Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Soccer in New South Wales
Soccer in New South Wales describes the sport of soccer being played and watched by people in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Football in New South Wales is organised and managed on a state level by two separate governing bodies, it is a popular participation and spectator sport in New South Wales and the state has had a large influence on football in Australia. It has the most registered football players in the country, with over 200,000 registered FNSW players and nearly 50,000 Northern NSW players, compared with around 150,000 in other states combined, it has the most teams in the A-League. Four of the ten teams in the A-League are based in New South Wales: Western Sydney Wanderers, Sydney FC, Newcastle Jets and Central Coast Mariners. NSW is represented in the national women's W-League by Newcastle Jets, Sydney FC and Western Sydney Wanderers associated women's teams. Central Coast Mariners had a team in the W-League between 2008-2010. New South Wales sends teams to the annual national youth competitions in the form of New South Wales Metropolitan and New South Wales Country and Northern New South Wales.
New South Wales had many different teams in the NSL over the years. NSW had at least the first or second most clubs in the league and got many premierships over the years. There is a list below of clubs from NSW that participated in the NSL and are still running today in NSW competitions. A. P. I. A. Leichhardt Tigers Blacktown City Demons Canterbury-Marrickville Marconi Stallions Newcastle Rosebud United Parramatta Eagles St George Saints Sydney Olympic Sydney United Wollongong Wolves In the main the Youth and Senior competitions are divided into two sections: Club or Amateur Football, run by each association, Representative or Semi-Pro Football, run by Football NSW. In 2008 there was a major restructuring of the New South Wales Men's, Women's and Youth competitions; the youth teams were restructured to be aligned with their Senior Clubs. The Men's Senior competitions was restructured to add new teams to the NSW Premier League and a new Promotion/Relegation system was introduced; these are the branches and associations that make up all of Football NSW's youth and senior and men Amateur competitions around the state.
Each of the associations run their own competitions for various age groups. 16 of the associations have teams in the Metropolitan League. Some act as feeder associations or give their backing to certain semi-pro or Representative clubs. Bankstown District Amateur Football Association Blacktown & District Soccer Football Inc. Canterbury District Soccer Football Association Central Coast Football Eastern Suburbs Football Association Gladesville-Hornsby Football Association Granville & Districts Soccer Football Association Hills Football Association Northern Suburbs Football Association Macarthur Districts Soccer Football Association Manly Warringah Football Association Nepean Football Association North West Sydney Women's Football Football South Coast Southern Districts Soccer Football Association St George Football Association Inc Sutherland Shire Junior SFA Inc. Sydney Amateur Football League Inc. Albury Wodonga Football Association Wagga Wagga Football Association Griffith & District Amateur Football Association South West Slopes Football Association Controlling Body - Football NSW Southern Branch Eurobodalla Football Association Far South Coast Football Association Highlands Soccer Association Inc.
Shoalhaven District Football Association Inc. Southern Tablelands Football Association Bathurst District Football Association Dubbo & District Football Association Lachlan Amateur Soccer Association Lithgow District Football Association Orange Football Association Western Plains Soccer Association The Youth Men's Representative system, run by Football NSW caters for the ages between 11 and 18, it is divided into the Metropolitan League and the Youth Leagues. After that they are catered by the Senior Men's competitions. Here is a description of the system: Metropolitan League - 12s; the Metropolitan League is an Association-based competition for 12s boys. The 16 Associations in the competition are divided into 2 conferences based on location. Northern Conference Southern Conference Youth Leagues - 13s, 14s, 15s, 16s and 18s; the Youth leagues which cater for the ages 13–18 are seen as the best football a youth player can get in New South Wales. The PYL is the most prestigious the SYL and the YL1.
