University College Hospital
University College Hospital is a teaching hospital located in London, England. It is part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and is associated with University College London; the hospital is located on Euston Road in the Bloomsbury area of the London Borough of Camden, adjacent to the main campus of UCL. The nearest London Underground stations are Euston Square and Warren Street, with Goodge Street nearby; the hospital was founded as the North London Hospital in 1834, eight years after UCL, in order to provide clinical training for the "medical classes" of the university, after a refusal by the governors of the Middlesex Hospital to allow students access to that hospital's wards. It soon became known as University College Hospital. In 1835, Robert Liston became the first professor of clinical surgery at UCH, the first major operation under ether in Europe was conducted at the hospital by Liston on 21 December 1846. UCH was split from UCL in 1905, a new hospital building designed by Alfred Waterhouse, known as the Cruciform Building, was opened in 1906 on Gower Street.
UCH merged with the National Dental Hospital in 1914, the Royal Ear Hospital in 1920. George Orwell married Sonia Brownell in 1949, died 21 January 1950, in room 65 of the hospital; the hospital was run by the Bloomsbury Area Health Authority from 1974. In 1994 UCH became part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Trust; the hospital site at the Cruciform Building was closed in 1995, despite strikes and an occupation in 1993. The building was purchased by UCL, for use as the home for the Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research and the teaching facility for UCL bioscience and medical students UCL Medical School. A new 75,822 m² hospital, procured under the Private Finance Initiative in 2000, designed by Llewelyn Davies Yeang and built by a joint venture of AMEC and Balfour Beatty at a cost of £422 million, opened in 2005. In October 2006, the hospital was nominated and made the Building Design shortlist for the inaugural Carbuncle Cup, awarded to "the ugliest building in the United Kingdom completed in the last 12 months", awarded to Drake Circus Shopping Centre in Plymouth.
Facilities management services are provided by Interserve. In November 2008, the £70 million Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Wing was opened, allowing the hospital to offer all women's health services in one place; as of 2015 the following services were provided at the hospital: The hospital has 665 in-patient beds, 12 operating theatres and houses the largest single critical care unit in the NHS. The Accident & Emergency department sees 120,000 patients a year, it is a key location for the UCL Medical School. It is a major centre for medical research and part of both the UCLH/UCL Biomedical Research Centre and the UCL Partners academic health science centre; the urology department moved to University College Hospital at Westmoreland Street the Heart Hospital, in 2015. Marcus Beck Agatha Christie Jean Smellie Elizabeth Joan Stokes Ernst Chain Nobel Prize winner Francis Crick Institute UCL Medical School University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Healthcare in London List of hospitals in England Murder of Alexander Litvinenko Merrington, University College Hospital and its Medical School: a history, Heinemann ISBN 9780434465002 University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust UCL Partners UCL Medical School UCL School of Life & Medical Sciences Cruciform Building - History and Design
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. King's was established in 1829 by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter, claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in England. In 1836, King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. In the late 20th century, King's grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology, the Institute of Psychiatry, the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery. King's has five campuses: its historic Strand Campus in central London, three other Thames-side campuses and one in Denmark Hill in south London. In 2017/18, King's had a total income of £841.1 million, of which £194.4 million was from research grants and contracts.
It is the 12th largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, the largest of any in London, its academic activities are organised into nine faculties, which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. King's is considered part of the'golden triangle' of research-intensive English universities alongside the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, The London School of Economics, it is a member of academic organisations including the Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association, the Russell Group. King's is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a founding member of the King's Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute and MedCity, it is the largest European centre for graduate and post-graduate medical teaching and biomedical research, by number of students, includes the world's first nursing school, the Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery.
Globally, it was ranked 31st in the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 36th in the 2018 CWTS Leiden Ranking, 36th in the 2018 The World University Rankings, 46th in the 2017 ARWU. King's was ranked 42nd in the world for reputation in the annual Times Higher Education survey of academics for 2018. Nationally it was ranked 26th in the 2019 Complete University Guide, 35th in the 2019 Times/Sunday Times University Guide, 58th in the 2019 Guardian University Guide. King's alumni and staff include 12 Nobel laureates. Alumni include heads of states and intergovernmental organisations. King's College, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the theological controversy surrounding the founding of "London University" in 1826. London University was founded, with the backing of Utilitarians and Nonconformists, as a secular institution, intended to educate "the youth of our middling rich people between the ages of 15 or 16 and 20 or later" giving its nickname, "the godless college in Gower Street".
