Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of 20, he married Queen Victoria, he felt constrained by his role of prince consort, which did not afford him power or responsibilities. He developed a reputation for supporting public causes, such as educational reform and the abolition of slavery worldwide, was entrusted with running the Queen's household and estates, he was involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, a resounding success. Victoria came to depend more on his support and guidance, he aided the development of Britain's constitutional monarchy by persuading his wife to be less partisan in her dealings with Parliament—although he disagreed with the interventionist foreign policy pursued during Lord Palmerston's tenure as Foreign Secretary. Albert died at the young age of 42. Victoria was so devastated at the loss of her husband that she entered into a deep state of mourning and wore black for the rest of her life.
On her death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, named after the ducal house to which Albert belonged. Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Albert's future wife, was born earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife, Charlotte von Siebold. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, the Itz, his godparents were the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. In 1825, Albert's great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died, his death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Albert's father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Albert and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents' turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce.
After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and Beiersdorf. She never saw her children again, died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831; the following year, their father married his sons' cousin Princess Marie of Württemberg. The brothers were educated at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, where Adolphe Quetelet was one of their tutors. Like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economy and the history of art, he played music and excelled at sport fencing and riding. His tutors at Bonn included the poet Schlegel; the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, was first documented in an 1821 letter from his paternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, who said that he was "the pendant to the pretty cousin". By 1836, this idea had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, King of the Belgians since 1831. At this time, Victoria was the heir presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III, had died when she was a baby, her elderly uncle, King William IV, had no legitimate children. Her mother, the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Albert's father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victoria's mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his two sons to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of meeting Victoria. William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes, she wrote, " is handsome. Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain". Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me happy."
Although the parties did not undertake a formal engagement, both the family and their retainers assumed that the match would take place. Victoria came to the throne aged eighteen on 20 June 1837, her letters of the time show interest in Albert's education for the role he would have to play, although she resisted attempts to rush her into marriage. In the winter of 1838–39, the prince visited Italy, accompanied by the Coburg family's confidential adviser, Baron Stockmar. Albert returned to the United Kingdom with Ernest in October 1839 to visit the Queen, with the objective of settling the marriage. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839. Victoria's intention to marry was declared formally to the Privy Council on 23 November, the couple married on
Crathie Kirk is a small Church of Scotland parish church in the Scottish village of Crathie, best known for being the regular place of worship of the British Royal Family when they are in residence at the nearby Balmoral Castle. Crathie Kirk is now united with neighbouring Braemar to form a single parish with two places of worship; this parish will be further enlarged to include Glenmuick. The minister is the Reverend Kenneth Mackenzie. Mackenzie was minister of the Church of Scotland congregation in Budapest, Hungary. Crathie has been a place of Christian worship since the 9th century when a church was founded on the banks of the River Dee by Saint Manire, it is traditionally held that Manire baptised Pictish converts in a pool of the Dee east of the modern village of Crathie. A single standing stone at Rinabaich is all. Subsequent places of worship were situated further west, near the location of present-day Crathie village; the ruins of a 13th-century church, dedicated to Saint Manire, stand on the riverbank south of the current structure.
A church was built at the current site in 1804. Queen Victoria worshipped there from 1848, every British monarch since has worshipped at Crathie Kirk. Victoria laid the foundation stone for a new, much larger, church in 1893. Victoria's decision to worship at Crathie Kirk caused a scandal when it was discovered that she had received communion there; as Supreme Governor of the Anglican Church of England, it was expected that she would worship in the Scottish Episcopal Church, which recognised the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury, although to do so would have been illegal since in her own words "Scotch bishops are mere dissenters". Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal married Timothy Laurence a commander in the Royal Navy, at Crathie Kirk, on 12 December 1992; the couple chose to marry in Scotland as the Church of England did not, at the time, permit remarriage after divorce. The Church of Scotland, which does not consider marriage to be a sacrament, has no objection to remarriage after divorce, depending on the circumstances which led to the end of the previous marriage.
The British Royal Family attended the Sunday service here after the death of Diana, Princess of Wales on the morning of 31 August 1997. The walls are built of the roof made of Scots Pine. Building materials were donated by the surrounding estates, £5000 raised from the local population to fund construction; the church, built in the fashionable Gothic revival style by Elgin architect A. Marshall Mackenzie, was completed in 1895. Marshall Mackenzie went on to build St Ninian's Chapel, Braemar for Queen Victoria's grandson-in-law, the 1st Duke of Fife. Crathie Kirk's south transept is reserved for royal use; the north transept contains pews belonging to the Farquharson family, Lairds of Invercauld and owners of Braemar Castle and to the Gordon family, Lairds of Abergeldie and owners of nearby Abergeldie Castle. Queen Victoria donated two stained glass windows which commemorate author and social reformer Reverend Norman MacLeod, endowed the kirk's Father Willis organ. Victoria's highland servant John Brown is buried in the churchyard.
Princess Beatrice, the youngest daughter of Queen Victoria, donated four bells which continue to hang in the belltower. Edward VII donated two marble medallions commemorating his brother Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and sister Victoria, Princess Royal and Empress Frederick. Edward's son George V donated a communion table dedicated to the memory of his father; this was made from white marble quarried on the island of the site of Columba's monastery. Elizabeth II donated a Bible decorated with the Royal Coat of Arms. 1563 - Sir Laurence Coutts 1567 - Richard Christison 1574 - John Wilson 1576–85 - Archibald Wilson 1590–1608 - David Sanderson 1626–63 - Alexander Ferries M. A. 1669–99 - William Robertson M. A. 1700–14 - Adam Ferguson M. A. 1715–48 - John McInnes M. A. 1784–88 - James Wilson M. A. 1789–1822 - Charles McHardy M. A. 1822–40 - Alexander McFarlane 1840–63 - Archibald Anderson M. A. 1864–74 - Alexander Minty Beattie M. A. 1867–73 - Malcolm Campbell Taylor M. A. 1874–96 - Archibald Alexander Campbell D.
D. 1897–1918 - Samuel James Ramsay Sibbald M. V. O. D. D 1919–41 - John Stirton C. V. O. D. D. 1937–63 - John Lamb C. V. O. D. D. 1964–71 - Ronald Henderson Gunn Budge M. V. O. M. A. 1972–77 - Thomas James Trail Nichol M. V. O. M. B. E. M. C. M. A. D. D. 1979–96 - James Alexander Keith Angus T. D. M. A. L. V. O. 1996–2005 - Robert P. Sloan M. A. B. D. Since 2005 - Kenneth I. Mackenzie B. D. C. P. S. List of Church of Scotland parishes grid reference NO265949 Information on the history of the Crathie parish Photo of Crathie Kirk
Crathie is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It stands on the north bank of the River Dee. Abergeldie Castle is a mile away, it had 19th century additions. It was garrisoned by General Hugh Mackay in 1689. Crathie is so east of Balmoral Castle, it is best known for its association with the royal inhabitants of the castle for their patronage of Crathie Kirk, the parish church. Traditionally many of the estate's workers lived at Crathie. Crathie Bridge is one of the more obscure of Brunel's iron bridges, demonstrating his balloon flange girder; the hills to the south contain a number of memorial cairns, commemorating Prince Albert and some of his children. John Brown,a favoured acquaintance of Queen Victoria's is buried here; the Royal Lochnagar Distillery stands on the southern bank of the Dee east of the village. The only producer of a Deeside single malt, it is fed by natural springs rising on the slopes of Lochnagar, a neighbouring Munro. Aberdeenshire Cricket Association AA Touring Guide to Scotland grid reference NO272942 Photos and information about Crathie
Abdul Karim (the Munshi)
Mohammed Abdul Karim, known as "the Munshi", was an Indian attendant of Queen Victoria. He served her during the final fourteen years of her reign, gaining her maternal affection over that time. Karim was born the son of a hospital assistant near Jhansi in British India. In 1887, the year of Victoria's Golden Jubilee, Karim was one of two Indians selected to become servants to the Queen. Victoria came to like him a great deal and gave him the title of "Munshi". Victoria appointed him to be her Indian Secretary, showered him with honours, obtained a land grant for him in India; the close platonic relationship between Karim and the Queen led to friction within the Royal Household, the other members of which felt themselves to be superior to him. The Queen insisted on taking Karim with her on her travels, which caused arguments between her and her other attendants. Following Victoria's death in 1901, her successor, Edward VII, returned Karim to India and ordered the confiscation and destruction of the Munshi's correspondence with Victoria.
