Belgravia is an affluent district in Central London, shared within the authorities of both the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Belgravia is noted for its expensive residential properties. Belgravia was known as Five Fields during the Middle Ages, became a dangerous place due to highwaymen and robberies, it was developed in the early 19th century by Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster under the direction of Thomas Cubitt, focusing on numerous grand terraces centred on Belgrave Square and Eaton Square. Much of Belgravia, known as the Grosvenor Estate, is still owned by a family property company, the Duke of Westminster's Grosvenor Group. Owing to the Leasehold Reform Act 1967, the estate has been forced to sell many freeholds to its former tenants. Belgravia takes its name from one of the Duke of Westminster's subsidiary titles, Viscount Belgrave, in turn derived from Belgrave, Cheshire, a village on land belonging to the Duke. Belgravia is near the former course of a tributary of the River Thames.
The area is in the City of Westminster, with a small part of the western section in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. The district lies to the south-west of Buckingham Palace, is bounded notionally by Knightsbridge to the north, Grosvenor Place and Buckingham Palace Road to the east, Pimlico Road to the south, Sloane Street to the west. To the north is Hyde Park, to the northeast is Mayfair and Green Park and to the east is Westminster; the area is residential, the particular exceptions being Belgrave Square in the centre, Eaton Square to the south, Buckingham Palace Gardens to the east. The nearest London Underground stations are Hyde Park Corner and Sloane Square. Victoria station, a major National Rail and coach interchange, is to the east of the district. Frequent bus services run to all areas of Central London from Grosvenor Place; the A4, a major road through West London, the London Inner Ring Road run along the boundaries of Belgravia. The area takes its name from the village of Belgrave, two miles from the Grosvenor family's main country seat of Eaton Hall.
One of the Duke of Westminster's subsidiary titles is Viscount Belgrave. During the Middle Ages, the area was known as the Five Fields and was a series of fields used for grazing, intersected by footpaths; the Westbourne was crossed by Bloody Bridge, so called because it was frequented by robbers and highwaymen, it was unsafe to cross the fields at night. In 1728, a man's body was discovered by five fingers removed. In 1749, a muffin man was left blind. Five Fields' distance from London made it a popular spot for duelling. Despite its reputation for crime and violence, Five Fields was a pleasant area during the daytime, various market gardens were established; the area began to be built up after George III moved to Buckingham House and constructed a row of houses on what is now Grosvenor Place. In the 1820s, Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster asked Thomas Cubitt to design an estate. Most of Belgravia was constructed over the next 30 years. Belgravia is characterised by grand terraces of white stucco houses, is focused on Belgrave Square and Eaton Square.
It was one of London's most fashionable residential districts from its beginnings. After World War II, some of the largest houses ceased to be used as residences, or townhouses for the country gentry and aristocracy, were occupied by embassies, charity headquarters, professional institutions and other businesses. Belgravia has become a quiet district in the heart of London, contrasting with neighbouring districts, which have far more busy shops, large modern office buildings and entertainment venues. Many embassies are located in the area in Belgrave Square. In the early 21st century, some houses are being reconverted to residential use, because offices in old houses are no longer as desirable as they were in the post-war decades, while the number of super-rich in London is at a high level not seen since at least 1939; the average house price in Belgravia, as of March 2010, was £6.6 million, although many houses in Belgravia are among the most expensive anywhere in the world, costing up to £100 million, £4,671 per square foot.
As of 2013, many residential properties in Belgravia were owned by wealthy foreigners who may have other luxury residences in exclusive locations worldwide. The increase in land value has been in sharp contrast to UK average and left the area empty and isolated. Belgrave Square, one of the grandest and largest 19th century squares, is the centrepiece of Belgravia, it was laid out by the property contractor Thomas Cubitt for the 2nd Earl Grosvenor to be the 1st Marquess of Westminster, beginning in 1826. Building was complete by the 1840s; the original scheme consisted of four terraces, each made up of eleven grand white stuccoed houses, apart from the south-east terrace, which had twelve. The numbering is anti-clockwise from west corner mansion No. 12, SW terrace 13–23, south corner mansion No. 24, SE terrace Nos. 25–36, east corner mansion No. 37, NE terrace Nos. 38–48. There is a later detached house at the northern corner, No. 49, built by Cubitt for Sidney Herbert in 1847. The terraces were designed by George Basevi.
