Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base; the population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population; the metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000. The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. Sixty-one per cent of Sheffield's entire area is green space, a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. There are more than 250 parks and gardens in the city, estimated to contain around 4.5 million trees. Sheffield played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution, with many significant inventions and technologies developed in the city.
In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel were developed locally, fuelling an tenfold increase in the population. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area; the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield, along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the city has a long sporting heritage, is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F. C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby; the city is home to the World Snooker Championship and the Sheffield Steelers, the UK's first professional ice hockey team.
The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes, it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia. Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield; the settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the second half of the first millennium, are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest of England, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, a small town developed, the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. From 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had been possible.
In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became known as Sheffield plate. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century; the resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew throughout the 19th century; the Sheffield and Rotherham railway was constructed in 1838. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842, was granted a city charter in 1893; the influx of people led to demand for better water supplies, a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town; the growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".
The Great Depression hit the city in the 1930s, but as international tensions increased and the Second
Johann Hinrich Wichern
Johann Hinrich Wichern was a founder of the Home Mission movement in Germany. Wichern studied theology at Göttingen and Berlin, settling in Hamburg, devoted himself to missionary work among the poor, he became head teacher of a Sunday school in St. Georg which proved successful, in 1833 opened his Rauhes Haus at Horn, now a suburb of Hamburg. Wichern traveled through Germany and establishing hospitals, schools and rescue stations, he is credited with inventing the Advent wreath in 1839. In 1844, he founded Fliegende Blätter des Rauhen Hauses, which he edited. Through his exertions, the Protestant synod at Wittenberg in 1848 appointed a central committee for home missions. In 1851 the Prussian government made him inspector of prisons and houses of correction, in 1858 member of the Supreme Ecclesiastical Council, the executive authority of the Evangelical State Church in Prussia. In 1872 disease forced him to retire from office. Die innere Mission der deutschen evangelischen Kirche Die Behandlung der Verbrecher und entlassenen Sträflinge Festbüchlein des Rauhen Hauses Der Dienst der Frauen in der Kirche Unsere Lieder
Manchester Grammar School
Manchester Grammar School is the largest independent day school for boys in the United Kingdom and is located in Manchester, England. Founded in 1515 as a free grammar school, it was adjacent to Manchester Parish Church until 1931 when it moved to its present 28-acre site at Fallowfield. In accordance with its founder's wishes, MGS has remained a predominantly academic school and belongs to the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. In the post-war period, MGS was a direct-grant grammar school, it chose to become an independent school in 1976 after the Labour government abolished the Direct Grant System. Fees for 2016–2017 were £11,970 per annum; the school's motto is Sapere Aude, the motto of the council of the former County Borough of Oldham, granted on 7 November 1894. Sapere aude is a quotation from Horace, famously used by Immanuel Kant and the motto of the Enlightenment; the Senior School badge is an outline of an owl. This is a heraldic "canting" reference to its founder, Hugh Oldham, the badge should be read as "owl-dom".
This suggests that he pronounced his name, as the local accent in Oldham still tends to do, as "Owdem". Owls are to be seen in the shield of the Borough of Oldham. There is a second significance to the "dom" of which Hugh Oldham, as a bishop, would have been well aware. D. O. M. was and is a standard abbreviation for Deo Optimo Maximo meaning "To God, the Best and the Greatest", a phrase of dedication required to be written by schoolboys before the Reformation and in Roman Catholic education since, at the head of a new piece of work, a practice continued into adult life by many as they committed a new undertaking into God's hands. This badge replaced the original one when the school colours changed from red and yellow to dark and light blue to reflect its connection with the universities of Oxford and Cambridge; the Junior School badge, which depicts the face of an owl, was introduced to blazers and ties in 2008. The founder, Hugh Oldham, a Manchester-born man, attended Exeter College and Queens' College, after having been tutored in the house of Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby.
Historical accounts suggest that he was not a learned man, but was in Royal service, being a favoured protégé of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII, became recognised for his administrative abilities. He was appointed Bishop of Exeter in 1505, his great wealth came from his water-powered corn mills on the River Irk near Manchester, which were subsequently used to fund the school's endowment. On 2 July 1515 he signed an endowment trust deed establishing the Manchester Free Grammar School for Lancashire Boys. A site was purchased in September 1516 and construction took place between April 1517 and August 1518; the combined cost was £218.13s.5d given by Oldham, but with the help of his and the Bexwyke family who had provided an earlier endowment for a school within the parish church. A more elaborate deed in 1525 set the detailed rules for the school until the late 19th century; the original deed promoted "Godliness and good learning" and established that any boy showing sufficient academic ability, regardless of background, might attend, free of charge.
