David Lee Roth
David Lee Roth is an American rock vocalist, actor and former radio personality. Roth is best known as the current lead singer of hard rock band Van Halen, he is known as a successful solo artist, releasing numerous RIAA-certified Gold and Platinum albums. After more than two decades apart, Roth re-joined Van Halen in 2006 for a North American tour that became the highest grossing in the band's history and one of the highest grossing of that year. In 2012, Roth and Van Halen released the comeback album A Different Kind of Truth. In 2007, he was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Van Halen. Roth possesses a vocal range of three notes. Roth was born in Indiana, he is the son of art teacher Sibyl Roth and ophthalmologist Nathan Roth, a celebrated eye surgeon with a lucrative medical practice and a portfolio of astute real-estate investments. The senior Roth was featured on the TV show Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous in 1984, on which he claimed that he was Van Halen's first manager helping the group obtain gigs in the early days.
Nathan owned a 14,000-square-foot home in Pasadena, California named "Rothwood" as well as a chateau named "Bradbury." Roth is of Jewish heritage. Several members of his family were surgeons: uncles Dave and Marty, a grandfather, his uncle, Manny Roth and owned the New York establishment Cafe Wha? in the early 1960s, which featured performers such as Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix. At age seven, Roth got his first taste of show business from the inside by hanging out at Cafe Wha?, as mentioned in his book Crazy from the Heat. His uncle was one of Roth's first guests on his short-lived radio show on New York's 92.3 Free-FM. After living in Bloomington and Swampscott, Roth moved to Pasadena in his teens, he "bounced around" a number of schools and saw a psychiatrist for three years attending a ranch for troubled teens where he cared for a horse to build a sense of responsibility. He attended The Webb Schools in Claremont and John Muir High School in Pasadena Pasadena City College where he met the Van Halen brothers and Alex.
During this period Roth worked as a hospital orderly. In his late teens, he was singing solo, as well as with a group called the Red Ball Jets. Roth says this name was a reference to the red dye used in food at that time, including red candy balls, which would exacerbate his hyperactivity and lead to "Monkey Hour" at the family home. Another Los Angeles group, Mammoth rented the Red Ball Jets' public-address system. Roth agreed to join Mammoth as lead singer. In 1974, when told that another act was using the name, they changed their name from Mammoth to Van Halen. Performing original and cover songs, Van Halen gained local success, becoming a regular feature at the Starwood Club. During their four-month stint there they were discovered. In 1976, Gene Simmons assisted them in producing their first demo tape. Although featuring many of the songs that would be included on their future debut album, the tape garnered little major label attention. In early 1977, Warner Brothers' Ted Templeman came to the Starwood, heard the group, signed them to a contract.
Roth is a guitarist and harmonica player. Most acoustic guitar parts in Van Halen songs, such as "Ice Cream Man," "The Full Bug," "Could This Be Magic" and many others showcase his abilities on slide guitar and acoustic guitar. All performances, in the studio and on stage, featuring acoustic guitar or harmonica were performed by David Lee Roth featured in his early years with Van Halen. Released in 1978, the debut album; the album sold more than 12 million copies by 2014. The original Van Halen released five more successful albums over the next seven years. Roth is credited with promoting Van Halen's image as the quintessential rock band, one devoted to a lifestyle described by David Fricke in Rolling Stone as "a nonstop booze-and-babes party train." Despite this wild image, Roth was a key to the band's success both as lead singer and as their principal lyricist. Roth's lyrics worked in harmony with music composed by Eddie Van Halen to create the trademark tunes that helped transform Van Halen, in Fricke's words, into "the monster rock action squad that ruled the charts and the airwaves for seven years."In early 1985, while still a member of Van Halen, Roth released Crazy from the Heat, a popular solo EP of off-beat standards.