The largest of the corner mansions, Seaford House in the east corner, was d
A tanker is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, gas carrier. Tankers carry commodities such as vegetable oils and wine. In the United States Navy and Military Sealift Command, a tanker used to refuel other ships is called an oiler but many other navies use the terms tanker and replenishment tanker. Tankers can range in size of capacity from several hundred tons, which includes vessels for servicing small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, for long-range haulage. Besides ocean- or seagoing tankers there are specialized inland-waterway tankers which operate on rivers and canals with an average cargo capacity up to some thousand tons. A wide range of products are carried by tankers, including: Hydrocarbon products such as oil, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas Chemicals, such as ammonia and styrene monomer Fresh water Wine Molasses Citrus juice Tankers are a new concept, dating from the years of the 19th century.
Before this, technology had not supported the idea of carrying bulk liquids. The market was not geared towards transporting or selling cargo in bulk, therefore most ships carried a wide range of different products in different holds and traded outside fixed routes. Liquids were loaded in casks—hence the term "tonnage", which refers to the volume of the holds in terms of how many tuns or casks of wine could be carried. Potable water, vital for the survival of the crew, was stowed in casks. Carrying bulk liquids in earlier ships posed several problems: The holds: on timber ships the holds were not sufficiently water, oil or air-tight to prevent a liquid cargo from spoiling or leaking; the development of iron and steel hulls solved this problem. Loading and discharging: Bulk liquids must be pumped - the development of efficient pumps and piping systems was vital to the development of the tanker. Steam engines were developed as prime-movers for early pumping systems. Dedicated cargo handling facilities were now required ashore too - as was a market for receiving a product in that quantity.
Casks could be unloaded using ordinary cranes, the awkward nature of the casks meant that the volume of liquid was always small - therefore keeping the market more stable. Free surface effect: a large body of liquid carried aboard a ship will impact on the ship's stability when the liquid is flowing around the hold or tank in response to the ship's movements; the effect was negligible in casks, but could cause capsizing if the tank extended the width of the ship. Tankers were first used by the oil industry to transfer refined fuel in bulk from refineries to customers; this would be stored in large tanks ashore, subdivided for delivery to individual locations. The use of tankers caught on because other liquids were cheaper to transport in bulk, store in dedicated terminals subdivide; the Guinness brewery used tankers to transport the stout across the Irish Sea. Different products require different handling and transport, with specialised variants such as "chemical tankers", "oil tankers", "LNG carriers" developed to handle dangerous chemicals and oil-derived products, liquefied natural gas respectively.
These broad variants may be further differentiated with respect to ability to carry only a single product or transport mixed cargoes such as several different chemicals or refined petroleum products. Among oil tankers, supertankers are designed for transporting oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East; the supertanker Seawise Giant, scrapped in 2010, was 458 meters in length and 69 meters wide. Supertankers are one of the three preferred methods for transporting large quantities of oil, along with pipeline transport and rail. Despite being regulated, tankers have been involved in environmental disasters resulting from oil spills. Amoco Cadiz, Erika, Exxon Valdez and Torrey Canyon were examples of coastal accidents. Many modern tankers are designed for a specific route. Draft is limited by the depth of water in loading and unloading harbors. Cargoes with high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures may require pressurized tanks or vapor recovery systems. Tank heaters may be required to maintain heavy crude oil, residual fuel, wax, or molasses in a fluid state for offloading.
Tankers used for liquid fuels are classified according to their capacity. In 1954, Shell Oil developed the average freight rate assessment system, which classifies tankers of different sizes. To make it an independent instrument, Shell consulted the London Tanker Brokers’ Panel. At first, they divided the groups as General Purpose for tankers under 25,000 tons deadweight; the ships became larger during the 1970s, the list was extended, where the tons are long tons: 10,000–24,999 DWT: Small tanker 25,000–34,999 DWT: Intermediate tanker 35,000–44,999 DWT: Medium Range 1 45,000–54,999 DWT: Medium Range 2 55,000–79,999 DWT: Large Range 1 80,000–159,999 DWT: Large Range 2 160,000–319,999 DWT: Very Large Crude Carrier 320,000–549,999 DWT: Ultra Large Crude Carrier Very Large Crude Carrier size rangeAt nearly 380 vessels in the size range 279,000 t DWT to 320,000 t DWT, these are by far the most popular size range among the larger
Caroline Reboux was a well-known Parisian milliner and French fashion designer. Reboux made an art form out of high fashion hats which were re-emerging in France to supplant the bonnet in the mid-19th century, she promoted the hat as an essential accessory for women's fashion. Like many of her customers, Reboux was self-invented: she put it about that she was the fourth child of an impoverished noblewoman and a man of letters, orphaned and came to Paris to live. Reboux, the "Queen of the Milliners." Made a name for herself in millinery in the part of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century in Europe and the United States. She employed as many as 150 workwomen at any one time, she is closely associated with the origins of haute couture and her hat designs ranked at the same level as that custom fashion. Reboux opened a shop at Avenue Matignon, Paris, in 1865 where she worked throughout her life. Retaining this shop as her base, she opened other stores in London, her most famous address of the late 19th century and early 20th century was located at 23 Rue de la Paix.
She assisted others that she trained to open shops in New Chicago. She was known for over fifty years as the queen of creative fashion hats, her designs were as much sought after as those of Charles Frederick Worth, considered the father of haute couture. Reboux was the first person in fashion design to add a veil to a woman's hat, she started the vogue of colored veils. Reboux made many fashionable hats for the theater. Reboux is mistakenly credited as the "inventor" of the cloche hat, although millinery historians would agree that French milliner Lucy Hamar must share in that credit, as both she and Reboux introduced this style sometime around the year 1914. Reboux is given credit for designing the iconic, felt cloche "helmet" hat which first appeared in the 1920s. Reboux would create the hat by placing a length of felt on a customer's head and cutting and folding it to shape, she was always one of the leading exponents of the form. Reboux did innovative unique models up-dating past modes such as the large-brimmed straws known as Gainsborough hats, the turban-like toques in the manner of Mme Vigée-Lebrun's sitters.
Reboux worked with most of the major fashion designers of Europe and provided women hats for their design collections. A notable business practice of Reboux was to divide half the profits of her business among the head cashier, the forewoman, the directress of the workroom, the head manager. Reboux was appointed to represent Parisian commerce at the Paris World's Fair of 1900. During Reboux's life she maintained a great friendship with the fashion designer Madeleine Vionnet; the Caroline Reboux business closed its doors in 1956. More than 300 creations by Reboux are preserved at the Musée de la Mode et du Textile in Paris. Marlene Dietrich was a faithful customer of Reboux, from; the exhibition of Marlene Dietrich "Birth of a Myth" was held at the fashion museum Musée Galliera in 2003 exhibing fashions of Reboux. There are today headdresses signed "Caroline Reboux" in the vitrines devoted to Marlene Dietrich at the Deutsche Kinemathek film museum of Berlin. Many famous designers of fashion of the 20th century were trained by Reboux.
Reboux creations from the 1860s attracted the attention of Princess Pauline von Metternich and the Empress Eugénie. Elsa Triolet was a regular store customer on Avenue Matignon, sometimes accompanied by Louis Aragon; the famous American milliner Lilly Daché trained under Reboux for five years, Rose Valois, an successful milliners' in its own right, was set up in 1927 by Reboux's former employee, Madame Fernand Cleuet, along with Vera Leigh, a third employee. Wallis Warfield Simpson, Duchess of Windsor, wore a blue Mainbocher outfit and a halo hat by Reboux for her wedding to the former King of England, Edward VIII at the Château Candé, June 3, 1937. Reboux's business continued leadership under Mme. Lucienne after her death in 1927; the shop was well known for making the head-fitting felt cloche the status symbol of fashion for many years. The shop was famous for making hats that were noted for profile brims, dipping low on one side, forward-tilt tricorns, open-crown lamé turbans, flower bandeaus.
The name'Reboux' is mentioned in Thérèse Desqueyroux, a novel written by François Mauriac and published in 1927: « Anna de la Trave was wearing an overcoat of light grey cloth and a felt hat without ribbon or trimming of any sort » John Boyd, milliner Stephen Jones, milliner Claude Saint-Cyr, milliner Philip Treacy, milliner Adler, Within the Year After, M. A. Donohue & Co. Original from the University of Michigan Calasibetta, Fairchild's Dictionary of Fashion, Page 554 +, New York: Fairchild Publications, 1975. Callan, Georgina O'Hara, The Thames and Hudson Dictionary of Fashion and Fashion Designers, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998 Dilys E. Blum. "Ahead of Fashion: Hats of the 20th Century." Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. 89, No. 377/378, pp. 1–48 Garland, The Changing Form of Fashion, Original from the University of Michigan Litoff, Judy Barrett et al. European Immigrant Women in the United States: A Biographical Dictionary, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-8240-5306-0 Lambert, World of Fashion.
People, resources, New York: R. R. Bowker, 1976, ISBN 0-8352-0627-0. O'Hara, The Encyclopaedia of Fashion, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1986, ISBN 0-8109-0882-4. Palmer, Alexandra, Fa
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status are the wealthiest members of society, wield the greatest political power. According to this view, the upper class is distinguished by immense wealth, passed on from generation to generation. Prior to the 20th century, the emphasis was on aristocracy, which emphasized generations of inherited noble status, not just recent wealth; because the upper classes of a society may no longer rule the society in which they are living, they are referred to as the old upper classes and they are culturally distinct from the newly rich middle classes that tend to dominate public life in modern social democracies. According to the latter view held by the traditional upper classes, no amount of individual wealth or fame would make a person from an undistinguished background into a member of the upper class as one must be born into a family of that class and raised in a particular manner so as to understand and share upper class values and cultural norms.
The term is used in conjunction with terms like upper-middle class, middle class, working class as part of a model of social stratification. In some cultures, members of an upper class did not have to work for a living, as they were supported by earned or inherited investments, although members of the upper class may have had less actual money than merchants. Upper-class status derived from the social position of one's family and not from one's own achievements or wealth. Much of the population that composed the upper class consisted of aristocrats, ruling families, titled people, religious hierarchs; these people were born into their status and there was not much movement across class boundaries. In many countries, the term "upper class" was intimately associated with hereditary land ownership. Political power was in the hands of the landowners in many pre-industrial societies despite there being no legal barriers to land ownership for other social classes. Upper-class landowners in Europe were also members of the titled nobility, though not necessarily: the prevalence of titles of nobility varied from country to country.
Some upper classes were entirely untitled, for example, the Szlachta of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In England, Wales and Ireland, the "upper class" traditionally comprised the landed gentry and the aristocracy of noble families with hereditary titles; the vast majority of post-medieval aristocratic families originated in the merchant class and were ennobled between the 14th and 19th centuries while intermarrying with the old nobility and gentry. Since the Second World War, the term has come to encompass rich and powerful members of the managerial and professional classes as well. In the United States, the upper class, as distinguished from the rich, is considered to consist of those families that have for many generations enjoyed top social status based on their leadership in society. In this respect, the US differs little from countries such as the UK where membership of the'upper class' is dependent on other factors. In the United Kingdom, it has been said that class is relative to where you have come from, similar to the United States where class is more defined by who as opposed to how much.
The American upper class is estimated to constitute less than 1% of the population. By self-identification, according to this 2001–2012 Gallup Poll data, 98% of Americans identify with the 5 other class terms used, 48–50% identifying as "middle class"; the main distinguishing feature of the upper class is its ability to derive enormous incomes from wealth through techniques such as money management and investing, rather than engaging in wage-labor or salaried employment. Successful entrepreneurs, CEOs, investment bankers, venture capitalists, heirs to fortunes, some lawyers, top-flight physicians, celebrities are considered members of this class by contemporary sociologists, such as James Henslin or Dennis Gilbert. There may be prestige differences between different upper-class households. An A-list actor, for example, might not be accorded as much prestige as a former U. S. President, yet all members of this class are so influential and wealthy as to be considered members of the upper class.
