Circumnavigation is the complete navigation around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body. This article focuses on the circumnavigation of Earth; the first circumnavigation of Earth was the Magellan-Elcano expedition, which sailed from Seville, Spain in 1519 and returned in 1522, after crossing the Atlantic and Indian oceans. The word circumnavigation is a noun formed from the verb circumnavigate, from the past participle of the Latin verb circumnavigare, from circum "around" + navigare "to sail". If a person walks around either Pole, he crosses all meridians, but this is not considered a "circumnavigation"; the trajectory of a true circumnavigation forms a continuous loop on the surface of Earth separating two-halves of comparable area. A basic definition of a global circumnavigation would be a route which covers a great circle, in particular one which passes through at least one pair of points antipodal to each other. In practice, people use different definitions of world circumnavigation to accommodate practical constraints, depending on the method of travel.
Since the planet is quasispheroidal, a trip from one Pole to the other, back again on the other side, would technically be a circumnavigation, but practical difficulties preclude such a voyage although it was undertaken in the early 1980s by Ranulph Fiennes. The first single voyage of global circumnavigation was that of the ship Victoria, between 1519 and 1522, known as the Magellan–Elcano expedition, it was a Castilian voyage of discovery, led by the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan between 1519 and 1521, by the Spanish Juan Sebastián Elcano from 1521 to 1522. The voyage started in Seville, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, after several stopovers rounded the southern tip of South America where the expedition discovered the Strait of Magellan, named after the fleet's captain, it continued across the Pacific discovering a number of islands on its way, including Guam before arriving in the Philippines. After Magellan's death in the Philippines in 1521, Elcano took command of the expedition and continued the journey across the Indian Ocean, round the Cape of Good Hope, north along the Atlantic Ocean, back to Spain in 1522.
Elcano and a small group of 18 men were the only members of the expedition to make the full circumnavigation. Apart from some scholars, it is not accepted that Magellan and some crew members completed a full circumnavigation on several voyages, since Sumatra and Malacca lie southwest of Cebu. If he had been in the Moluccas islands in early 1512, he completed and exceeded an entire circumnavigation of Earth in longitude—though one circumnavigation in the strict sense implies a return to the same exact point. However, traveling west from Europe, in 1521, Magellan reached a region of Southeast Asia, which he had reached on previous voyages traveling east. Magellan thereby achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. In 1577, Elizabeth I sent Francis Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake set out from Plymouth, England in November 1577, aboard Pelican, which Drake renamed Golden Hind mid-voyage.
In September 1578, he passed through the southern tip of South America, named Drake Passage, which connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. In June 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northern-most claim in Alta California, known as Drakes Bay, California. Drake completed the second circumnavigation of the world in September 1580, becoming the first commander to lead an entire circumnavigation. For the wealthy, long voyages around the world, such as was done by Ulysses S. Grant, became possible in the 19th century, the two World Wars moved vast numbers of troops around the planet. However, it was improvements in technology and rising incomes that made such trips common; the nautical global and fastest circumnavigation record is held by a wind-powered vessel, the trimaran IDEC 3. The record was established by six sailors: Francis Joyon, Alex Pella, Clément Surtel, Gwénolé Gahinet, Sébastien Audigane and Bernard Stamm; the absolute speed sailing record around the world followed the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean route in an easterly direction.
The map on the right shows, in red, a typical, non-competitive, route for a sailing circumnavigation of the world by the trade winds and the Suez and Panama canals. It can be seen that the route approximates a great circle, passes through two pairs of antipodal points; this is a route followed by many cruising sailors. In yacht racing, a round-the-world route approximating a great circle would be quite impractical in a non-stop race where use of the Panama and Suez Canals would be impossible. Yacht racing therefore defines a world circumnavigation to be a passage of at least 21,600 nautical miles
Media is a borough in and the county seat of Delaware County, United States, about 13 miles west of Philadelphia. Media was incorporated in 1850 at the same time; the population was 5,327 at the 2010 census, down from 5,533 at the 2000 census. Its school district is the Rose Tree Media School District with Penncrest High School and Springton Lake Middle School. In June 2006, it became the first fair trade town in America. Media promotes itself by its motto: "Everybody's Hometown"; the history of the area goes back to William Penn, but the area remained predominantly rural until the twentieth century. Land in the area was sold and settled soon after William Penn was named proprietor of the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681 by King Charles II of England. Peter and William Taylor bought the land. At the time, the land was located in Chester County. Providence Township was organized in 1684, divided into Upper Providence and Nether Providence townships by 1690 though they only had 40 taxable properties at the time.
