Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned. This system is used in the United States, many countries of continental Europe, some Southeastern Asian countries with European colonial history, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, although some institutions use translations of these phrases rather than the Latin originals; the honors distinction should not be confused with the honors degrees offered in some countries. A college's or university's regulations set out definite criteria to be met in order for a student to obtain a given honors distinction. For example, the student might be required to achieve a specific grade point average, to submit an honors thesis for evaluation, to be part of an honors program, or to graduate early; each university sets its own standards. Since these standards may vary it is possible for the same level of Latin honors conferred by different institutions to represent contrasting levels of academic achievement.
Some institutions may grant equivalent non-Latin honors to undergraduates. The University of Wisconsin–Madison, for example, has a series of plain English grading honors based on class standing; these honors, when they are used, are always awarded to undergraduates earning their bachelor's, with the exception of law school graduates, much more to graduate students receiving their master's or doctorate degree. The honor is indicated on the diploma. Latin honors are conferred upon law school students graduating as a Juris Doctor or J. D. in which case they are based upon class rank or grade point average. In North America, Latin honors are awarded by colleges and universities for undergraduates degrees, such as the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science, by law schools for the Juris Doctor degree. Latin honors are not used with other graduate degrees, such as M. D. or Ph. D. degrees. Most institutions use two or three levels of Latin honors, listed below in ascending order: cum laude, meaning "with praise".
This honor is awarded to graduates in the top 20%, top 25%, or top 30% of their class, depending on the institution. Magna cum laude, meaning "with great praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 10% or top 15% of their class, depending on the institution. Summa cum laude, meaning "with greatest praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 1%, top 2%, or top 5% of their class, depending on the institution. Not all institutions award the summa cum laude distinction; some institutions have additional distinctions. For example, at a few universities maxima cum laude, meaning "with great praise", is an intermediary honor between the magna and the summa honors, it is sometimes used when the summa honor is reserved only for students with perfect academic records. A further used distinction is that of egregia cum laude which means "with outstanding praise," and if used may be for either students achieving summa cum laude honors in a difficult subject area or recipients of a non-standard Bachelor's degree.
For undergraduate degrees, Latin honors are used in only a few countries such as the United States, Indonesia, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines and Canada. Most countries use a different scheme, such as the British undergraduate degree classification, more used with varying criteria and nomenclature depending on country, including Australia, Barbados, Colombia, Hong Kong, Ireland, Kenya, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa and Tobago, the United Kingdom and many other countries. Malta shows the Latin honors on the degree certificates, but the UK model is shown on the transcript. In Austria, the only Latin honor in use is sub auspiciis Praesidentis rei publicae for doctoral degrees. Candidates must have excellent grades throughout high school and university, making it difficult to attain: only about 20 out of a total of 2,500 doctoral graduates per year achieve a sub auspiciis degree. In Belgium, the university degree awarded is limited to: Satisfaction cum laude magna cum laude summa cum laude In Brazil, the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica awards the cum laude honor for graduates with every individual grade above 8.5, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 8.5 and more than 50% of individual grades above 9.5, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 9.5.
As of 2009, only 22 graduates have received the summa cum laude honor at ITA. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro awards the cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 8.0 to 8.9, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.0 to 9.4, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.5 to 10.0. The Federal University of Ceará awards the magna cum laude honor for undergraduates who have never failed a course, achieved an average grade from 8.5 and have received a fellowship of both Academic Extension and Teaching Initiation. In Estonia, up until 2010 both summa cum laude and cum laude were used. Summa cum laude was awarded only for exceptional work. Since 1 September 2010, only cum laude is used. It
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Carl Bert Albert was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 46th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1971 to 1977 and represented Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district as a Democrat from 1947 to 1977. At 5 feet 4 inches tall, Albert was affectionately known as the "Little Giant from Little Dixie", held the highest political office of any Oklahoman in American history. Albert was born in McAlester, the son of Leona Ann and Ernest Homer Albert, a coal miner and farmer. Shortly after his birth his family moved to a small town just north of McAlester, he grew up in a log cabin on his father's farm. In high school he excelled in debate, was student body president, won the national high school oratorical contest, earning a trip to Europe. During this time he was an active member of his local Order of DeMolay chapter. Albert petitioned his local Masonic Lodge and became an active Freemason, he entered the University of Oklahoma in 1927. There, he majored in political science and won the National Oratorical Championship in 1928, receiving an all-expense-paid trip to Europe.