There is a relegation system between the leagues for the clubs based on the Club Championship. In order for a SYL club to be promoted to PYL, that club's 1st grade team has to win the NSW Super League. Relegation from PYL to SYL depends on a combination of the club championship between 1st grade, U/20, U/18. Promotion and relegation between SYL and YL1 is based purely on the Club Championship where the bottom placed club is relegated and the top placed club is promoted. After the 18s players progress into senior men's football, with their clubs 20s or First Grade team. Premier Youth League Super Youth League Youth League Division One The Youth Women competitions caters for the ages of 12 to 16. Here is a description of the system: "Arrive Alive" Girls Youth League - 12s, 14s, 16s Premier Girls Youth League Super Girls Youth League; these are Women's competitions. Many of the Senior Men's competitions below are semi-professional. All Senior Men's teams are linked with their counterparts of
APIA Leichhardt Tigers FC
APIA Leichhardt Tigers Football Club known as APIA, is a semi-professional soccer club based in the suburb of Leichhardt in Sydney, Australia. The club was formed in 1954 as APIA Leichhardt, by Italian Australians APIA, winner of the national Australian championship of 1987, is a member of the NPL NSW; the club was founded as the Associazione Poli-sportiva Italo Australiana in 1954 by members of the Italian-Australian community in Sydney's Inner West. After several years in the Canterbury District competition, the club joined the NSW Federation's state league. In the 1960s APIA became one of the foremost soccer clubs in Australia and won the Premiership of NSW of the years 1964, 1966, 1967 and 1975, the highest level of achievement in the absence of a national competition. Between 1966 and 1974 APIA won three times the State Cup of NSW named after a sponsor Ampol Cup; the 1974 final was considered "one of the most incredible finals" of the history of the club when skipper Jimmy Rooney and centreforward Peter Ollerton, who scored five goals, won 9–1 against Auburn in front of a crowd of 5210 at Wentworth Park, the highest finals result ever.
Rooney and Ollerton were in the team that represented Australia a few months in its first World Cup participation in Germany. In 1979 APIA was given access to the National Soccer League, the top tier of Australian soccer since 1977. In 1987 APIA won the national championship, six points ahead of the Preston Makedonia Soccer Club from Melbourne, with only two points awarded per win; the coach in that season was Rale Rasic. Charlie Yankos and Peter Katholos are the best known players from that side; the main cast of that year consisted of Tony Pezzano. In 1988 APIA won the National Soccer League Cup. By 1992 the APIA Leichhardt was overwhelmed by financial difficulties; the club was somewhat restructured and forthwith played on state level with the moniker "Tigers."In 2017, APIA won the National Premier Leagues NSW premiership, but lost the grand final to Manly United FC on penalties. APIA made the grand final of the 2017 Waratah Cup, but lost 3–1 to Hakoah Sydney City East FC. In 2018, APIA won the 2018 Waratah Cup.
On 21 August 2018, APIA defeated reigning A-League champions Melbourne Victory FC in the Round of 16 of the 2018 FFA Cup, becoming the seventh state-league side to beat a top-tier team in the knockout tournament. The result was billed as one of the biggest upsets in the tournament's history. Lambert Park in Leichhardt is the club's traditional home ground, it has, over the years, been used for most of the club's home games. It is still hosts all of the club's NPL matches. APIA has hosted home games at a number of other venues, including Wentworth Park, Leichhardt Oval and Henson Park. Updated 1 September 2018. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Source Note 1: During 1984 to 1986, the league was split into two conferences – APIA played in the Northern Conference and the position in the table reflects position in the conference. = Premiers or Champions = Runners-up 1R, 2R, 3R...7R = 1st Round, 2nd Round, 3rd Round...7th Round R32 = Round of 32 R16 = Round of 16 QF = Quarter-final SF = Semi-final EF = Elimination Final PF = Preliminary Final PO = Playoff Final National Premier Leagues NSWPremiers: 1964, 1966, 1967, 1975, 2017 Runners-Up: 1963, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1997, 2002–03, 2015, 2018National Premier Leagues NSW Grand FinalsChampionships: 1964, 1965, 1969, 1976, 2002–03 Runners-Up: 1963, 1966, 1967, 1975, 2017, 2018Waratah CupWinners: 1962, 1966, 1975, 2013, 2018 Runners-Up: 2012, 2017 National Soccer LeaguePremiers: 1987 National Soccer LeagueAustralia CupWinners: 1966 Runners-Up: 1964, 1965, 1967NSL CupWinners: 1982, 1988 Official website Oz Football Profile NPL NSW Fixtures & Results
FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup
The FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup is an international beach soccer competition contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA, the sport's global governing body. The tournament was established in 1995 as the Beach Soccer World Championship, taking place every year for the next decade under the supervision of Beach Soccer Worldwide and its predecessors. Due to the sport's rapid growth, FIFA took an interest in the sport, as the main tournament in world beach soccer, it joined hands with BSWW in 2005 to take over the organization of the competition, re-branding it as an official FIFA tournament. Since 2009, the tournament has taken place every two years to allow continental tournaments to flourish without the burden of the World Cup qualifiers crowding the schedule every 12 months; the growing global popularity of beach soccer resulted in FIFA's decision to move the stage of the World Cup from its native home in Brazil to other parts of the globe to capitalise on and continue to stimulate global interest.