The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, indeed, "the storms of opposition which raged around it threatened to crush every spark of vital energy which remained". Thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. More King's was one of the first of a series of institutions which came about in the early nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution and great social changes in England following the Napoleonic Wars. By virtue of its foundation King's has enjoyed the patronage of the monarch, the Archbishop of Canterbury as its visitor and during the nineteenth century counted among its official governors the Lord Chancellor, Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Mayor of London; the simultaneous support of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, for an Anglican King's College London and the Roman Catholic Relief Act, to lead to the granting of full civil rights to Catholics, was challenged by George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea, in early 1829.
Winchilsea and his supporters wished for King's to be subject to the Test Acts, like the universities of Oxford, where only members of the Church of England could matriculate, Cambridge, where non-Anglicans could matriculate but not graduate, but this was not Wellington's intent. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of King's College London in response to Wellington's support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind "insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State"; the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with "disgraceful and criminal motives" in setting up King's C
Childwickbury Manor is a manor house in Hertfordshire, between St Albans and Harpenden. The Lomax family bought the house in 1666 and lived there until 1854 when Joshua Lomax sold it to Henry Hayman Toulmin, a wealthy ship owner, High Sheriff of Hertfordshire and mayor of St Albans. Toulmin left the property to Sir John Blundell Maple around 20 years later. Toulmin's granddaughter, the author Mary Carbery, was born at the house. Sir John Blundell Maple, 1st Baronet bred and raced thoroughbreds and built Childwickbury Stud into a successful horse breeding operation. Another prominent racehorse owner, Jack Barnato Joel, bought the estate including the stud farm in 1906. On his death in 1940, his son Jim Joel took over the operation, he too became a successful racehorse owner and breeder and maintained the property until 1978 when the stud and the manor were sold separately. It was advertised thus: “The Manor House 18th century has 12 Reception Rooms, 18 Bed and Dressing Rooms, 11 Staff Bedrooms, 10 Bathrooms.
Immaculate Timbered Grounds. Walled Garden. Courtyard with Garaging and Flat. Estate Office. Victorian Dairy House with about 19 Acres. Two Coach House Cottages with Magnificent Stable Yard with Paddock and Woodland 16 Acres. Cheapside and Shafford Farms, 2 Well Equipped Corn and Stock Farms with about 724 Acres. 146 Acres of Timbered Parkland, 37 Acres of Railed Paddock and 104 Acres of valuable Commercial Timber”. In addition there were "some with Paddocks. Old Mill and other Buildings for conversion, Stud Buildings, 30 Loose Boxes, Potential Riding School, fishing in River Ver and Mill Race. Total 1,100 Acres ” The stud was sold to the Marquesa de Moratalla. Film director Stanley Kubrick bought the manor in 1978, he used the estate as a nerve centre for his film productions. He lived there until his death in 1999 and is interred in its grounds together with his eldest daughter Anya Kubrick, who died in 2009, his widow, Christiane Kubrick, still lives in the manor house. Childwickbury Estate
Tottenham Court Road
Tottenham Court Road is a major road in the Fitzrovia district of Central London, United Kingdom, running from St Giles Circus to Euston Road. A market street, it became well known for selling electronics and white goods in the 20th century; the name derives from the road's original use as a market thoroughfare from Oxford Street to the Manor of Tothele north of what is now Euston Road. It was mentioned as such in the Domesday Book; the area was described as Totenhale in 1184 and Totenhale Court by 1487. Although the road's name has a similar root and origin to the area of Tottenham in north London, the two are not directly related. Tottenham Court Road runs from St Giles Circus north to Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden near its boundary with the City of Westminster, a distance of about three-quarters of a mile, it has for many years been a one-way street: all three lanes are northbound only. It is regarded as marking the boundary between Bloomsbury to the east and Fitzrovia to the west, linking Somers Town to the north with Soho to the south.
The road has been the boundary between the parishes of St Giles and St Pancras. The south end of the road is close to the British Museum and to Centre Point, the West End's tallest building. There are a number of buildings belonging to University College London along the road, University College Hospital is near the north end of the road; the road is served by three stations on the London Underground—from south to north these are Tottenham Court Road, Goodge Street and Warren Street—and by numerous bus routes. On 3 June 2014 Camden Council announced plans to reserve the road for buses and bicycles only, during daylight hours from Monday to Saturday, they claimed it will make the street safer and boost business ahead of the opening of a new Crossrail station in 2018. The current one-way system will be replaced with two-way traffic flows. Wider pavements, cycle lanes and safer pedestrian crossings will be installed as part of the £26m plan; the area through which the road is built is mentioned in the Domesday Book as belonging to the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral.