He earned enough money to fund the rest of his undergraduate education through working in the college registrar's office and participating in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps. While at Oklahoma, he was an accomplished amateur wrestler, a member of the Kappa Alpha Order fraternity, a member of the all-male spirit club, he graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1931, was the top male student studied at the University of Oxford on a Rhodes Scholarship. He received a Bachelor of Arts in jurisprudence and Bachelor of Civil Laws from St Peter's College before returning to the United States in 1934, he opened a law practice in Oklahoma City in 1935. He worked for a series of oil companies in leasing work until the start of World War II. Albert joined the United States Army as a private in 1941, he served with the 3rd Armored Division, but was soon commissioned a second lieutenant in the Army Air Forces. While in the army, Albert married Mary Harmon on August 20, 1942, in Columbia, South Carolina, just before he was sent to the South Pacific.
The couple had Mary Frances and David. Albert served in the Judge Advocate General Corps as a prosecutor assigned to the Far East Air Service Command, he earned a Bronze Star Medal and other decorations and left the Army with the rank of lieutenant colonel in 1946. He remained in the Army Reserve after the war, retired in 1968 with the rank of colonel. Albert was elected to Congress for the first time in 1946, he was a Cold War liberal, supported President Harry S Truman's containment of Soviet expansionism and domestic measures like public housing, federal aid to education, farm price supports. Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn noticed his diligence as a legislator and began inviting him to informal meetings in the speaker's office. Rayburn advised Albert to seek the chairmanship of the Agriculture Committee in 1949. Albert was appointed House Majority Whip in 1955 and elected House Majority Leader after Rayburn's death in 1961. Albert seemed to describe himself as a political moderate, he said, he "very much disliked doctrinaire liberals — they want to own your minds.
And I don’t like reactionary conservatives. I like to face issues in terms of conditions and not in terms of someone's inborn political philosophy."Albert was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 1957. As Majority Leader, Albert was a key figure in advancing the Democratic legislative agenda in the House health care legislation. Medicare, the federal hospital insurance program for persons 65 and older, was proposed by the Kennedy Administration as an amendment to the Social Security program. Albert knew the bill had insufficient Congressional support for passage due to the opposition of ten Republicans and eight southern Democrats, he advised President Kennedy to seek Senate passage of the measure first. Albert calculated that the Senate should bring it to the House as a conference committee report on their own welfare bill, instead of trying direct introduction into the House. Although well-planned, Albert's efforts on behalf of the Medicare bill were not successful at that time. After Kennedy's assassination, Albert worked to change House rules so that the majority Democrats would have greater influence on the final decisions of Congress under President Lyndon B. Johnson.
The changes included more majority leverage over the House Rules Committee and stronger majority membership influence in the House Ways and Means Committee. With these changes in place, Albert was able to push through the Medicare bill, known as the Social Security Act of 1965, to shepherd other pieces of Johnson's Great Society program through Congress. Albert chaired the infamous 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago; the convention was one of the most chaotic in American history. Riots and protests raged outside the venue, disorder reigned among delegates tasked with leading the party after the assassinations of Robert F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. the increasing casualties of the Vietnam War, Johnson's decision to withdraw from the race for his party's presidential nomination after a bruising and humiliating New Hampshire primary. When Speaker John W. McCormack retired in January 1971, during the second half of Richard Nixon's first term as president, Albert was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives.