Karim subsequently lived near Agra, on the estate that Victoria had arranged for him, until his death at the age of 46. Mohammed Abdul Karim was born into a Muslim family at Lalitpur near Jhansi in 1863, his father, Haji Mohammed Waziruddin, was a hospital assistant stationed with the Central India Horse, a British cavalry regiment. Karim had one older brother, Abdul Aziz, four younger sisters, he was taught Persian and Urdu and, as a teenager, travelled across North India and into Afghanistan. Karim's father participated in the conclusive march to Kandahar, which ended the Second Anglo-Afghan War, in August 1880. After the war, Karim's father transferred from the Central India Horse to a civilian position at the Central Jail in Agra, while Karim worked as a vakil for the Nawab of Jaora in the Agency of Agar. After three years in Agar, Karim resigned and moved to Agra, to become a vernacular clerk at the jail, his father arranged the sister of a fellow worker. Prisoners in the Agra jail were trained and kept employed as carpet weavers as part of their rehabilitation.
In 1886, 34 convicts travelled to London to demonstrate carpet weaving at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in South Kensington. Karim did not accompany the prisoners, but assisted Jail Superintendent John Tyler in organising the trip, helped to select the carpets and weavers; when Queen Victoria visited the exhibition, Tyler gave her a gift of two gold bracelets, again chosen with the assistance of Karim. The Queen had a longstanding interest in her Indian territories and wished to employ some Indian servants for her Golden Jubilee, she asked Tyler to recruit two attendants. Karim was hastily coached in British manners and in the English language and sent to England, along with Mohammed Buksh. Major-General Thomas Dennehy, about to be appointed to the Royal Household, had employed Buksh as a servant, it was planned that the two Indian men would wait at table, learn to do other tasks. After a journey by rail from Agra to Bombay and by mail steamer to Britain and Buksh arrived at Windsor Castle in June 1887.
They were put under the charge of Major-General Dennehy and first served the Queen at breakfast in Frogmore House at Windsor on 23 June 1887. The Queen described Karim in her diary for that day: "The other, much younger, is much lighter and with a fine serious countenance, his father is a native doctor at Agra. They both kissed my feet."Five days the Queen noted that "The Indians always wait now and do so, so well and quietly." On 3 August, she wrote: "I am learning a few words of Hindustani to speak to my servants. It is a great interest to me for both the language and the people, I have never come into real contact with before." On 20 August she had some "excellent curry" made by one of the servants. By 30 August Karim was teaching her Urdu, which she used during an audience in December to greet the Maharani Chimnabai of Baroda. Victoria took a great liking to Karim and ordered that he was to be given additional instruction in the English language. By February 1888 he had "learnt English wonderfully" according to Victoria.
After he complained to the Queen that he had been a clerk in India and thus menial work as a waiter was beneath him, he was promoted to the position of "Munshi" in August 1888. In her journal, the Queen writes that she made this change so that he would stay: "I wish to retain his services as he helps me in studying Hindustani, which interests me much, & he is intelligent & useful." Photographs of him waiting at table were destroyed and he became the first Indian personal clerk to the Queen. Buksh remained in the Queen's service, but only as a khidmatgar or table servant, until his death at Windsor in 1899. According to Karim biographer Sushila Anand, the Queen's own letters testify that "her discussions with the Munshi were wide-ranging—philosophical and practical. Both head and heart were engaged. There is no doubt that the Queen found in Abdul Karim a connection with a world, fascinatingly alien, a confidant who would not feed her the official line." Karim was made responsible for their accounts.
Victoria praised him in her letters and journal. "I am so fond of him" she wrote, "He is so good & gentle & understanding all I want & is a real comfort to me." She admired "her personal Indian clerk & Munshi, an excellent, clever pous & refined gentle man, who says,'God ordered it'... God's Orders is what they implicitly obey! Such faith as theirs & such conscientiousness set us a gt. example." At Balmo
Norman Macleod (1812–1872)
Reverend Norman Macleod was a Scottish clergyman and author who served as Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1869/70. Norman Macleod was born in Kirk Street, Campbeltown, to the Rev. Dr. Norman Macleod and Agnes Maxwell, his father, at that time minister of Campbeltown, was himself an exceptional man. His entire life was bound to the Highlanders of Scotland, catering to their spiritual and intellectual needs, he was the author of an extensive literature described by Professor Blackie as the "great work of classical Gaelic prose....written in a dialogue form, enriched by the dramatic grace of Plato and the shrewd humour of Lucian", played a major role in the creation of an educational infrastructure for the Highlands and Islands. He was an untiring supporter of the interests of the Highlanders, his name was respected throughout the North and West of Scotland. In 1827, Macleod became a student at the University of Glasgow. On 18 March 1838, he became parish minister at Ayrshire.
At this time the troubles in the Scottish Church were gathering to a head. Macleod, although he had no love for lay patronage, wished the Church to be free to do its proper work, clung to the idea of a national Established Church, therefore remained in the Establishment when the Disruption of 1843 took place, he was one of those who took a middle course in the non-intrusion controversy, holding that the fitness of those who were presented to parishes should be judged by the presbyteries, the principle of Lord Aberdeens Bill. On the secession of 1843 he was offered many different parishes, having settled at Dalkeith, devoted himself to parish work and to questions affecting the Church as a whole, he was instrumental in the work of strengthening the Church. In 1847 he became one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance, from 1849 edited the Christian Instructor. In 1851 he was called to Glasgow, in which city the rest of his days were passed. There the more liberal theology made way among a people who judged it more by its fruits than its arguments, MacLeod won many adherents by his practical schemes for the social reform of the people.
He instituted temperance refreshment rooms, a Congregational penny savings bank, held services specially for the poor. Despite his liberal stance on some issues, he was one of many clergy who preached against Verdi's La Traviata. In a sermon just after its 1857 Scottish premiere, Macleod argued that'no woman could hear it without a blush'In 1860 Macleod was appointed editor of the new monthly magazine Good Words, illustrated by Arthur Hughes, Francis Arthur Fraser, John Leighton, James Mahoney, Francis S. Walker, Townley Green and others. Under his control the magazine, of a religious character, became popular, his own literary work, nearly all of which appeared in its pages — sermons, travels, poems — was only a by-product of a busy life. By far his best work was the delightful Reminiscences of a Highland Parish. While Good Words made his name known, helped the cause he had so at heart, his relations with the queen and the royal family strengthened yet further his position in the country. Never since Principal Carstairs had any Scottish clergyman been on such terms with his sovereign.
In 1865, Macleod risked an encounter with Scottish Sabbatarian ideas. The presbytery of Glasgow issued a pastoral letter on the subject of Sunday trains and other infringements of the Christian Sabbath. Macleod protested against the grounds. For a time, owing to a misleading report of his statement, he became the man in all Scotland most profoundly distrusted, but four years the Church accorded him the highest honor in her power by choosing him as moderator of her general assembly. In 1867, along with Dr Archibald Watson, Macleod was sent to India, to inquire into the state of the missions, he undertook the journey in spite of failing health, seems never to have recovered from its effects. He returned resolved to devote the rest of his days to rousing the Church to her duty in the sphere of foreign missions, but his health was now broken, his old energy flagged, he is buried at Campsie. His Glasgow church was named after the Macleod Parish Church. Queen Victoria gave two memorial windows to Crathie church as a testimony of her admiration for his work.
Macleod was painted by Tavernor Knott around 1850. The portrait is held by the National Portrait Gallery of Scotland but is displayed. In August 1851, he married, Catherine Ann, daughter of William Mackintosh of Geddes, sister of John Mackintosh, his daughter, Ann Campbell Macleod, married in 1888 Sir James Wilson, published two books based on her letters to friends and family while they lived in India. His grandson, George MacLeod was to become Moderator of the Church of Scotland, having founded the Iona Community. John Wellwood, Norman Macleod, Edinburgh: Oliphant and Ferrier; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Macleod, Norman". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 262. Hamilton, Thomas. "Macleod, Norman". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 35. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Anonymous. Cartoon portraits and biographical sketches of men of the day. Illustrated
Queen Victoria Golden Jubilee Medal
The Golden Jubilee Medal was instituted in 1887 by Royal Warrant as a British decoration to be awarded to participants of Queen Victoria's golden jubilee celebrations. The medal was awarded to those involved in the official celebrations of Queen Victoria's golden jubilee, including members of the Royal Family, Royal Household and government officials, as well as Envoys, Foreign Ambassadors and Colonial Prime Ministers. Military recipients included selected officers and soldiers of the Royal Navy and Army, the Indian and colonial contingents, that participated in jubilee activities, including the London parade and the Royal Review at Spithead, where the commander of each ship received the medal in silver. A Police Golden Jubilee Medal of a different design was awarded to members of the Metropolitan and City of London Police Forces on duty during the jubilee celebrations; the Golden Jubilee Medal was struck to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Queen Victoria's reign. It measures 30 millimetres in diameter.
On the obverse Queen Victoria is depicted crowned and wearing a veil which falls over the back of the head and neck, with the text VICTORIA D. G. REGINA ET IMPERATRIX F. D.. The reverse bears the words IN COMMEMORATION OF THE 50TH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF QUEEN VICTORIA · 21 JUNE 1887 within a garland of roses and thistles; the bust of Queen Victoria on obverse was designed by Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm and the reverse wreath entwined with heraldic flowers designed by Clemens Emptmayer, recommended by Boehm. The ribbon is garter blue with wide white stripes towards each edge; when Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee was celebrated 10 years holders of the 1887 medal who qualified for the Diamond Jubilee Medal were awarded a bar inscribed'1897' to attach to the ribbon of their existing medal
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its long association with the English and British royal family and for its architecture; the original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror. Since the time of Henry I, it has been used by the reigning monarch and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe; the castle's lavish early 19th-century State Apartments were described by the art historian Hugh Roberts as "a superb and unrivalled sequence of rooms regarded as the finest and most complete expression of Georgian taste". Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St George's Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be "one of the supreme achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic" design. Designed to protect Norman dominance around the outskirts of London and oversee a strategically important part of the River Thames, Windsor Castle was built as a motte-and-bailey, with three wards surrounding a central mound.
Replaced with stone fortifications, the castle withstood a prolonged siege during the First Barons' War at the start of the 13th century. Henry III built a luxurious royal palace within the castle during the middle of the century, Edward III went further, rebuilding the palace to make an grander set of buildings in what would become "the most expensive secular building project of the entire Middle Ages in England". Edward's core design lasted through the Tudor period, during which Henry VIII and Elizabeth I made increasing use of the castle as a royal court and centre for diplomatic entertainment. Windsor Castle survived the tumultuous period of the English Civil War, when it was used as a military headquarters by Parliamentary forces and a prison for Charles I. At the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Charles II rebuilt much of Windsor Castle with the help of the architect Hugh May, creating a set of extravagant Baroque interiors that are still admired. After a period of neglect during the 18th century, George III and George IV renovated and rebuilt Charles II's palace at colossal expense, producing the current design of the State Apartments, full of Rococo and Baroque furnishings.
Queen Victoria made a few minor changes to the castle, which became the centre for royal entertainment for much of her reign. Windsor Castle was used as a refuge by the royal family during the Luftwaffe bombing campaigns of the Second World War and survived a fire in 1992, it is a popular tourist attraction, a venue for hosting state visits, the preferred weekend home of Elizabeth II. Windsor Castle occupies 13 acres, combines the features of a fortification, a palace, a small town; the present-day castle was created during a sequence of phased building projects, culminating in the reconstruction work after a fire in 1992. It is in essence a Georgian and Victorian design based on a medieval structure, with Gothic features reinvented in a modern style. Since the 14th century, architecture at the castle has attempted to produce a contemporary reinterpretation of older fashions and traditions imitating outmoded or antiquated styles; as a result, architect Sir William Whitfield has pointed to Windsor Castle's architecture as having "a certain fictive quality", the Picturesque and Gothic design generating "a sense that a theatrical performance is being put on here", despite late 20th century efforts to expose more of the older structures to increase the sense of authenticity.
Although there has been some criticism, the castle's architecture and history lends it a "place amongst the greatest European palaces". At the heart of Windsor Castle is the Middle Ward, a bailey formed around the motte or artificial hill in the centre of the ward; the motte is 50 feet high and is made from chalk excavated from the surrounding ditch. The keep, called the Round Tower, on the top of the motte is based on an original 12th-century building, extended upwards in the early 19th century under architect Jeffry Wyatville by 30 ft to produce a more imposing height and silhouette; the interior of the Round Tower was further redesigned in 1991–3 to provide additional space for the Royal Archives, an additional room being built in the space left by Wyatville's hollow extension. The Round Tower is in reality far from cylindrical, due to the shape and structure of the motte beneath it; the current height of the tower has been criticised as being disproportionate to its width. The western entrance to the Middle Ward is now open, a gateway leads north from the ward onto the North Terrace.
The eastern exit from the ward is guarded by the Norman Gatehouse. This gatehouse, despite its name, dates from the 14th century, is vaulted and decorated with carvings, including surviving medieval lion masks, traditional symbols of majesty, to form an impressive entrance to the Upper Ward. Wyatville redesigned the exterior of the gatehouse, the interior was heavily converted in the 19th century for residential use; the Upper Ward of Windsor Castle comprises a number of major buildings enclosed by the upper bailey wall, forming a central quadrangle. The State Apartments run along the north of the ward, with a range of buildings along the east wall, the private royal apartments and the King George IV Gate to the south, with the Edward III Tower in the south-west corner; the motte and the Round Tower form the west edge of the ward. A bronze statue of Charles II on horseback sits beneath the Round Tower. Inspired by Hubert Le Sueur's statue of Charles I in London, the statue was cast by Josias Ibach in 1679, with the marble plinth featuring carvings