In the time of Henry III, a manor house north-west of what is now the corner of Tottenham Court Road and Euston Road belonged to one William de Tottenhall. In about the 15th century, the area was known variously as Totham, or Totting Hall. After changing hands several times, the manor was leased for 99 years to Queen Elizabeth, it came to be popularly called Tottenham Court. In 1639, the land was leased to Charles I until his execution ten years when it was sold to Ralph Harrison, it regained Crown ownership upon the Restoration of the Monarchy, where it was given a 41-year lease to Charles II. It subsequently became the property of the Fitzroys, who built Fitzroy Square on a part of the manor estate towards the end of the 18th century. There was a manor house at the northwest end of the road, this subsequently became the Adam and Eve pub; this was demolished to build the Euston Tower. Tottenham Court Road had become a place of entertainment by the mid-17th century. In 1645, three people were fined for drinking on a Sunday.
A Gooseberry Fair was held sporadically throughout the century, featured numerous booths with street entertainers. The Horse Shoe Brewery was established in 1764 on the junction of Tottenham Court Road and Oxford Street; the current Horseshoe pub was built in the 19th century. Whitefield's Tabernacle was built in 1756 for the Reverend George Whitefield, subsequently became the world's largest Methodist church after it was extended in 1760, it was rebuilt in 1857 after being destroyed by fire, again in 1888 after the building collapsed. It was rebuilt as the Memorial Chapel. Tottenham Court Road was predominantly rural in nature until well into the 19th century; when Heal's was established on former farmland, the lease stipulated there must be appropriate accommodation for 40 cows. These cowsheds were destroyed in a fire in 1877. A 17th century farmhouse at the rear of No. 196 Tottenham Court Road was demolished in 1917. During the period leading up to and during World War I, a shooting range called Fairyland was at No. 92 Tottenham Court Road.
In 1909, Madan Lal Dhingra practised shooting here prior to his assassination of Sir William Hutt Curzon Wyllie. Other residents of India House and members of Abhinav Bharat practised shooting at the range and rehearsed assassinations they planned to carry out. In 1909 it was reported in a police investigation that the range was being used by two Suffragettes in a possible conspiracy to assassinate prime minister H. H. Asquith, it was where Donald Lesbini shot Alice Eliza Storey. R v Lesbini was a case that established in British and Australian law that, with regard to voluntary manslaughter, a reasonable man always has reasonable powers of self-control and is never intoxicated; the shooting range was run by Henry Stanton Morley. The Dominion Theatre opened in 1929, on the site of the old Horseshoe Brewery on Tottenham Court Road, it became a cinema in 1932, before reverting to a theatre. It has a capacity of 2,000. Tottenham Court Road is a significant shopping street, best known for its high concentration of consumer electronics shops, which range from shops specialising in cables and computer components to those dealing in package computers and audio-video systems.
Further north there are several furniture shops, including Heal's. In the 1950s and 1960s, Tottenham Court Road and a few of the adjoining streets became well known for stores selli
Dulwich (UK Parliament constituency)
Dulwich was a borough constituency in the Dulwich area of South London, which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The constituency was created by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 for the 1885 general election; the constituency was abolished by the Boundary Commission in 1997, when most of its former territory became part of the Dulwich and West Norwood constituency. The constituency of Dulwich was created by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, as one of nine covering the enlarged parliamentary former borough and historic hundred of Lambeth. Lambeth councillors had been overwhelmingly progressive Liberals though this part of the seat did have Conservative parish/urban district councillors before 1885. Dulwich was one of three seats in the new parliamentary borough of Camberwell; as a suburban London constituency, Dulwich tended to favour the Conservatives, returned a Conservative member in each election between 1885 and 1945, when it fell to the Labour party.
After that it became a marginal seat, with Labour winning more times than the Conservatives. In 1892 the Liberal candidate estimated that it had around 4,000 working class voters out of around 10,500 and observed that although it had a reputation as a'villa constituency' there were many voters in the many less impressive houses. 1885-1918: The wards of Camberwell and Dulwich, the hamlet of Penge.1918-1950: The Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell wards of Alleyn, Hamlet, St John's. Penge was transferred to the new Bromley constituency. 1950-1974: The Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell wards of Alleyn, Hamlet, Nunhead, Rye, Rye Lane, St John's. 1974-1997: The London Borough of Southwark wards of Alleyn, College, Ruskin, The Lane, Waverley. The candidates selected for the aborted 1939/1940 General Election were.