The current borough, formed in 1850, sits between the two townships. In 1683, the Court of Chester County approved the construction of "Providence Great Road"; the road, which runs north from Chester to within a few blocks of today's downtown, is shown on a 1687 map along with the names of local landowners. It forms the eastern border of the borough. Thomas Minshall, a Quaker, was an early Media resident, settling just outside the small village known as "Providence", along the Providence Great Road; the village included a tailor shop, blacksmith shop, wheelwright shop and other buildings. Minshall bought 625 acres from William Penn and arrived in 1682; the Providence Friends Meeting was established at his house in February 1688, a meetinghouse was built on land he donated for the purpose. The original meetinghouse was built out of logs in 1699 or 1700, the current building dates to 1814. A house on Minshall's property, built c. 1750, still stands and was given to the citizens of the borough in 1975.
Chester County, Pennsylvania was divided in 1789, the eastern portion becoming Delaware County, Pennsylvania. The area in the center of the new county remained rural through 1850. On March 11, 1850, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania by Special Act of Assembly incorporated the Borough of Media, made the sale of malt and spirituous liquors unlawful within its borders. At the same time, the county seat of Delaware County was moved to Media from Chester; the borough was formed from four farms purchased by the county. The borders of the borough have not changed since that time. Streets were plotted in a rectangular grid around the location of the new courthouse, lots were sold at public auctions, the construction of houses began. Sources agree that Minshall Painter, a descendant of Thomas Minshall, suggested the name "Media", but do not agree on the reason; the name most comes from the borough's central location in Delaware County. The John J. Tyler Arboretum occupies part of Thomas Minshall's original 625 acres.
This farm was used by the Underground Railroad. The land was donated to a public trust in 1944 by an eighth-generation descendant; the arboretum was started as a private collection by Minshall Painter. In 1825, they began systematically planting over 1,000 varieties of shrubs. Over twenty of their original trees survive, including a giant sequoia. Minshall Painter was a leader of the Delaware County Institute of Science, formed on September 21, 1833, with just four other members: George Miller, John Miller, George Smith, M. D. and John Cassin. The institute was incorporated in 1836. About 1850, Painter gave the institute the land where its building stands at 11 Veterans Square, the building was constructed in 1867. In the second half of the 19th century, Media was a summer resort for well-to-do Philadelphians; the borough's large vacation hotels included the Idlewild Hotel on Lincoln Street at Gayley Terrace, Chestnut Grove House or "The Colonial" on Orange Street, Brooke Hall on Orange Street and Washington Avenue.
The Chestnut Grove was used for a year by nearby Swarthmore College due to a fire on its campus. The West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad was built through Media on October 19, 1854. Electrified service was opened on December 2, 1928. Up to 50 trains passed through each day; the railroad became part of the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad and the Penn Central. SEPTA took over operations in 1983. Woodrow Wilson spoke at the Media Station in 1912 during his first election campaign. Trolley transportation lines spread to and through Media in early 1900s; the Media Theatre opened as a vaudeville house in 1927. The first'talkie' film, The Jazz Singer, was shown there, it remained a popular cinema through the 1980s. In 1994, the theater underwent a $1 million restoration by Walter Strine Sr. and re-opened as the'Media Theatre for the Performing Arts'. Shows produced there have included The Full Monty and Miss Saigon. On March 8, 1971, the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI raided an FBI "resident agency" in Media.
They released thousands of documents to major newspapers around the country. These documents revealed FBI tactics, like the recruitment of Boy Scouts as informants, confirmed for the first time the existence of COINTELPRO, an FBI program to "expose, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize" dissident groups in the United States. In June 2006, Media became the first town in the United States to follow over 300 towns in Europe in attaining fair t
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank
Thomas S. Butler
Thomas Stalker Butler was a U. S. Representative born in Pennsylvania, serving from March 4, 1897 until his death, having been elected to the House sixteen times. Thomas S. Butler was the father of the famous Marine Corps General Smedley D. Butler. Born in Uwchlan Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, he attended the common schools, West Chester State Normal School, Wyer’s Academy in West Chester, he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1877, commenced practice in West Chester. From 1885 to 1889 and again in 1927-1928 he served as trustee of the West Chester State Normal School. Butler was appointed judge of the fifteenth judicial district of Pennsylvania in 1888 and stood as an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1889, he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1892. Elected to Congress in his first term as an Independent Republican, he was elected as a Republican for each succeeding term. While in Congress, he was chairman of the United States House Committee on Pacific Railroads and member of the United States House Committee on Naval Affairs.