The school was situated between Manchester Cathedral a collegiate church, the church's domestic quarters, subsequently Chetham's School of Music. Oldham's great friend Richard Foxe, the Bishop of Winchester, wished to found a monastery. Oldham, convinced him instead to found Corpus Christi College in Oxford and contributed 6000 marks. Oldham had a hand in the founding of Brasenose College, Oxford; the original foundation provided a school house in the curtilage of Manchester's Parish Church and two graduates to teach Latin and Greek, to any children who presented themselves. The school was intended to prepare pupils for university and the Church or the legal profession. Pupils would have stayed for 8 to 10 years before leaving for university. There was enough money to fund bursaries or exhibitions for pupils. In 1654, the world's first free public library was formed next door to MGS in what had been the church's living quarters; this was facilitated by a bequest from a wealthy businessman Humphrey Chetham, which served to create a bluecoat orphanage there, schooling 40 poor boys.
By the 18th century, there are thought to have been between 50 and 100 boys in the grammar school at any one time, three or four of whom each year were awarded exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge. An extra room had been built onto the school house for boys who needed instruction in English before they started Latin, another master was employed to teach them; the 1515 building was replaced on the same site in 1776. This was on two levels, an Upper School for the Latin and Greek pupils, a Lower School for the English pupils. Boarding-houses were added and many of the Upper School pupils were boarders from surrounding counties; when De Quincy came as a boarder in 1800, classes were held at 7.00am to 9.00, 9.30 to 12.00 and 3.00pm to 5.00. By 1808 consideration was being given to moving from the site, as it was becoming insalubrious, but this proved impossible as the deed could not be changed except by Act of Parliament. Going from the Old Church to Long Millgate... one is in an undisguised working men's quarter, for the shops and beerhouses hardly take the trouble to exhibit a trifling degree of cleanliness... is a narrow, coal black, foul smel
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
John Brown (Covenanter)
John Brown known as the Christian Carrier, was a Protestant Covenanter from Priesthill farm, a few miles from Muirkirk in Ayrshire, Scotland. He became a Presbyterian martyr in 1685. Among the numerous executions carried out by the government during The Killing Time of the 1680s, the allegations of brutality make this event one of the most controversial illustrations of the character of John Graham of Claverhouse, afterwards Viscount Dundee. In order to protect the Presbyterian polity and Calvinist doctrine of the Church of Scotland, the pre-Restoration government of Scotland signed the 1650 Treaty of Breda with King Charles II to crown him king and support him against the English Parliamentary forces. At his Restoration in 1660, the King renounced the terms of the Treaty and his Oath of Covenant, which the Scottish Covenanters saw as a betrayal; the Rescissory Act 1661 repealed all laws made since 1633 ejecting 400 Ministers from their livings, restoring patronage in the appointment of ministers to congregations and allowing the king to proclaim the restoration of bishops to the Church of Scotland.
The Abjuration Act of 1662..was a formal rejection of the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643. These were declared to be against the fundamental laws of the kingdom; the Act required all persons taking public office to take the Oath of Abjuration not to take arms against the king, rejecting the Covenants. This excluded most Presbyterians from holding official positions of trust; the resulting disappointment with Charles II's religious policy became civil unrest and erupted in violence during the early summer of 1679 with the assassination of Archbishop Sharp and the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. The Sanquhar Declaration of 1680 declared the people could not accept the authority of a king who would not recognise their religion, nor commit to his previous oaths. In February 1685 the king died and was succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, the Duke of York, as King James VII. John Brown lived in a remote farm called Priesthill, in the upland parish of Muirkirk in Kyle, where he cultivated a small piece of ground and acted as a carrier.
Wodrow describes him as'of shining piety', one who had'great measures of solid digested knowledge, had a singular talent of a most plain and affecting way of communicating his knowledge to others, he had employed his leisure in instructing youths.' He had fought with the Covenanters at the battle of Bothwell Bridge, was on intimate terms with the leaders of the persecuted party. In 1682, Alexander Peden, one of the chief of these, married him to Marion Weir. On this occasion Peden, according to Walker, foretold the husband's early and violent end:'Keep linen by you for his winding-sheet', he was shot on the morning of 1 May 1685, in a summary execution instigated by John Graham of Claverhouse under the emergency powers given him by the Privy Council to suppress insurrection in the South West of the country. In 1685, Brown was captured by a troop of horse under the command of Graham of Claverhouse. Brown's house was searched where'bullets and treasonable documents' were found. Brown was offered the chance to take the Oath of Abjuration.