Singles for "California Girls" and "Just a Gigolo/I Ain't Got Nobody" succeeded due to innovative music videos, which featured ridiculous characters created by Roth and his Creative Chief Director, Pete Angelus, who directed Van Halen's Roth-era videos. Despite the band's success, a creative rift developed between Eddie Van Halen early on; the former was interested in lighthearted songs about partying and sex, while the latter wanted more depth. Van Halen constructed his own recording studio at home during 1983, which led to a conflict with the rest of the band as it allowed him to create music without their input. Furthermore, he began to move towards a more radio-friendly pop direction with keyboards and synthesizers, their sixth album, 1984, was a critical and co
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Van Halen is a Grammy Award-winning American hard rock band formed in Pasadena, California in 1972. Credited with "restoring hard rock to the forefront of the music scene", Van Halen is known for its energetic live shows and for the work of its acclaimed lead guitarist, Eddie Van Halen; the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2007. From 1974 until 1985, Van Halen consisted of Eddie Van Halen. Upon its release, the band's self-titled debut album reached No. 19 on the Billboard pop music charts. By the early 1980s, Van Halen was one of the most successful rock acts of the time; the album 1984 was a hit. S. number one was internationally known. In 1985, Van Halen replaced Roth with former Montrose lead vocalist Sammy Hagar. With Hagar, the group would release four U. S. number-one albums over the course of 11 years. Hagar left the band in 1996 shortly before the release of the band's first greatest hits collection, Best Of – Volume I. Former Extreme frontman Gary Cherone replaced Hagar, remaining with the band until 1999.
The following year, the band released The Best of its second greatest hits collection. Hagar again left Van Halen in 2005. Anthony was fired from the band in 2006 and was replaced on bass guitar by Wolfgang Van Halen, Eddie's son. In 2012, the band released the commercially and critically successful A Different Kind of Truth; as of March 2019, Van Halen is 20th on the RIAA list of best-selling artists in the United States. As of 2007, Van Halen was one of only five rock bands with two studio albums that sold more than 10 million copies in the United States. Additionally, Van Halen has charted 13 number-one hits in the history of Billboard's Mainstream Rock chart. VH1 ranked the band seventh on a list of the top 100 hard rock artists of all time; the Van Halen brothers were born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Alex Van Halen in 1953 and Eddie Van Halen in 1955, sons to Dutch musician Jan Van Halen and Indonesian-born Eugenia Van Beers. The family moved to Pasadena, California, in 1962. Young Edward first began studying classical piano, became quite proficient.
The brothers started playing music together in the 1960s—Eddie on drums and Alex on guitar. While Eddie was delivering newspapers to pay for his new drum set, Alex would sneak over and play them. Eddie found out about it, out of frustration he told Alex, "OK, you play drums and I'll go play your guitar."The Van Halen brothers formed their first band, called The Broken Combs, in 1964. As they progressed and gained popularity, they started to play many backyard parties and changed the name of their band to The Trojan Rubber Co. In 1972, the Van Halen brothers formed a band called Genesis featuring Eddie as lead vocalist/guitarist, Alex on drums, Mark Stone on bass, they rented a sound system from David Lee Roth but decided to save money by letting him join as lead vocalist though his previous audition had been unsuccessful. By 1974, the band decided to replace Stone, so Michael Anthony and lead vocalist from local band Snake was auditioned. Following an all-night jam session, he was hired for backing vocals.
The band changed its name to Mammoth when they discovered the name Genesis was being used. In 1974, Mammoth changed its name to Van Halen. According to Roth, this was his brainchild, he felt. They on a flatbed truck at Hamilton Park. Van Halen played clubs in Pasadena and Hollywood to growing audiences, increasing their popularity through self-promotion: before each gig they would pass out flyers at local high schools; this sort of self-promotion soon built them a major following. That year, the band got its first break when it was hired to play at Gazzarri's, a famous but down-at-the-heels night club on the Sunset Strip which closed in 1996. Earlier, they had auditioned for the owner, Bill Gazzarri, but he claimed they were "too loud" and would not hire them. However, their new managers, Mark Algorri and Mario Miranda, who had coincidentally taken over Gazzarri's hiring, did the deal. Shortly afterwards, they recorded their first demo tape at the now-defunct Cherokee Studios in Northridge where Steely Dan had completed an album.