During World War I, Butler read into the Congressional Record the "bogus oath", falsely attributed to the Roman Catholic fraternal organization Knights of Columbus, in which the oath taker pledges to war against Protestant Christians. The bogus oath was refuted by the Committee on Public Information, the wartime information agency of the Woodrow Wilson administration. Butler was buried in Oaklands Cemetery, West Chester, Pennsylvania, his home at West Chester, The Butler House, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. List of United States Congress members who died in office West, Michael Allen. Laying the Legislative Foundation: The House Naval Affairs Committee and the Construction of the Treaty Navy, 1926-1934. Ph. D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1980. United States Congress. "Thomas S. Butler". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Thomas S. Butler at The Political Graveyerd Thomas S. Butler at Find a Grave
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Delaware County, colloquially referred to as Delco, is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. With a population of 562,960, it is the fifth most populous county in Pennsylvania, the third smallest in area; the county was created on September 26, 1789, from part of Chester County, named for the Delaware River. Its county seat is Media; until 1850, Chester was the county seat of Delaware County and, before that, of Chester County. Delaware County is adjacent to the city-county of Philadelphia and is included in the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area. Delaware County is the only county covered in its entirety by area codes 610 and 484. Delaware County lies in the river and bay drainage area named "Delaware" in honor of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, Governor of the nearby English colony of Virginia; the land was explored by Henry Hudson in 1609, over the next several decades it was variously claimed and settled by the Swedes, the Dutch, the English.
Its original human inhabitants were the Lenni-Lenape tribe of American Indians. Once the Dutch were defeated and the extent of New York was determined, King Charles II of England made his grant to William Penn in order to found the colony which came to be named Pennsylvania. Penn divided his colony into three counties: Bucks and Chester; the riverfront land south of Philadelphia, being the most accessible, was granted and settled. In 1789, the southeastern portion of Chester County was divided from the rest and named Delaware County for the Delaware River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 191 square miles, of which 184 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles is water. It is the third-smallest county in Pennsylvania by area. Delaware County is diamond- or kite-shaped, with the four sides formed by the Chester County boundary to the northwest, the boundary with the state of Delaware to the southwest, the Delaware River (forming the border with the state of New Jersey to the southeast, the city of Philadelphia and Montgomery County to the east and northeast.
The lowest point in the state of Pennsylvania is located on the Delaware River in Marcus Hook in Delaware County, where it flows out of Pennsylvania and into Delaware. The highest point in Delaware County is 500 feet at two points southeast of Wyola in Newtown Township. Waterways in Delaware County flow in a southward direction and drain into the Delaware River; the waterways are, from west to east: the Brandywine River, Naaman's Creek, Stoney Creek, Chester Creek, Ridley Creek, Crum Creek, Muckinipates Creek, Darby Creek and Cobbs Creek. Crum Creek was dammed in 1931 near Pennsylvania Route 252 to fill Springton Lake, an 391-acre drinking water reservoir maintained by Aqua America, the county's largest lake; the Trainer Refinery and the Port of Chester along located along the shores of the Delaware River. Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Gloucester County, New Jersey New Castle County, Delaware Chester County, Pennsylvania Delaware County is one of four counties in the United States to border a state with which it shares the same name.
John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge 2,600 acres of the county are occupied by the Ridley Creek State Park. Delaware County is divided by the boundary between the humid subtropical and the hot-summer humid continental climate; the hardiness zones are 7b. As of the 2010 census, the county was 71.1% White non-Hispanic, 19.7% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American or Alaskan Native, 4.7% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian, 2.0% were two or more races, 0.9% were some other race. 3.0% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the 2000 census, there were 550,864 people, 206,320 households, 139,472 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,990 people per square mile. There were 216,978 housing units at an average density of 1,178 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.32% White, 14.52% African American, 0.11% Native American, 3.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. 1.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
24.6 % were of Irish, 10.1 % German and 6.7 % English ancestry. There were 206,320 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.80% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,092, the median income for a family was $61,590. Males had a median income of $44,155 versus $31,831 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,040.