In September 1972 Albert was witnessed driving drunk and crashing into two cars in the Cleveland Park neighborhood of Washington. As the Watergate scandal developed in 1973, Albert, as Speaker, referred some two dozen imp
Brasenose College, Oxford
Brasenose College The King's Hall and College of Brasenose, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1509, with the library and chapel added in the mid-17th century and the new quadrangle in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; as of 2018, it has a financial endowment of £149.0 million. For the four degree years 2011/2014, Brasenose averaged 10th in the Norrington Table. In a recent Oxford Barometer Survey, Brasenose’s undergraduates registered 98% overall satisfaction. Brasenose is home to one of the oldest rowing clubs in Brasenose College Boat Club; the history of Brasenose College, Oxford stretches back to 1509, when the college was founded on the site of Brasenose Hall. Its name is believed to derive from the name of a brass or bronze knocker that adorned the hall's door; the college was associated with Lancashire and Cheshire, the county origins of its two founders – Sir Richard Sutton and the Bishop of Lincoln, William Smyth – a link, maintained until the latter half of the twentieth century.
The first principals navigated Brasenose, with its Catholic sympathisers, through the reformation and continuing religious reforms. Most of Brasenose favoured the Royalist side during the English Civil War, although it produced notable generals and clergy on both sides; the library and chapel were completed in the mid-17th century, despite Brasenose suffering continuing money problems. The post-1785 period would see an era of prosperity of the college under Principal William Cleaver; the college began to be populated by gentlemen, its income doubling between 1790 and 1810, academic success considerable. Efforts to reconstruct Brasenose were not completed, until the second half of the century with the addition of New Quad between 1886 and 1911. Brasenose's financial position remained secure, although under the tenure of Principal Edward Hartopp Cradock Brasenose's academic record waned with much of its success focussed on sports – where it excelled most notably in cricket and rowing; the mid-Century Royal Commissions were navigated – although they were opposed in form, their recommendations welcomed including choosing fellows on merit rather than by their place of birth.
The election of Charles Heberden as principal in 1889 led to a gradual reversal in Brasenose's academic failures, although its sporting performance suffered. Heberden was the first lay Principal, presiding over an secular college, opening up the library to undergraduates, instituting an entrance exam for the first time and accepting Rhodes scholarships. Brasenose lost 115 men in the First World War, with its undergraduate numbers reduced. Lord Curzon's post-War reforms were instituted; the inter-war period was defined by William Stallybrass, who as fellow and eventual principal dominated college life. Brasenose once again produced top sportsmen – cricketers and others; this came at the cost of falling academic standards and poorly performing finances, which would see Stallybrass' authority challenged. He died in a railway accident. After the war, sporting achievements waned but academic success did not improve in what was now one of Oxford's largest colleges; the 1970s saw considerable social change in Brasenose, with more post-graduate attendees and fewer domestic staff.
In 1974 Brasenose became one of the first men's colleges to admit women as full members, bringing an end to 470 years of the college as an men-only institution. The other all-male colleges to begin admitting women in 1974 were Jesus College, Hertford, St Catherine's, Wadham. There was considerable construction work to ensure that undergraduates could be housed for the entirety of their degree on the main site and on the Frewin site. Law continued to be a strong subject for Brasenose, as was the emerging subject of Politics and Economics, starting with the fellowship of Vernon Bogdanor. Brasenose's finances were secured, it thus entered the twenty-first century in a good position as regards financial and academic success. Brasenose faces the west side of Radcliffe Square opposite the Radcliffe Camera in the centre of Oxford; the north side is defined by Brasenose Lane. To the west is Lincoln College. At its south-east end, the college is separated from the University Church by St Mary's Passage.
The main entrance of the college can be found on Radcliffe Square. Although not located on Turl Street the college has informal links with the three Turl Street colleges; the college is physically linked to Lincoln College through a connecting door, through which Brasenose College members are permitted to enter Lincoln College on Ascension Day each year. The door is opened for five minutes and it is the only time during the year that this door is unlocked. Brasenose members are served an ale by Lincoln College, traditionally flavoured with ground ivy; the main college site comprises three quads, the original Old Quad, a small quad known as the Deer Park, the large New Quad, as well as collection of smaller houses facing Radcliffe Square and the High Street. The original college buildings comprised a single two storey quad, incorporating the original kitchen of Brasenose Hall on the south side. In the 17th century a third floor was added to the qu
Adams House (Harvard College)
Adams House is one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University, located between Harvard Square and the Charles River in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Its name commemorates the services of the Adams family, including John Adams, the second president of the United States, John Quincy Adams, the sixth president; the residential halls of Adams House were private "Gold Coast" dormitories built from 1893-1902 to provide luxurious accommodation for rich Harvard undergraduates. They, along with the white clapboarded Apthorp House, one of the most distinguished Colonial residences of Cambridge—and now the faculty deans' residence—predate the rest of Harvard's Houses by several decades; when the House system was inaugurated in the 1930s, Old Russell was demolished and replaced with New Russell. A linking structure was added that contains the upper and lower common rooms, conservatory and dining areas. Although inaugurated in 1931, Adams was not completed until 1932; because of its centuries-long architectural history, Adams is considered Harvard's most historic undergraduate residence.
Given the House’s current appeal, Adams was not popular initially. Adams' location and its reputation for good food soon overcame any perceived architectural deficiencies. In fact, some of these same “deficiencies” turned out to be quite handy: students in the 1940s and 1950s wishing to avoid the College's strict nightly curfews and parietal rules came to value Adams' multiple and unguarded entries, unlike the central, monitored portals of the newer undergraduate residences. Today, of course, such stringent measures are long gone, the various buildings that comprise Adams House are considered some of the most interesting and architecturally significant structures in the University system. Adams is home to one of two Presidential Suite Memorials at Harvard. Franklin D. Roosevelt lived in Westmorly Court from 1900 to 1904; the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Foundation at Adams House has restored the 32nd president's Harvard quarters to their 1904 appearance, as the only memorial to FDR at Harvard, as well as a museum of early-20th-century Harvard student life.
The Suite is open by appointment to University members, members of the press, other accredited guests. Like all the other Houses at Harvard, Adams possesses its own coat of arms: Adams' is derived from an 1838 seal ring of John Quincy Adams. James Phinney Baxter, the House's first master, changed the background to gold to symbolize the Gold Coast, added four additional oak sprigs to the original one to represent the five buildings of Adams House, its official heraldic designation is: "Or, five sprigs of oak acorned in saltire, Gules." The House motto, "Alteri Seculo," is taken from Caecilius Statius, as quoted in Cicero's Tusculan Disputations: "He who plants trees labors for the benefit of future generations." Before Harvard College opted to use a system of randomization to assign living quarters to upperclassmen, students were allowed to list housing preferences, which led to the congregation of like-minded individuals at various Houses. At first, in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, Adams was the athletic house.
Under the aegis of Masters Bob and Jana Kiely Adams became an artistic and literary haven. Adams, under the Kielys, was the first Harvard House to become co-ed. Vestiges of that avant-garde reputation still remain today and promoted by the House's current masters and Sean Palfrey, embodied in many of the House's unique facilities, including the Pool Theater, a converted swimming pool. Adams boasts the Bow and Arrow Printing Press, located in the former house grill in B entry, the Adams Arts Space; the House has continued to uphold its most beloved traditions, including Halloween's Drag Night and Masquerade. House events, including Carpe Noctem, are coordinated weekly by the Adams House Committee. Effusive House spirit, architectural beauty, convenient location continue to make Adams a desirable r
South Bend, Indiana
South Bend is a city in and the county seat of St. Joseph County, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents. It is the fourth-largest city in Indiana, serving as the economic and cultural hub of Northern Indiana; the ranked University of Notre Dame is located just to the north in unincorporated Notre Dame, Indiana and is an integral contributor to the region's economy. The area was settled in the early 19th century by fur traders and was established as a city in 1865; the St. Joseph River shaped South Bend's economy through the mid-20th century. River access assisted heavy industrial development such as that of the Studebaker Corporation, the Oliver Chilled Plow Company, other large corporations; the population of South Bend declined after 1960, when it had a peak population of 132,445. This was chiefly due to migration to suburban areas as well as the demise of Studebaker and other heavy industry.