Van Halen became a staple of the Los Angeles music scene during the mid-1970s, playing at well-known clubs like the Whisky a Go Go. According to a January 4, 1977, L. A. Times article by Robert Hilburn, entitled "HOMEGROWN PUNK," Rodney Bingenheimer saw Van Halen at the Gazzarri club in the summer of 1976, so he took Gene Simmons of Kiss to see Van Halen. Simmons produced a Van Halen demo tape with recording beginning at the Village Recorder studios in Los Angeles and finished with overdubs at the Electric Lady Studios in New York. Simmons wanted to change the band's name to "Daddy Longlegs," but the band stuck with Van Halen. Simmons opted out of further involvement after he took the demo to Kiss management and was told that "they had no chance of making it" and that they wouldn't take them. In mid-1977, Mo Ostin and Ted Templeman of Warner Bros. Records saw Van Halen perform at the Starwood in Hollywood. Although the audience was small, the two were so impressed with Van Halen that within a week they offered the band a recording contract
San Francisco Blues Festival
Debuting in 1973, the San Francisco Blues Festival is the longest running blues festival in the United States. Tom Mazzolini, the event's producer, founded the blues festival to educate the public about the history and evolution of the blues. Many of the performers at the early concerts were the pioneers and originators of the West Coast blues sound. In 2009, Mazzolini announced that after 37 consecutive years, the festival was forced to cease production due to economic reasons. 1973 Jimmy McCracklin, Charlie Musselwhite, Dave Alexander, K. C. Douglas, Little Willie Littlefield, L. C. Robinson, Luther Tucker, Johnny Fuller, Gary Smith Blues Band, Mr. Boogie, The Hi Tide Harris Blues Band 1974 Little Joe Blue, Sugar Pie DeSanto, Mark St. Mary, Cool Papa, Robert Lowery, K. C. Douglas, L. C. Robinson, Boogie Jake, Dave Alexander 1975 Queen Ida, Sonny Rhodes, Floyd Dixon, Charlie Musselwhite, Charles Conley, Jimmy McCracklin, Big Roger Collins, Grace Loveberry, J. C. Burris, Dave Alexander 1976 Mike Bloomfield, Charles Brown, Arthur C.
Robinson, Luther Tucker, Little Frankie Lee, Bernie Burns, Mike Henderson, Dottie Ivory, Hi Tide Harris, Gary Smith, Messaround Blues Allstars, Robert Lowery, Robert Kelton 1977 Albert Collins, Robert Cray, Phillip Walker, Sonny Rhodes, Johnny Fuller, Tom McFarland, Mississippi Charles Bevel, Chick Streetman, Johnny Waters, Boogie Jake, Willie Joe Duncan 1978 The Fabulous Thunderbirds, Harmonica George Smith, Louisiana Red, Lowell Fulson, Smokey Wilson, Isaac Scott, Phillip Walker, Queen Ida, Rod Piazza, Sugar Pie DeSanto, Guitar Curtis, Omar Hakim Khayam, Mark Naftalin, Ron Thompson, Mark Hummel, Charles Houff 1979 Stevie Ray Vaughan, Robert Cray Band, Big Mama Thornton, Jimmy Rogers, Roy Brown, Mel Brown, Paul deLay Band, Freddie Roulette, J. C. Burris, Hi Tide Harris and the Japanese Allstars, Luther Tucker, Blue Sax Allstars featuring Dr. Wild Willie Moore, Bobby Forte and Joe Conwright, Little Joe Blue, Ron Thompson Band with Mark Naftalin 1980 B. B. King, John Lee Hooker, Percy Mayfield, The Nighthawks, Pee Wee Crayton, Blind Joe Hill, The Cobras, Sooleman Rowgie, Margie Evans, J.
J. Malone and Troyce Key, Buddy Ace, Little Frankie Lee, Little Charlie & the Nightcats, Mississippi Johnny Waters and the Blues Survivors, Gary Smith Blues Band, Sonny Rhodes 1981 Roomful of Blues, Koko Taylor, Little Milton, Earl King, Jimmy McCracklin, Carey Bell, Bob Hall, Deacon John Moore, George "Harmonica" Smith, Tom Courtney, Henry Ford Thompson, Miss Lu Lewis, Rod Piazza, Chicago Blues Power with Dallas Slim, Eddie Ray w/Sonny Rhodes Band, Robert Kelton 1982 Clifton Chenier, Albert Collins, Robert Cray Band, John Hammond, Gatemouth Brown, Lloyd Glenn, Eddie Taylor, Johnny Littlejohn, Charles Ford Band, Little Charlie & the Nightcats, Cool Papa 1983 Albert King, Willie Dixon & the Chicago Blues Allstars, Clifton Chenier, Irma Thomas, Joe Liggins and the Honey Drippers, featuring Little Caesar and Diane Carlton, Brownie McGhee, Duke Robillard, Anson Funderburgh & the Rockets, Beverly Stovall, Monica Dupont, Buddy Ace, Troyce Key Blues Band, Ron Thompson and the Resistors, Maurice McKinnies, J.