About 5.80% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.00% of
United States Marshals Service
The United States Marshals Service is a federal law enforcement agency within the U. S. Department of Justice, it is the oldest American federal law enforcement agency and was created by the Judiciary Act of 1789 during the presidency of George Washington as the Office of the United States Marshal. The USMS as it stands today was established in 1969 to provide guidance and assistance to Marshals throughout the federal judicial districts. USMS is an agency of the United States executive branch reporting to the United States Attorney General, but serves as the enforcement arm of the United States federal courts to ensure the effective operation of the judiciary and integrity of the Constitution; the Marshals Service is the primary agency for fugitive operations, the protection of officers of the Federal Judiciary, the management of criminal assets, the operation of the United States Federal Witness Protection Program and the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System, as well as the execution of federal arrest warrants.
Throughout its history the Marshals have provided unique security and enforcement services including protecting African-American students enrolling in the South during the civil rights movement, escort security for United States Air Force LGM-30 Minuteman missile convoys, law enforcement for the United States Antarctic Program, protection of the Strategic National Stockpile. The office of United States Marshal was created by the First Congress. President George Washington signed the Judiciary Act into law on September 24, 1789; the Act provided that a United States Marshal's primary function was to execute all lawful warrants issued to him under the authority of the United States. The law defined marshals as officers of the courts charged with assisting Federal courts in their law-enforcement functions: And be it further enacted, That a marshal shall be appointed in and for each district for a term of four years, but shall be removable from office at pleasure, whose duty it shall be to attend the district and circuit courts when sitting therein, the Supreme Court in the district in which that court shall sit.
And to execute throughout the district, all lawful precepts directed to him, issued under the authority of the United States, he shall have the power to command all necessary assistance in the execution of his duty, to appoint as shall be occasion, one or more deputies. The critical Supreme Court decision affirming the legal authority of the federal marshals was made in In re Neagle, 135 U. S. 1. For over 100 years marshals were patronage jobs controlled by the district judge, they were paid by fees until a salary system was set up in 1896. Many of the first US Marshals had proven themselves in military service during the American Revolution. Among the first marshals were John Adams's son-in-law Congressman William Stephens Smith for the District of New York, another New York district marshal, Congressman Thomas Morris, Henry Dearborn for the district of Maine. From the nation's earliest days, marshals were permitted to recruit special deputies as local hires, or as temporary transfers to the Marshals Service from other federal law-enforcement agencies.
Marshals were authorized to swear in a posse to assist with manhunts, other duties, ad hoc. Marshals were given extensive authority to support the federal courts within their judicial districts, to carry out all lawful orders issued by federal judges, Congress, or the President. Federal marshals were by far the most important government officials in territorial jurisdictions. Local law enforcement officials were called "marshals" so there is an ambiguity whether someone was a federal or a local official. Federal marshals are most famous for their law enforcement work, but, only a minor part of their workload; the largest part of the business was paper work—serving writs, other processes issued by the courts, making arrests and handling all federal prisoners. They disbursed funds as ordered by the courts. Marshals paid the fees and expenses of the court clerks, U. S. Attorneys and witnesses, they rented the courtrooms and jail space, hired the bailiffs and janitors. They made sure the prisoners were present, the jurors were available, that the witnesses were on time.
The marshals thus provided local representation for the federal government within their districts. They took the national census every decade through 1870, they distributed presidential proclamations, collected a variety of statistical information on commerce and manufacturing, supplied the names of government employees for the national register, performed other routine tasks needed for the central government to function effectively. During the settlement of the American Frontier, marshals served as the main source of day-to-day law enforcement in areas that had no local government of their own. U. S. Marshals were instrumental in keeping order in the "Old West" era, they were involved in apprehending desperadoes such as Bill Doolin, Ned Christie, and, in 1893, the infamous Dalton Gang after a shoot-out that left Deputy Marshals Ham Hueston, Lafe Shadley, posse member Dick Speed, dead. Individual deputy marshals have been seen as legendary heroes in the face of rampant lawlessness with Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, Dallas Stoudenmire, Bass Reeves as examples of well-known marshals.
Bill Tilghman, Heck Thomas, Chris Madsen formed a legendary law enforcement trio known as "The Three Guardsmen" when they worked together policing the vast, lawless Oklahoma and Indian Territories. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 tasked marshals to enforce the law and arrest fugitive slaves. Any negligence in doing so expo