The first edition held outside Brazil was in 2008 in France. The current tournament format lasts over 10 days and involves 16 teams competing in four groups of four teams; the group winners and runners-up advance to a series of knock-out stages until the champion is crowned. The losing semi-finalists play each other in a play-off match to determine the third and fourth-placed teams; the most recent edition was held in Nassau and crowned Brazil as champions for the fourteenth time – after defeating Tahiti 6–0 in the final. The first Beach Soccer World Cup was held in Brazil, in 1995, organised by the precursors to the modern-day founders of the standardised rules, Beach Soccer Worldwide, held under the title Beach Soccer World Championship. Eight teams were selected to take part, without going through a qualification process; however Brazil, the hosts and won the cup without losing a game. The tournament was successful and BSWW announced that the competition would take place every year. By 1997, more teams had stated their interest in participating and therefore BSWW extended their selection to 10 teams for 1998.
Brazil continued to dominate, despite this change. BSWW extended to 12 teams for 1999, spreading their selection across five continents, introducing more new teams to the tournament. However, with all these changes it still took until the 2001 World Cup for Brazil to lose the title after winning the competition six years on the run since the establishment, it was Portugal. With this change of champions, more countries thought there was a chance for themselves to win the tournament and this sparked more interest worldwide. Not Brazil reclaimed their title in 2002, when BSWW reduced the number of contestants back to eight; the last Beach Soccer World Championship to be organised purely by BSWW was in 2004 when twelve teams played, seven from Europe. In 2005, FIFA paired up with BSWW to co-organise the World Cup, although FIFA seem to have the most control, they kept the tradition of holding the World Cup in Rio de Janeiro and continued to allow 12 teams to participate, following on from the 2004 competition.
It was Eric Cantona's France that won the competition, after beating Portugal on penalties in the final. The tournament was deemed a major success and therefore FIFA took advantage. For the 2006 competition and beyond, FIFA decided to standardise the participants to 16 countries, it was that the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup Qualifiers were established, that would take place throughout the year. Again this decision was a successful one and more countries became interested in a now standard FIFA competition. By the end of the 2007 World Cup, the tournament had become popular throughout the world, with the FIFA board taking over the competition, driving more countries to recognize beach soccer as a major sport. Since the World Cup had become a success worldwide, FIFA decided to have a change of venue, it was voted, to extend the sport's popularity, the 2008 World Cup would take place in Marseille and the 2009 World Cup would take place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. These tournaments would be the first to take place outside Brazil.
The 2008 competition was once again a major success, despite being held in a different country. This was the first time that Brazil would have to qualify for the tournament, since they weren't the hosts; however Brazil won the World Cup in July. The 2009 World Cup in Dubai was an bigger success, as the second competition outside Brazil and the Beach Soccer World Cup's 15th birthday, Brazil continued their dominance. Just before the final of the 2009 World Cup, FIFA announced that a new format would see the World Cup now take place every two years, starting from the 2011 World Cup. FIFA justified the decision by stating that they wanted Confederations to have more time to develop the sport, therefore allowing a year in between World Cups for Confederations to organise their own local tournaments; this was a mutual decision between Confederations and FIFA. In March 2010 FIFA confirmed that the 2011 World Cup would take place in Italy and the 2013 World Cup would take place in Tahiti. From 1995 until 2005 there was no standard qualification system for nations to go through to earn a place at the World Cup finals.
The process in which teams gained entry into the finals was inconsistent from one year to the next throughout the confederations down to a simple invite to participate in the finals from BSWW, or qualification by reaching the latter stages in a premier regional tournament with no prior ties with the World Cup, or by performing well in the previous World Cup. During th
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Newcastle Jets FC
Newcastle United Jets Football Club known as Newcastle Jets, is an Australian professional soccer club based in Newcastle, New South Wales. It competes in the country's premier competition, the A-League, under licence from Football Federation Australia; the club was formed in 2000 when it joined the National Soccer League and was one of only three former NSL clubs to join in the formation of the A-League. Newcastle Jets have won one A-League championship, after defeating rivals Central Coast Mariners 1–0 in the 2008 A-League Grand Final. In 2009, Newcastle competed in the AFC Champions League for the first time, reaching the Round of 16. In May 2015, FFA revoked Newcastle's licence after owner Nathan Tinkler placed the club into voluntary administration. A new A-League club was formed for the 2015 -- 16 season, under colours. Since its establishment, the Jets has had a reputation for signing high-profile players. Notable players who have represented the club include Australian internationals, Andrew Nabbout and Dimitri Petratos.