C. Burris, Maxine Howard 1984 James Cotton, Little Milton, Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Golden Eagles, Marcia Ball, Clarence Garlow, Son Seals, Eddy Clearwater, The Nighthawks, Katie Webster, Toru Oki, Valerie Wellington, Mason Ruffner, Mighty Flyers, Bob Hall, Robert Lowery and J. C. Burris, Sonny Rhodes, Buckwheat Zydeco and The Ils Sont Partis Band 1985 Bonnie Raitt, Carlos Santana, Boz Scaggs, Robert Cray Band, Otis Rush, John Lee Hooker, Luther Johnson, Katie Webster, Queen Ida, Roomful of Blues, Anson Funderburgh & the Rockets, Mitch Woods & his Rocket 88's, Ester Jones, Johnny Heartsman, Frankie Lee, Bobby Murray, Mississippi Johnnie Waters, Sam Myers 1986 Etta James, Albert King, Carlos Santana, Jessie Mae Hemphill, Buddy Miles, Roy Buchanan, Junior Wells & Buddy Guy, Johnny Adams, R. L. Burnside, Rockin' Dopsie, Big Daddy Kinsey & the Kinsey Report, Delbert McClinton, Joe Louis Walker & the Boss Talkers, Katie Webster, The Paladins 1987 Albert Collins, Joe Ely, Roomful of Blues, Buddy Guy, Lonnie Brooks Band, Jeannie & Jimmy Cheatham & the Sweet Baby Blues Band, Zachary Richard & his Zydeco Rockers, Roy Rogers & the Delta Rhythm Kings with Norton Buffalo, Lady Bianca 1988 Bobby "Blue" Bland, Koko Taylor, Albert Collins, Carla Thomas, John Lee Hooker, Johnny Copeland, Elvin Bishop, C.
J. Chenier & His Red Hot Louisiana Band, Super Harps, featuring: Curtis Salgado, Chris Cain Band, Joe Louis Walker & the Boss Talkers, Big Daddy Kinsey & the Kinsey Report 1989 Ernestine Anderson, Albert King, Etta James & the Roots Band, Otis Rush, Duke Robillard & the Pleasure Kings, Terrance Simien & the Mallet Playboys, Dr. Hepcat, Saxophone Madness with Richie Cole & Big Jay McNeely, Ronnie Earl & the Broadcasters, Ron Hacker 1990 Ruth Brown, Koko Taylor & Her Blues Machine, Albert Collins & the Ice Breakers, Johnny Otis Show, Buckwheat Zydeco, Yank Rachell, Joe Louis Walker & the Boss Talkers, Katie Webster, The Paladins 1991 B. B. King, Etta James, Bobby McFerrin, Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Clarence'Gatemouth' Brown, Rory Block, Snooky Pryor, John Hammond, Carey Bell & Tough Luck, Joanna Connor Band, Queen Ida & Her Zydeco Band, Alvin Youngblood Hart, Robert Cray, Boz Scaggs, Johnny Adams, Nick Gravenites 1992 Taj Mahal, Albert Collins, Marva Wright, Pops Staples and The Staples Singers, The Persuasions, Ann Peebles, Billy Boy Arnold, Jimmy Rogers, Kim Wilson, Antone's Women Texas Blues Revue, featuring Lou Ann Barton, Sue Foley and Angela Strehli, Nappy Brown, Chris Cain 1993 Robert Cray Band, Denise LaSalle, John Mayall Band, James Cotton Band, Linda Hopkins, Johnnie Johnson, Bobby Parker, Beau Jocque, Tommy Ridgley, Maria Muldaur, Rod Piazza & the Mighty Flyers, Street Sounds 1994 Buddy Guy, Solomon Burke, Robben Ford and the Blue Line, Kim Wilson & the
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Van Halen (album)
Van Halen is the debut studio album by American hard rock band Van Halen. Released on February 10, 1978, the album peaked at #19 on the Billboard 200; the album became recognized as the band's popularity grew, selling more than 10 million copies in the United States by August 7, 1996 and being certified Diamond. Van Halen contains many of Van Halen's signature songs, including "Runnin' with the Devil", the guitar solo "Eruption", their remake of The Kinks hit "You Really Got Me", "Ain't Talkin"bout Love", "Jamie's Cryin'", "Feel Your Love Tonight" and their remake of John Brim's "Ice Cream Man". Van Halen began recording demos in 1976. However, a three-track tape financed by Gene Simmons attracted no interest from record labels. Guitarist Eddie Van Halen was not convinced of the quality of the material because they could not make the recordings with their own equipment. Simmons left to tour with Kiss after recording the demos, but said he would try to secure Van Halen a record deal afterwards.