At the pinnacle of U. S wealth, 2004 saw a dramatic increase in the numbers of billionaires. According to Forbes Magazine, there are now 374 U. S. billionaires. The growth in billionaires took a dramatic leap since the early 1980s, when the average net worth of the individuals on the Forbes 400 list was $400 million. Today, the average net worth is $2.8 billion. Wal-Mart Walton family now has 771,287 times more than the median U. S household. Upper-class families... dominate corporate America and have a disproportionate influence over the nation's political, educational and other institutions. Of all social classes, members of the upper class have a strong sense of solidarity and'consciousness of kind' that stretches across the nation and the globe. Since the 1970s income inequality in the United States has been increasing, with the top 1% experiencing larger gains in income than the rest of society. Alan Greenspan, former chair of the Federal Reserve, sees it as a problem for society, calling it a "very disturbing trend".
According to the book Who Rules America? by William Domhoff, the distribution of wealth in America is the primary highlight of the influence of the upper class. The top 1% of Americans own around 34% of the wealth in the U. S. while the bottom 80% own only 16% of the wealth. This
Hatmaking or millinery is the design and sale of hats and head-wear. A person engaged in this trade is called a hatter. Millinery is sold to women and children, though some definitions limit the term to women's hats. Milliners female shopkeepers, produced or imported an inventory of garments for men and children, sold these garments in their millinery shop. More the term milliner has evolved to describe a person who designs, sells or trims hats for a female clientele; the origin of the term is the Middle English milener, meaning an inhabitant of the city of Milan or one who deals in items from Milan, known for its fashion and clothing. Many styles of headgear have been popular through history and worn for different functions and events, they worn to indicate social status. Styles include the top hat, hats worn as part of military uniforms, cowboy hat, cocktail hat. A great variety of objects are or were used as trimmings on women's fashionable hats: see Trim #See also. In former times use of colorful bird feathers and wings and tails and whole stuffed birds as hat trimmings led to the formation of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
Link to images and descriptions of hats trimmed with birdsThis link, with references to 1880s newspaper issues, describes as ornaments on fashionable hats, bird feathers, stuffed birds and other small animals, fruit, flowers and lace. It says that in 1889 in London and Paris, over 8,000 women were employed in millinery, in 1900 in New York, some 83,000 people women, it described a fashion for stuffed kittens' heads as hat ornaments in or around 1883 in Paris posed looking out from among foliage and feathers, to the point where some people were reported to breed kittens for the millinery trade. This is a partial list of people who have had a significant influence on millinery. International Hat Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing one of America's most popular early 20th century harvest hats for field hands and workmen. Hawley Products Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing the tropical shaped, pressed fiber sun helmet used from World War II through the Persian Gulf War.
John Cavanagh, an American hatter whose innovations included manufacturing regular and wide-oval fitting hats to enable customers to find better-fitting ready-to-wear hats. James Lock & Co. of London, is credited with the introduction of the bowler hat in 1849. John Batterson Stetson, credited with inventing the classic cowboy hat Giuseppe Borsalino, with the famous "Borsalino" Fedora hat. Anna Ben-Yusuf wrote The Art of one of the first reference books on millinery technique. Rose Bertin and modiste to Marie Antoinette, is described as the world's first celebrity fashion designer. Coco Chanel: Creator of the fashion house and creator of Chanel No.5. John Boyd was one of London's most respected milliners and is known for the famous pink tricorn hat worn by Diana, Princess of Wales. Lilly Daché was a famous American milliner of the mid-20th century. Frederick Fox was an Australian born milliner noted for his designs for the British Royal family. Mr. John was an American milliner considered by some to be the millinery equivalent of Dior in the 1940s and 1950s.
Stephen Jones of London, is considered one of the world's most radical and important milliners of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Simone Mirman was known for her designs for Elizabeth II and other members of the British Royal Family. Barbara Pauli was the leading fashion modiste in Sweden during the Gustavian era. Caroline Reboux was a renowned milliner of the early 20th centuries. David Shilling is a renowned milliner and designer based in Monaco. Justin Smith is an award-winning milliner creating bespoke and couture hats under the J Smith Esquire brand. Philip Treacy Irish-born award-winning milliner. Draper Haberdasher Hat Works Mad hatter disease Mad as a hatter Marchandes de modes All Sewn Up: Millinery, Dressmaking and Costume 18th Century millinery Popular Science, November 1941, "Pulling Hats Out Of Rabbits" article on modern mass production hat making Individuality in millinery, a 1923 book on hatmaking from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries Millinery guide