Brown refused to swear the oath, designed to be repugnant to Covenanters and thereby a "sieve, the mesh of which would winnow the loyal from the disloyal". At the time, failure to take the Oath was a capital offence and thus defying the King was high treason. An underground house was discovered which contained weapons which Brown stated belonged to his uncle - John Brown. Much of what we know of his life has come from contemporary accounts of the dramatic events of the morning on which he died. A number of polemical accounts were produced in the years following while eyewitnesses remained living and their accounts could be assembled; these were written after the Revolution. It is these accounts which have been influential in setting a reputation of cruelty on the part of Claverhouse. A second level of detail was published in the late 19th century by revisionists chiefly concerned with reassessing and redefining Claverhouse's reputation. Mark Napier's work is an overt paean on the life of his hero Claverhouse, while Charles Sandford Terry takes a more modern approach to the source documents, but expresses his views nevertheless.
These both publish a letter from Claverhouse to the Duke of Queensberry, the Lord High Treasurer, the head of the Scottish government, in which Claverhouse defends his actions taken in executing John Brown. Not he is sparse on detail of the summary execution.'I caused shoot him dead, which he suffered inconcernedly.' This contrasts with his great detail on the reasons and evidence against Brown. Napier and Terry cite this letter as an example of Claverhouse's professionalism in law enforcement following orders. However, Wodrow et al. Do not dispute Brown was technically guilty of the draconian laws, but question the morality of the high-handed laws and highlight the cruelty of Claverhouse in carrying out the sentence on the spot, in front of his house, infant son and pregnant wife. A memorial was erected after his death and a more permanent stone plinth put in place in 1828; the site, on the remote hillside above Muirkirk is still the destination of visitors to pay their respects and sits on an ancient upland path that runs to Lesmahagow.
Several stories were published by Covenanting commentators after his death, each with different detail. P
Christopher Wordsworth was an English bishop in the Anglican Church and man of letters. Wordsworth was born in London, the youngest son of Christopher Wordsworth, Master of Trinity, the youngest brother of the poet William Wordsworth. Thus, Wordsworth was a nephew of the celebrated poet. Wordsworth was the younger brother of the classical scholar John Wordsworth and Charles Wordsworth, Bishop of Saint Andrews and Dunblane, he was educated at Trinity, Cambridge. Like his brother Charles, he was distinguished as an athlete as well as for scholarship, he won the Chancellor's Gold Medal for poetry in 1827 and 1828. He became senior classic, was elected a fellow and tutor of Trinity in 1830, he went for a tour in Greece in 1832-1833, published various works on its topography and archaeology, the most famous of, "Wordsworth's" Greece. In 1836 he became Public Orator at Cambridge, in the same year was appointed Headmaster of Harrow, a post he resigned in 1844. In 1844 Sir Robert Peel appointed him as a Canon of Westminster.
He was Vicar of Stanford in the Vale and Archdeacon of Westminster. In 1869 Benjamin Disraeli appointed him Bishop of Lincoln which he retained until his death in 1885, his election to the See of Lincoln was confirmed at St Mary-le-Bow on 22 February 1869 and he was ordained and consecrated a bishop at Westminster Abbey on 24 February by Archibald Campbell Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury. He was a man of fine character, with a high ideal of ecclesiastical duty, he spent his money generously on church objects; as a scholar he is best known for his edition of the Greek New Testament, the Old Testament, with commentaries. D. 451, Memoirs of his uncle, William Wordsworth, to whom he was literary executor. His Inscriptiones Pompeianae was an important contribution to epigraphy, he wrote several hymns of which the best known is the Easter hymn'Alleluia, hearts to heaven and voices raise'. With William Cooke, a Canon of Chester, Wordsworth edited for the Henry Bradshaw Society the early 15th century Ordinale Sarum of Clement Maydeston, but the work did not appear in print until 1901, several years after the death of both editors.
Athens and Attica, 1836 Ancient Writings Copied from the Walls of Pompeii, 1837 Greece, Pictorial and Historical, 1839 Theophilus Anglicanus, 1843 On the Canon of the Scriptures, 1848 Lectures on the Apocalypse, 1849 Memoirs of William Wordsworth, 1851 Commentary on the Whole Bible, 1856–70 The Holy Year. Wordsworth. An Index to the Introductions and Notes, by John Twycross, 2 volumes Ordinale Sarum, sive Directorium Sacerdotum, ed. with William Cooke Alleluia! Alleluia! Hearts to Heaven and Voices Raise Arm These Thy Soldiers, Mighty Lord Father of All, from Land and Sea Gracious Spirit, Holy Ghost Hallelujah! Christ Is Risen Hark! the Sound of Holy Voices Heav’nly Father, Send Thy Blessing Holy, Holy Lord Lord, Be Thy Word My Rule O Day of Rest and Gladness O Lord of Heaven and Earth and Sea O Lord, Our Strength in Weakness See, the Conqueror Mounts in Triumph Sing, O Sing, This Blessed Morn Songs of Thankfulness and Praise The Day Is Gently Sinking to a Close The Grave Itself a Garden Is Thine for ever!
Thine for ever! In 1838 Wordsworth married Susanna Hartley Frere and they had seven children; the elder son, was Bishop of Salisbury, founder of Bishop Wordsworth's School and author of Fragments of Early Latin. His daughter Dora married Edward Tucker Leeke and sub-dean of Lincoln Cathedral, his younger son Christopher was a noted liturgical scholar. His Life, by J. H. Overton and Elizabeth Wordsworth, was published in 1888. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Wordsworth, Christopher". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Wordsworth, Christopher". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Christopher Wordsworth The Peerage: Rt. Rev. Christopher Wordsworth Overton, John Henry and Elizabeth Wordsworth. Christopher Wordsworth: Bishop of Lincoln, 1807-1885. London: Rivingtons, 1888. At Internet Archive
Robert William Dale
Robert William Dale was an English Congregational church leader. Dale was born in London and educated at Spring Hill College, for the Congregational ministry. In 1853 he was invited to Carr's Lane Chapel, Birmingham, as co-pastor with John Angell James, on whose death in 1859 he became sole pastor for the rest of his life. In the University of London M. A. examination, he won the gold medal. The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him in 1883 by the University of Glasgow during the lord rectorship of John Bright. Yale University gave him its D. D. degree, although he never used it. He served as Chairman of the Congregational Union of England and Wales in 1868 and President of the International Congregational Council in 1891. Dale read his sermons, because "if I spoke extemporaneously I should never sit down again", he did not use the title "Reverend". He was a strong advocate of the disestablishment of the Church of England, holding that the Christian church was a spiritual brotherhood, that any vestige of political authority impaired its spiritual work.
In church government he believed that congregationalism was the most fitting environment for Christianity. He published lectures on such topics as The Atonement and the Manual of Congregational Principles. Dale's integrity, moral passion and oratory soon made him a national figure in an age when the strength of non-conformity was at its highest, he welcomed social improvement and was an advocate, with George Dawson, of what became known in Birmingham as the Civic Gospel. The health, housing and living conditions in Birmingham had suffered from its rapid population expansion in the previous thirty years. Dale argued "the public duty of the state is the private duty of every citizen": service on the town council to improve the wellbeing of Birmingham was advocated by Dale as having moral and religious worth, he was an advocate of free public education, social improvement, the extension of the franchise, the recognition of trades unions, understanding the links between poverty and crime. Although Dale did not preach politics, he was a keen Liberal and worked with other Birmingham reformers and radicals including Joseph Chamberlain, William Kenrick, Jesse Collings, George Dixon, John Bright, John Henry Chamberlain, William Harris, Samuel Timmins.
He played a major part in opposing the religious elements of the Forster Education Act of 1870. He was a member of the Arts Club, which existed from 1873 to 1880 for the purpose "of facilitating the daily social intercourse of gentlemen professing Liberal opinions, who are engaged or interested in the public life of Birmingham": it was described in a local newspaper as "the real seat of government, where all measures are framed for the ordering of our municipal, social and political institutions"; when Joseph Chamberlain resigned from the Liberal government in 1886 over William Gladstone's proposals for Irish Home Rule, Dale supported him: this point marked a significant split in the Liberal party, but did not reduce Dale's influence. When Forster's Elementary Education Bill appeared, Dale attacked it, he argued that the resulting schools would be purely denominational institutions and the Bill's "conscience clause" gave inadequate protection to Nonconformists. Dale criticised the way school boards would be empowered to make grants out of the rates to maintain sectarian schools.
He was himself in favour of secular education, claiming that it was the only logical solution and was consistent with Nonconformist principles. In Birmingham this controversy was ended in 1879 by a compromise, his interest in educational affairs had led him to accept a seat on the Birmingham school board. He was appointed a governor of Foundation of the Schools of King Edward VI in Birmingham and served on the Royal Commission of Education. Dale took a great interest in Moseley. Due to his initiative, Spring Hill College, renamed Mansfield College after its founders, was moved to Oxford in 1886 and he became chairman of the council of what is now Mansfield College, Oxford; the 1886–8 split within the Liberal Party over Irish Home Rule marked the disintegration of what had been a close-knit circle of like-minded reformers. In 1892, looking back to the 1870s, Dale wrote: Birmingham is still a remarkable place, … but it seems to me that the interesting people are gone. … There was Dawson, … Vince, John Henry Chamberlain and Harris, Joseph Chamberlain in his fresh and brilliant promise.
Dawson and John Henry Chamberlain are dead. Joseph Chamberlain is, of course, still immensely interesting; the time was when I used to have a smoke with him, J. H. Chamberlain, Timmins, the rest, as as two or three times a week; the split of the Liberal Party has made an immense difference to my private life. There are two clubs and I belong to neither. Dale was buried in Key Hill Cemetery, Hockley. A statue of Dale sculpted by Edward Onslow Ford in 1898 was rediscovered in 1995, is now on loan from Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery to Carr's Lane Church Centre (his old c