Today, the largest industries in South Bend are health care, small business, tourism. Remaining large corporations include Crowe Horwath, AM General; the city population has started to grow for the first time in nearly fifty years. The old Studebaker plant and surrounding area, now called Ignition Park, is being redeveloped as a technology center to attract new industry; the city has been featured in national news coverage for Mayor Pete Buttigieg, who has achieved recognition for his various economic development projects within the city, his position as the youngest mayor to be elected in a city of more than 100,000 residents, his essay in which he came out as the first gay executive in the state of Indiana. The city attracted further attention when Mayor Buttigieg announced he will run for the Democratic nomination for the 2020 presidential election; the St. Joseph Valley was long occupied by Native Americans. One of the earliest known groups to occupy what would become northern Indiana was the Miami tribe.
The Potawatomi moved into the region, utilizing the rich food and natural resources found along the river. The Potawatomi occupied this region of Indiana until most of them were forcibly removed in the 1840s; the South Bend area was so popular because its portage was the shortest overland route from the St. Joseph River to the Kankakee River; this route was used for centuries, first by the Native Americans by French explorers and traders. The French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, the first white European to set foot in what is now South Bend, used this portage between the St. Joseph River and the Kankakee River in December 1679; the first permanent white settlers of South Bend were fur traders who established trading posts in the area. In 1820, Pierre Frieschutz Navarre arrived, representing the American Fur Company of John Jacob Astor, he settled near. Alexis Coquillard, another agent of the AFC, established a trading post known as the Big St. Joseph Station. In 1827, Lathrop Minor Taylor established a post for Samuel Hanna and Company, in whose records the name St. Joseph's, Indiana was used.
By 1829, the town was growing, with Taylor emerging as leaders. They applied for a post office. Taylor was appointed postmaster, the post office was designated as Southold, Allen County, Indiana; the following year, the name was changed to South Bend to ease confusion, as several other communities were named Southold at the time. In 1831, South Bend was laid out as the county seat and as one of the four original townships of St. Joseph County with 128 residents. Soon after, design began on; the town was formally established in 1835 and grew. In 1856, attorney Andrew Anderson founded May Oberfell Lorber, the oldest business in St. Joseph County, he compiled a complete index of South Bend's real estate records. In 1841, Schuyler Colfax was appointed St. Joseph County deputy auditor. Colfax purchased the South Bend Free Press and turned it into the pro-Whig newspaper, the St. Joseph Valley Register, he was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1850 where he opposed the barring of African American migration to Indiana.
He joined the Republican party, like many Whigs of his day, was elected to Congress in 1855 and became Speaker of the House in 1863 under Abraham Lincoln. In 1868, he was elected Vice President under Ulysses S. Grant. Colfax was buried in the City Cemetery. During the late 1830s through the 1850s, much of South Bend's development centered on the industrial complex of factories located on the two races. Several dams were created, factories were built on each side of the river. On October 4, 1851, the first steam locomotive entered South Bend; this led to a general shift of businesses from the river toward the railroad. In 1852, Henry Studebaker set up Studebaker wagon shop becoming the world's largest wagon builder and the only one to succeed as an automobile manufacturer; the Singer Sewing Company and the Oliver Chilled Plow Company were among other companies that made manufacturing the driving force in the South Bend economy until the mid-20th century. Another important economic act was the dredging of the Kankakee River in 1884 to create farmland.
During this time period there was a great immigration of Europeans, such as Polish, Irish, German and Swedish people to South Bend because the rise of area factories. South Bend benefited f