box-office sensation, Dmytryk was promoted to A films. Dmytryk directed RKO's biggest star, Ginger Rogers, in the melodrama Tender Comrade, a huge hit, he followed it with Murder, My Sweet, adapted from Raymond Chandler's novel, Farewell, My Lovely by John Paxton and produced by Adrian Scott. Dymtryk did a war film starring John Wayne, Back to Bataan he was reunited with Powell and Scott for the popular film noir Cornered, he did a drama about soldiers coming back from the war, Till the End of Time, a big hit, went to England to make So Well Remembered with Paxton and Scott. Dmytryk and Paxton collaborated on the hugely successful thriller Crossfire, for which Dmytryk received a Best Director Oscar nomination, he was established as RKO's leading director. After the war, many Americans were alarmed by Soviet actions in Europe, by reports of covert Communist activity in the U. S; this period has been dubbed the Second Red Scare. The House Un-American Activities Committee investigated Communist Party influence in the film industry, Dmytryk was among those called to testify about it before HUAC in 1947.
Dmytryk had been a Communist Party member in 1944 and 1945. He was persuaded by his former party associates to join nine other Hollywood figures in a public refusal to testify; the Hollywood Ten were sentenced to prison terms. Dmytryk was fired from RKO. Dmytryk was unofficially ostracized. In England, he made two films for producer Nat Bronstein: a thriller Obsession, Give Us This Day, a neo-realistic movie sympathetic to the working man, based on the novel Christ in Concrete; the latter movie, successful in Europe, was released as Christ in Concrete in the United States and suppressed. When his passport ran out, Dmytryk retu
Stan Laurel was an English comic actor and film director, part of the comedy duo Laurel and Hardy. He appeared with his comedy partner Oliver Hardy in 107 short films, feature films, cameo roles. Laurel began his career in music hall where he developed a number of his standard comic devices, including the bowler hat, the deep comic gravity, the nonsensical understatement, his performances polished his skills at music hall sketches. He was a member of "Fred Karno's Army", he and Chaplin arrived in the United States on the same ship from the United Kingdom with the Karno troupe. Laurel began his film career in 1917 and made his final appearance in 1951. From 1928 onwards, he appeared with Hardy. Laurel retired following his comedy partner's death in 1957. In 1961, Laurel was given a Lifetime Achievement Academy Award for his pioneering work in comedy, he has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood Blvd. Laurel and Hardy ranked top among best double acts and seventh overall in a 2005 UK poll to find the Comedians' Comedian.
In 2009, a bronze statue of the duo was unveiled in Laurel's home town of Ulverston. Arthur Stanley Jefferson was born in his grandparents' house on 16 June 1890 in Argyll Street, Lancashire, to Arthur Jefferson, a theatre manager from Bishop Auckland, Margaret, an actress from Ulverston, he was one of five children. His parents were both active in the theatre and always busy. In his early years, Laurel spent much time living with Sarah Metcalfe, he attended school at King James I Grammar School in Bishop Auckland, County Durham, the King's School in Tynemouth, Northumberland. He moved with his parents to Glasgow, where he completed his education at Rutherglen Academy, his father managed Glasgow's Metropole Theatre. His boyhood hero was Dan one of the greatest English music hall comedians. With a natural affinity for the theatre, Laurel gave his first professional performance on stage at the Panopticon in Glasgow at the age of sixteen, where he polished his skills at pantomime and music hall sketches.
It was the music hall from where he drew his standard comic devices, including his bowler hat and nonsensical understatement. He joined Fred Karno's troupe of actors in 1910 with the stage name of "Stan Jefferson"; the music hall nurtured him, he acted as Chaplin's understudy for some time. Karno was a pioneer of slapstick, in his biography Laurel stated, "Fred Karno didn't teach Charlie and me all we know about comedy, he just taught us most of it". Chaplin and Laurel arrived in the United States on the same ship from Britain with the Karno troupe and toured the country. During the First World War, Laurel registered for military service in America on 5 June 1917, as required under the Selective Service Act, he was not called up. Between 1916 and 1918, he teamed up with Alice Cooke and Baldwin Cooke, who became his lifelong friends. Amongst other performers, Laurel worked alongside Oliver Hardy in the silent film short The Lucky Dog, before the two were a team, it was around this time. Around the same time, he adopted the stage name of Laurel at Dahlberg's suggestion that his stage name Stan Jefferson was unlucky, due to it having thirteen letters.
The pair were performing together. After making his first film Nuts in May, Universal offered him a contract; the contract was soon cancelled during a reorganisation at the studio. Among the films in which Dahlberg and Laurel appeared together was the 1922 parody Mud and Sand. By 1924, Laurel had given up the stage for full-time film work, under contract with Joe Rock for 12 two-reel comedies; the contract had one unusual stipulation:. Rock thought. In 1925, she started interfering with Laurel's work, so Rock offered her a cash settlement and a one-way ticket back to her native Australia, which she accepted; the 12 two-reel comedies were Mandarin Mix-Up, Monsieur Don't Care, West of Hot Dog, Somewhere in Wrong, Pie-Eyed, The Snow Hawk, Navy Blue Days, The Sleuth, Dr. Pyckle and Mr. Pryde and Half a Man. Laurel next signed with the Hal Roach studio, where he began directing films, including a 1926 production called Yes, Nanette, it had been his intention to work as a writer and director. The same year, Oliver Hardy, another member of the Hal Roach Studios Comedy All Star players, was injured in a kitchen mishap and hospitalised.
Because he was unable to work on the scheduled film, Get'Em Young, Laurel was asked to return to acting to fill in. Starting early in 1927, Laurel and Hardy began sharing the screen in several short films, including Duck Soup, Slipping Wives and With Love and Hisses; the two became their comic chemistry soon became obvious. Roach Studios' supervising director Leo McCarey noticed the audience reaction to them and began teaming them, leading to the creation of the Laurel and Hardy series that year. Together, the two men began producing a huge body of short films, including The Battle of the Century, Should Married Men Go Home?, Two Tars, Be Big!, Big Business, many others. Laurel and Hardy made the transition to talking films with the short Unaccustomed As We Are in
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Caesar (Mercury Theatre)
Caesar is the title of Orson Welles's innovative 1937 adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, a modern-dress bare-stage production that evoked comparison to contemporary Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Considered Welles's highest achievement in the theatre, it premiered November 11, 1937, as the first production of the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented an acclaimed series of productions on Broadway through 1941, it would have been a fascinating experiment if it had failed. That it succeeds so admirably is enough to blow the hinges off the dictionary. Breaking with the Federal Theatre Project in 1937, Orson Welles and John Houseman founded their own repertory company, which they called the Mercury Theatre; the name was inspired by the title of The American Mercury. The original company included such actors as Joseph Cotten, George Coulouris, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Ruth Ford, Arlene Francis, Martin Gabel, John Hoysradt, Whitford Kane, Norman Lloyd, Vincent Price, Erskine Sanford, Stefan Schnabel and Hiram Sherman.
The Mercury Theatre opened November 11, 1937, with Caesar—Welles's modern-dress adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Caesar, streamlined into an anti-fascist tour de force that Joseph Cotten described as "so vigorous, so contemporary that it set Broadway on its ear." The set was open with no curtain, the brick stage walls were painted dark red. Scene changes were achieved by lighting alone. On the stage was a series of risers. "He staged it like a political melodrama that happened the night before," said Norman Lloyd, who played the role of Cinna the Poet. In a scene that became the fulcrum of the show, Cinna the Poet dies at the hands not of a mob but of a secret police force. Lloyd called it "an extraordinary scene gripped the audience in a way that the show stopped for about three minutes; the audience stopped it with applause. It showed the audience. Music was by Marc Blitzstein. Rehearsals began October 21, 1937. At the end of October press agent Henry Senber oversaw a ceremony unveiling the new electric sign identifying the theatre as the Mercury.
Ticket prices ranged from 55 cents, for seats in the top balcony, to $2.20 for front row orchestra seats. The production moved from the Mercury Theatre to the larger National Theatre on January 24, 1938, it ran through May 1938, for a total of 157 performances. "Caesar was unquestionably Welles's highest achievement in the theatre," wrote critic Richard France. At least two memorable incidents marked the production. Arthur Anderson, who played the role of young Lucius, found himself bored and lonely in his third-floor dressing room at the National Theatre. During the matinee performance on March 10, 1938, he stood on a chair and lifted a match to a sprinkler head—accidentally setting off the fire-sprinkler system. Water poured under a fire door down onto the main switchboard and began pooling at Welles's feet during the funeral oration; the show was delayed 15 minutes as electricians worked and stagehands mopped the floor. Anderson kept his job, but he was charged $30 for sprinkler repairs and was required to have an extra at his side for two weeks at $1 a show.
The incident is fictionalized in Robert Kaplow's novel Me and Orson Welles and its 2008 film adaptation. Actor Joseph Holland, who played the title role in Caesar, was accidentally stabbed by Welles during the performance on April 6, 1938. Welles performed with a real dagger, which caught the light during the assassination scene. Holland collapsed on the stage floor and remained motionless, in time the cast members realized that he was bleeding profusely. At the end of the scene he was taken by taxi to the hospital. During the month it took Holland to recover, the role of Caesar was played by John Hoysradt. Holland returned to the Caesar cast on May 5, 1938. Joseph Holland as Julius Caesar George Coulouris as Marcus Antonius Joseph Cotten as Publius Orson Welles as Marcus Brutus Martin Gabel as Cassius Hiram Sherman as Casca John A. Willard as Trebonius Grover Burgess as Ligarius John Hoysradt as Decius Brutus Stefan Schnabel as Metellus Cimber Elliott Reid as Cinna William Mowry as Flavius William Alland as Marullus George Duthie as Artemidorus Norman Lloyd as Cinna, the poet Arthur Anderson as Lucius Evelyn Allen as Calpurnia, wife to Caesar Muriel Brassler as Portia, wife to Brutus Herbert Kehl's color photographs in the June 1938 issue of Coronet magazine are from the production after it moved from the Mercury Theatre to the larger National Theatre in January.
At the National Theatre, Polly Rowles took the role of Alice Frost played Portia. Unable to attend on opening night, drama critic John Mason Brown asked to review the matinee preview of Caesar—"a troublesome request", wrote producer John Houseman, but one, granted. At the end of the performance Brown asked to be taken backstage. "Orson, sitting before his makeup table in his green military greatcoat, looked up in consternation as one of the country's leading drama critics burst into the dressing room and started to tell us such things about the production as we had not hoped to hear in our most megalomaniacal dreams," Houseman recalled. In his New York Post review, Brown called Caesar "by all odds the most exciting, the most imaginative, the most topical, the most awesome and the most absorbing of the season's new producti
Veronica Lake was an American film and television actress. Lake won both popular and critical acclaim for her role in Sullivan's Travels and for femme fatale roles in film noirs with Alan Ladd during the 1940s, she was well known for her peek-a-boo hairstyle. By the late 1940s, Lake's career began to decline, due in part to her alcoholism, she made several guest appearances on television. She returned to the big screen in 1966 in the film Footsteps in the Snow, but the role failed to revitalize her career. Lake released her memoirs, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, in 1970, she used the book's profits to finance Flesh Feast, her final screen role. Lake died in July 1973 from hepatitis and acute kidney injury at the age of 50. Lake was born Constance Frances Marie Ockelman in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, her father, Harry Eugene Ockelman, was of German and Irish descent, worked for an oil company aboard a ship. He died in an industrial explosion in Philadelphia in 1932. Lake's mother, Constance Frances Charlotta, of Irish descent, married Anthony Keane, a newspaper staff artist of Irish descent, in 1933, Lake began using his surname.
The Keanes lived in New York, where young Lake attended St. Bernard's School, she was sent to Villa Maria, an all-girls Catholic boarding school in Montreal, Canada, from which she was expelled. Lake claimed she attended McGill University and took a premed course for a year, intending to become a surgeon; this claim was included in several press biographies, although Lake declared it was bogus. Lake subsequently apologized to the president of McGill, amused when she explained her habit of self-dramatizing; when her stepfather fell ill during her second year, the Keane family moved to Miami, Florida. Lake attended Miami High School, she was diagnosed with schizophrenia, according to her mother. In 1938, the Keanes moved to California. While under contract to MGM, Lake enrolled in that studio's acting farm, the Bliss-Hayden School of Acting, she made friends with a girl named Gwen Horn and accompanied her when Horn went to audition at RKO. She appeared in the play Thought for Food in January 1939. A theatre critic from the Los Angeles Times called her "a fetching little trick" for her appearance in She Made Her Bed.
She appeared as an extra in a number of movies. Keane's first appearance on screen was for RKO, playing a small role among several coeds in the film Sorority House; the part wound up being cut from the film. Similar roles followed, including All Women Have Secrets, Young as Your Feel, Forty Little Mothers and Dancing Co-Ed. Forty Little Mothers was the first time. Lake attracted the interest of Fred Wilcox, an assistant director, who shot a test scene of her performing from a play and showed it to an agent; the agent, in turn, showed it to producer Arthur Hornblow Jr., looking for a new girl to play the part of a nightclub singer in a military drama, I Wanted Wings. The role would make Lake, still in her teens, a star. Hornblow changed the actress's name to Veronica Lake. According to him, her eyes, "calm and clear like a blue lake", were the inspiration for her new name, it was during the filming of I Wanted Wings. Lake's long blonde hair accidentally fell over her right eye during a take and created a "peek-a-boo" effect.
"I was playing a sympathetic drunk, I had my arm on a table... it slipped... and my hair — it was always baby fine and had this natural break — fell over my face... It became my trademark and purely by accident", she recalled. I Wanted; the hairstyle became Lake's trademark and was copied by women. Before the film came out, Lake was dubbed "the find of 1941". However, Lake did not think this meant she would have a long career and maintained her goal was to be a surgeon. "Only the older actors keep on a long time... I don't want to hang on. I'll go back to medical school", she said. Paramount announced China Pass and Blonde Venus. Instead, Lake was cast in Preston Sturges's Sullivan's Travels with Joel McCrea, she was six months pregnant. Paramount put Lake in This Gun for Hire, with Robert Preston as her love interest. However, she shared more scenes with Alan Ladd. Both had cameos in an all-star Paramount film. Lake was meant to be reunited with McCrea in another comedy, I Married a Witch, produced by Sturges and directed by René Clair, but McCrea refused to act with her again saying, "Life's too short for two films with Veronica Lake".
Production was delayed, enabling Lake to be reunited with Ladd in The Glass Key, replacing Patricia Morison. The male lead in I Married a Witch was played by Fredric March and the resulting movie, like The Glass Key, was successful at the box office. René Clair, the director of I Married a Witch, said of Lake, "She was a gifted girl, but she didn't believe she was gifted."Lake was meant to co-star with Charles Boyer in Hong Kong for Arthur Hornblow, but it was not made. She received acclaim for her part as a suicidal nurse in So Proudly We Hail!. At the peak of her popularity, she earned $4,500 a week. Although popular with the public, Lake had a complex personality and acqui
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i