Venezuelan international, Ronald Vargas. Former England internationals, Emile Heskey and Francis Jeffers, Former England U-21 international Michael Bridges, Former Dutch international, Kew Jaliens. Former Brazilian international, Mário Jardel. Former Australian internationals, Joel Griffiths, Ned Zelić, Paul Okon and David Carney; the club plays home games at McDonald Jones Stadium. An affiliated youth team competes in the National Youth League and in the National Premier Leagues Northern NSW competition. A women's team competes in the W-League; the Youth teams matches are played at No. 2 Wanderers Oval. The Womans team play at No. 2 Sportsground. Newcastle United was formed in 2000 by Cypriot-Australian businessman Con Constantine from the remnants of the Newcastle Breakers club; the Breakers were dissolved when Soccer Australia revoked its NSL licence at the conclusion of the 1999/2000 season. At the formation of Newcastle United the home ground was moved back to where Newcastle KB United played, now known as McDonald Jones Stadium.
The Newcastle United club were reasonably successful, competing in two of the last three Final Series and finishing second in the League behind Perth Glory in the 2001–02 season. The club renamed themselves the Newcastle United Jets Football Club and launched a new badge at the start of the new national league, the A-League; this was done to try and create and project a new image of the club and to avoid confusion with the English Premier League club Newcastle United. The name "Jets" is a reference to RAAF Base Williamtown, located just 20 kilometres north of Newcastle; the club's logo depicts three F/A-18 Hornets, which the Royal Australian Air Force has based at Williamtown. Former England and Australia manager Terry Venables was reported as favourite to become the team's technical director, including reports from the Jets, but this was confirmed by Venables' agent as a'no-go'. Instead, the club signed Richard Money for the 2005–2006 season. In 2006 Money was replaced with Nick Theodorakopoulos after Money returned to England to take the manager's job at Walsall.
In October 2006 after recording no wins during the Pre-Season Cup and during the first seven rounds of A-League matches, Theodorakopoulos became the first coach to be sacked in the club's A-League's history. His assistant Gary van Egmond was the caretaker coach for the remainder of the 2005–6 season, signed a contract to remain as the coach of the Jets for the next three years; the club surprised many observers in the Australian game by signing Ned Zelic, a player, seen to have severed connections with Australia after being dropped from the national team. Reports suggested the Jets were attempting to bring former Liverpool and England striker Stan Collymore out of retirement. Director of Football Remo Nogarotto confirmed the club had made a bid to lure Collymore to the A-League for a four-match guest stint. With the leadership of Gary van Egmond Newcastle has achieved the highest amount of points out of all clubs in their last fourteen games and have scored the most goals; as a result of their good form under van Egmond, crowds in Newcastle have reached all time highs for football – culminating in a crowd of over 24,000 for their home final against Sydney FC on 2 February 2007.
Newcastle were eliminated in the preliminary final by Adelaide, the game going to penalties after finishing at 1 all. Vaughan Coveny and Stuart Musialik missed their attempts in a shoot-out that ended up at 4–3 in favour of Adelaide, costing Newcastle their place in the grand final and a berth in the Asian Champions League. Season 3 of the A-League saw a number of Newcastle's biggest stars of the previous season leave the club. Captain Paul Okon retired, fan favourite Milton Rodriguez returned to Colombia and Johnny Warren Medal winner Nick Carle moved to Turkey to link up with Gençlerbirliği S. K.. New recruits included Joel Griffiths' twin brother Adam and previous European Golden Boot winner Mario Jardel. Although significant excitement surrounded the capture of Jardel, as time went by it was obvious he was well past his prime and received little game time. Throughout the season star striker Joel Griffiths broke the record for most goals in a regular season by scoring 12 in 21 rounds; the Jets started the season well without losing in their first 5 matches.
Following this good start the Jets struggled for consistency until the end of the season winning against quality opposition but losing some vital home games. Wins in the last three competition rounds saw the Jets move up the ladder to equal points with the Central Coast Mariners, finishing the season in second place due to inferior goal