After recording the demos, Van Halen was offered several concerts. At a sold-out show in their hometown, the group's future manager, Marshall Berle, discovered the band, he and musical entrepreneur Kim Fowley paired them with punk rock band Venus and the Razorblades for a gig at the Whisky a Go Go. After being well received by Berle at the Whisky a Go Go, the band gained the attention of Mo Ostin and Ted Templeman of Warner Bros. Ostin and Templeman were impressed with the band's performance at the Starwood, Van Halen proceeded to sign a contract with Warner; the recording of their debut album lasted only three weeks. With producer Ted Templeman, it was recorded live. "Runnin' with the Devil", "Jamie's Cryin'", "Feel Your Love Tonight" and "Ice Cream Man" contain guitar overdubs. Overall, the album cost $40,000 to produce.“We didn’t have a ton of material", recalled bassist Michael Anthony, "so we just took our live show and all the songs we knew and went for it. The whole album took a couple of weeks.
Ted Templeman wanted to make a big, powerful guitar record, he had all he needed in what Eddie was doing.”The subsequent tour began with the band opening for Journey, along with Montrose, in the United States. They opened for Black Sabbath in Europe and the United States; the cover photos for Van Halen were taken at the Whisky a Go Go, a Los Angeles club at which Van Halen performed during the mid-1970s. The guitar pictured on the cover of the album is Eddie Van Halen's famous Frankenstrat Guitar, a Fender Stratocaster replica, now housed in the Smithsonian Institution. In the United States, Van Halen reached number 19 on the Billboard Top 200. Soon after its February 1978 release, Van Halen became regarded by fans and critics as one of rock and roll's greatest debut albums. In 1978, Rolling Stone critic Charles M. Young predicted, "In three years, Van Halen is going to be fat and self-indulgent and disgusting... follow Deep Purple and Led Zeppelin right into the toilet. In the meantime, they are to be a big deal."
But he wrote that: "Van Halen's secret is not doing anything that's original while having the hormones to do it better than all those bands who have become fat and self-indulgent and disgusting. Edward Van Halen has mastered the art of lead/rhythm guitar in the tradition of Jimmy Page and Joe Walsh. Vocalist Dave Lee Roth manages the rare hard-rock feat of infusing the forgettable lyrics with energy and not sounding like a castrato at the same time. Drummer Alex Van Halen and bassist Michael Anthony are competent and properly unobtrusive." Village Voice critic Robert Christgau said, "For some reason Warners wants us to know that this is the biggest bar band in the San Fernando Valley... The term becomes honorific; this music belongs on an aircraft carrier."According to Rolling Stone's Holly George-Warren, with the album's release the mainstream media focused on Roth's "swaggering good looks and extroverted persona", while fans and musicians "were riveted by Eddie Van Halen's guitar mastery", which included "an array of unorthodox techniques."
She notes that before the band's debut, "Eddie became a legend among local guitarists."Kerrang! magazine gave the album a positive review, considers the album to be an "essential purchase." They wrote, "IT'S DIFFICULT to overstate the effect. With the music world split between punk and prog rock, Van Halen combined a dazzling live show with a party-hearty motto and, in Eddie Van Halen, a guitarist who redefined what was possible on six strings, his sound on this album—christened'The Brown Sound'—remains the holy grail of guitar tones." On August 7, 1996, Van Halen was re-certified by the RIAA for selling ten million copies in the United States alone. One of only six rock bands to release two RIAA Diamond status albums, Van Halen remains one of Van Halen's two best-selling albums, along with 1984. Van Halen went to Gold status on May 24, 1978, went to Platinum status just a few months on October 10, 1978. In less than a year the album sold more than one million copies in the US alone, meaning that the album was a great success.
However, on October 22, 1984, the album went to 5× Multi-Platinum status, in other words, with that, the album still had a lot to sell. The album went to 6x Multi-Platinum on February 1, 1989, went to 7× Multi-Platinum on September 29, 1993. In less than a year on July 11, 1994, the album went
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus